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Moles Skin Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions

    What are some other causes for skin growths, besides Skin cancer?
    what are some causes for skin growths( like funny moles) besides skin cancer.. I have some suspicious growths.. it doesnt look like any of the pictures or symptoms that i have researched for skin cancer. what else could they be.. I have a doctors opp. in a week,, i just want some opinions.

    • ANSWER:
      Where are the growths?
      It could be bacterial skin infection.
      Could be a boil.
      A ingrown hair?
      Lymes Disease?
      morgellons disease?
      Hidradenitis Suppurativa???
      I mean u arent telling much!

    What does a skin cancer or melanoma mole look like?
    what does a melanoma or skin cancer mole look like? Is there a good chance of survival if you get it treated soon enough. How much time do you have to act? Just because the mole might be irregular does it necessarily mean melanoma? How big are they? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Non melanoma skin cancers (basal and squamous cell) are much more common than melanomas.

      That is not to say that melanomas are not also rather common. Here are some melanoma photos and info to check out. A melanoma doesn't have to be nearly as large as those in these photos since they usually use large examples for online photos.

      With melanomas there are three things that determine cure rate - how big, how deep and how soon you get a proper diagnosis and correct treatment. If you have any thoughts that a mole might not look right then you need to see a dermatologist immediately for a check up.

    If a mole is skin cancer, will it get bigger?
    I've got like a small flesh colored mole on my shoulder, and there's a brown spot on top of the mole. The mole is perfectly round, but the little spot isn't and it's different shades of brown, which worries me. I just recently noticed it like yesterday. I think i've been thinking it was a scab since I have a bad habit of picking at things on my skin.

    If its skin cancer, will the brown part get bigger? Right now it's like the size of a dot made by a thick pen.

    • ANSWER:
      I certainly would go to a physician or nurse and have them assess that mole, for certain, Growth of the mole might not be outward- it might grown INTO your skin, where you cannot see it.

      Here is an excerpt from the National Cancer Institute's website. I will leave the url link below.

      Dysplastic Nevi

      About one out of every ten people has at least one unusual (or atypical) mole that looks different from an ordinary mole. The medical term for these unusual moles is dysplastic nevi. The "Pictures of Ordinary Moles and Dysplastic Nevi" section shows the differences between ordinary moles and dysplastic nevi.

      Doctors believe that dysplastic nevi are more likely than ordinary moles to develop into a type of skin cancer called melanoma. Because of this, moles should be checked regularly by a doctor or nurse specialist, especially if they look unusual; grow larger; or change in color, outline, or in any other way.

      Please make that visit to a health provider soon, and best of luck!

    Are there any other signs of skin cancer besides a mole changing appearance?
    I have a mole on my stomach which has changed in appearance, it used to be raised and is now flat, it also has uneven edges and has a red/pink ring around it. It has been like this for a while as I kept forgetting about it. It doesnt itch and is not sore or irritating. I have a appointment with the doctor on Friday but after looking into it on the internet am getting really worried, are there any other signs of skin cancer I should be looking out for?

    • ANSWER:
      There are many things to look out for but the main three are:
      1. Change in edges (irregular border)
      2. Change in size
      3. Change in color

      Its appearance can vary, but the first sign can be a small, smooth, shiny, pale or waxy lump; a firm red lump; a lump that bleeds or develops a crust; or a red spot that is rough, dry or scaly.

      What should you do? Call your doctor if you're at all concerned, or if you notice an asymetrical mole, a mole with an irregular border, a mole that has changed color, or a mole that has a diameter greater than five millimeters (the size of a pencil eraser).

      Not all mole changes signal melanoma, but it's important to have any changes checked out early. Many doctors like to examine any skin discoloration or growth. The worst that can happen is that your doctor takes a little time to reassure you that all is well, and the best is that this exam may save your life.

      Here's what to expect: Your doctor will examine the area of concern, as well as other areas of your skin and decide whether the skin growth can be watched for awhile, or whether a skin biopsy is in order (that means taking a piece of the tissue, or removing the whole area). The tissue is then sent to the lab.

      If the results are positive for skin cancer, treatment will depend upon whether the cancer is a nonmelanoma (basal cell or squamous cell), or a melanoma. Other types of skin cancer may be identified, but once skin cancer is diagnosed, more tests will be done to see if it has spread.

    Is it still dangerous to sunbathe alot even if you wear sunscreen?
    You know a high factor and top it up alot. Also do moles cause skin cancer or are they just an indication that you may have it if they go weird?

    • ANSWER:
      Sun screens only give relative protection, any exposure to UV increases your cancer risk. Better to stay pale and interesting!

    How do you get rid of skin moles?
    I've got this giant mole on my back that I desperatly want gone. I heard picking at moles can cause skin cancer, so how do you get rid of them at home with no doctor?

    • ANSWER:

    How do I recognize signs of skin cancer?
    Also, is it true that having moles or freckles on the palms of hands or soles of feet is an indication of skin cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      I have never heard that having moles or freckles on the palms of hands or soles of feet are an indication and I don't think this is true unless it doesn't look like a healthy mole. I studied skin cancer at college and the normal things to look for is:
      - change in size
      - change in colour
      - change in shape
      - change in texture
      If you spot any of these you should consult your doctor as soon as possible and have this checked out as it could be pre-cancerous if not cancerous. You should keep an eye on your moles so that you can recognise any change. If you have any on your back you should get someone else to check it for you.

      This link is from Cancer Research and gives you some information on moles and what to look out for. It's a safe link.

    Can you remove a mole before it becomes skin cancer?
    I have three small moles on my face. I have been in tanning beds like fifteen times or something but lately one of the moles is raised a little and dark in the middle (it's sooo tiny though). I obviously don't want akin cancer on my face so if I got it removed would that definitely eliminate any skin cancer showing up there?

    • ANSWER:
      It's a mole, big deal. Have it removed if you want, but decide if you'd rather have a little mole or a little scar on your face.

    My friend had a block dissection and has skin cancer again is this treatable?
    My friend sunbathed a lot years ago and had a mole removed as it was possibly cancerous. 25 years later she was diagnosed with skin cancer and had 29 lymph nodes removed from her armpit. She has been back to the hospital and they have found another fatty lump which they believe is malignant. Is the prognosis poor?

    • ANSWER:
      Skin cancer is a nasty animal. If she had cancerous lymph nodes, the ones they removed, that means the cancer has spread or the big word metastasized.

      Any time cancer moves from one place to another it's never a good sigh. But don't put the cart in front of the horses. You need to know the size, stage, grade and understand what all of that means.

      Cancer isn't an immediate death sentence and lots of times you even get a reprieve or pardon. Don't panic and don't give up hope.

    How high of a risk do I have for skin cancer?
    Well lately in school I've been learning about skin cancer. And my mom also got it not that long ago.. So I was getting worried about it. So I have light brown/blonde hair, blue eyes, lots of moles, I can't tan cuz I will just burn, and I have some family members with it. So will I most likely get it?

    • ANSWER:
      skin cancer is really not that bad honestly it runs in my family all they do is freeze it off no chemo or radiation therapy needed if your worried you should go sooner though i worry about cancer like no other if you look at my question i done thought i had all sorts of cancers im actually worried that i might have cancer again right now but i do not worry about skin cancer because its not worth worrying over try not to worry so much okay just relax 10 people in my family have had red moles (which was cancer) my uncle had it on his face and he had it on there since he was 17 and didnt get it frozen till the last minute till he absolutely had to nothing really to worry over

    Does every skin cancer start with a mole?
    i was just wondering if every skin cancer had to begin in a mole.

    • ANSWER:
      No, Skin cancers are of 3 major types: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and melanoma.
      Skin cancer is the most common of all human cancers.
      Cancer occurs when normal cells undergo a transformation during which they grow and multiply without normal controls.

      Medical professionals often refer to these changes as dysplasia. Some specific dysplastic changes that occur in skin are as follows:

      * Actinic keratosis is a patch of red or brown, scaly, rough skin, which can develop into squamous cell carcinoma.

      * A nevus is a mole, and dysplastic nevi are abnormal moles. These can develop into melanoma over time.

      Moles are simply growths on the skin. They are very common. Very few moles become cancer.

      An individual's moles usually look pretty much alike. A mole that looks different from the others should be examined by your health care provider.

      Dysplastic nevi are not cancer, but they can become cancer.

    Can skin cancers appear where your skin has never been sun burnt before?
    When you go to skin clinics they always check on the top of your legs for skin cancer or suspect marks / moles. Im 90% sure that they can spread, but i am just asking out of curiosity.

    • ANSWER:
      There are many types of skin cancer, with basal cell, squamous cell and melanoma being the three most common. The first two types are definitely related to chronic sunlight exposure, mostly of UVB rays. A melanoma, though, is different. These seem to be related to a past sunburn in your childhood, with excessive UVA exposure. These cancers often occur in areas of the body that are generally protected from chronic sunlight (on the trunk or back of the legs). In fact, when these occur in darker skin people, they often occur under the nails or on the palms or soles. So, in truth, the real answer to your question is still not fully known.

    Is it bad for new moles to appear on my body?
    I'm almost 19, and I have lots of moles. But none are raised or obvious or anything. A week ago, I had this raised red lump on my upper thigh. I thought it was a pimple. But now it's a reddish brown, and it's feeling like a part of my skin, not a pimple and it has no head. I think it could be a new mole forming. I've read that new moles could mean skin cancer. Could this be bad?

    • ANSWER:

    Should I get my mole checked out for skin cancer?
    I've had this mole on my back for years, which is why I'm not sure if I should get it checked out. However, it has most of the signs of skin cancer, at least from what I've read. It's not symmetrical, the edges are irregular, and the surface is raised and uneven. None of it is new, it's always been like that, but I'm a little spooked. Advice?

    • ANSWER:
      to be on the safeside its best you get a doctor to look at it. they understand peoples concern when a mole changes.
      stuff you read will make you paranoid but in personal experience, if it turns black or goes lighter, bleeds or very itchy then get it checked. moles often become raised and been advised this is normal but i would advise to get it seen since it is in an area you can not see easily.


    Scared of getting skin cancer from tanning beds?
    I'm 18. I started tanning about 2 years ago for a few months then stopped. Then I started up again for a few months then quit because of all the skin cancer stuff. The thing I'm really scared of is I have alot of moles. Most are real small but I have a few big ones that I've had since I was little. I'm so scared that I'll get skin cancer. I wear SPF all the time now in the summer. Does tanning with moles automatically mean skin cancer? I only went tanning 1 or 2 times a week.

    • ANSWER:

    How long does it take for skin cancer to kill someone if left untreated?
    Just curious. I always hear about and have know people who died from skin cancer, but they were going through treatment. How long would it take for skin cancer to kill someone if they had no treatment? I know everyone is different, but what would be an estimate. And what symptoms would they show?

    • ANSWER:
      For your information, the skin cancers symptoms are:
      * A small lump (spot or mole) that is shiny, waxy, pale in color, and smooth in texture.
      * A red lump (spot or mole) that is firm
      * A sore or spot that bleeds or become crusty. Also look for sores that don't heal.
      * Rough and scaly patches on the skin.
      * Flat scaly areas of the skin that are red or brown.
      * Any new growth that is suspicious
      If you have the symptoms like this, better if you make appointment to the doctor or dermatology and for more information you could see the website

    Where should I go to get screened for skin cancer?
    I think I may have skin cancer. Do I just go to my regular doctor to get the mole in question checked, or should I go elsewhere? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      a dermatologist is likely your best bet, since skin is their specialty. But dermatologists are specialists, so check your ins coverage- you may need a referral from your reg doc to get an appointment with one, for ins purposes. Good luck.

    What happens during a skin cancer screening?
    I signed up for a free skin cancer screening at my local clinic. I'm curious if anybody knows what is a skin cancer screening? Do they just look at your skin or do they run actual tests? I have one unusual mole in particular that I would like to know if it's cancerous or not, but I'm wondering if this is just more of a consultation rather than an actual test for skin cancer? Just wondering so I know if I would just be better off making an appointment that specializes in actual skin cancer tests?

    • ANSWER:
      They just look and refer you to a doctor if they see anything they don't like.

      I think a direct appointment about that mole is a good idea.

    How does skin cancer look on the arm?
    About two weeks ago I woke up and I saw a little red dot like when a mosquito bites you. Since then it started growing only in diameter, it's not a bum it's rather flat and red, it's not hard it feels like normal skin just a bit bumpi. I worried that It might be skin cancer, could it. I'm going to the doctor in a week, but Im always thinking about it. I've looked at pictures of skin cancer and it doesn't look like any of the types of moles. Please help.

    • ANSWER:
      Skin cancer, to my knowlage is usually in the form of a mole, so i think you're okay but definitly get it checked, ASAP

    How long can a dog live with untreated skin cancer?
    My dog is almost 8 years old. She is an albino Doberman. She belongs to my boyfriend and I am assuming he did not know to keep her out of the sun. I started noticing moles on her that were growing fast and told him he had to have her checked and he did. It came back positive for skin cancer she is covered in moles now and it is too out of control. They said they could cut them out but there are too many. I know and treatment is too exspensive so I would just like an idea of how long will she live and what signs to look for. Right now she seems happy and healthy like her normal loving self. Thank You.

    • ANSWER:
      Each dog is different. There is no standard timetable for this. Key is to protect her from further sun expsoure and to make sure she is kept comfortable. Not to mention, knows she is loved!

    Are there any other skin cancer symptoms besides the actual marks on the skin?
    Skin cancer runs in my family and I just noticed a mole on my arm change and become weird and irregular. I also have been very nauseous the past few weeks or so. Could there be any correlation at all? I've looked on a lot of different sites and it doesn't say anything about it. I do plan to get it checked, but my appointment isn't for a while.
    No, but sometimes? Which one is it?

    • ANSWER:
      as i always say to my friends, do not google anything as it can make you panic, go straight to your doctor or get a second opinion from dermatologist.but if u really notice a big change in size, colour and border of the mole, better get it check straight away.

    How old do you have to be to get a skin cancer check and what is involved in getting one?
    In interest I want to get a skin cancer check in the next few years. I just want to know how old i have to be, what is involved and If they do cut out a mole will they use any numbing things?

    • ANSWER:
      I was diagnosed with melanoma at 21. I would not have gone to the dermatologist at all, but my mom is an RN and insisted. it was very deep. Had I waited any longer, I would have died. As it is, I have been fighting it for the past 8 years.

      You are NEVER too young to have a skin exam. You will have to get naked. Go to a dermatologist, NOT A GENERAL PRACTITIONER. My gp saw my melanoma months before my dermatologist, and said not to worry about it.

    How does skin cancer start out looking like?
    Lately I have had little bumps not huge but like almost skin scab looking things (not scabs though). And I am in the sun doing activities a lot and I was wondering if it almost seems like it can or be a possibility of skin cancer? I'm not sure.

    • ANSWER:
      I think that whatever you have, you should consult the dermatologist right away. I used to work in a medical show and we featured this young guy who initially had skin cancer. Now, half of his face is gone just because he thought that what he had was a new mole. It started just like a simple dot--really like a mole-- but it started growing and becoming a wound. The thing is, cancer--not just skin cancer-- manifests in several ways. That same guy first thought he had skin cancer but actually, the doctors found out later that it was muscle cancer.

    Are their any other causes of soreness in a mole besides skin cancer?
    I am age 27 and have very fair skin,I have a mole on my left cheek just by the bridge of my nose,its been there since my early teens and now has grown considerably.Its flesh colored with a tan tip.During the last few days its become very painful,tender and sore,if I bump it accidentally or touch it its quite painful.I can't seem to find anything online about the causes of mole pain besides skin cancer.Its not dark still flesh colored the only difference is its painful now.I haven't injured it in any way so I am baffled by this symptom.Is there any other cause of mole pain???

    • ANSWER:
      Make an appointment with your doctor immediately. These skin blemishes should always be taken seriously.

      Dr. Nicolas

    How do you know if you have skin cancer?
    Would you know you had skin cancer after more than 4 years? I'm 18 and for as long as I can remember I've had a asymmetrical mole but have just found out it could be cancerous so stupidly I don't wanna get it checked out

    • ANSWER:
      Teens don't get skin cancer. It takes 20+, 30+ years for it to develop.

    How can I get my Boyfriend to go to the Dermatologist to get screened for skin cancer?
    I just read a whole article on skin cancer and they showed what some types of skin cancer may look like. My boyfriend has many moles on his body (over 50) and I am concerned that some may be cancerous.
    Some of his moles did look funny to me. He says that he has no health insurance and just brushes me off when I bring the topic up. I even offered to pay for the dr. appointment and he just responded "whatever"

    Also, how long would it take for skin cancer to progress till he realizes he feel crappy enough that he needs to see a doctor? He thinks skin cancer is a joke and he is invincible to it. I am even thinking about telling his dad. Even though he's 26. At least his dad will care.

    Just so you guys know I am checking his moles periodically for changes in shape and color.

    • ANSWER:
      we have one person in the Pool with us and her back is covered with black moles some very large. She is fine, and mostly keeps covered with a T shirt. I have also seen one woman while shopping her skin is covered with light brown moles,on arms legs neck and face, all that could be seen. These moles even look benign. However I am sure that they have also had to have them checked out. Especially now that you have a Free screening, do talk with him and see if he will go. He has no legitimate excuse, since it is free. And not much to be afraid of. Surprisingly often the men are very hesitant to see a Doctor. I think you should give an ultimatum you see the dermatologist, or I will not be your friend any more !!!

    How many months/years does it take for a sunburn to become skin cancer?
    I have heard that sunburns do not become skin cancer immediately. How many months or years does it take for a sunburn to become skin cancer?

    My friend recently had a sunburn. Her sunburn was not healing and it became worse, so she went to a dermatologist 3 months after the sunburn happened. The dermatologist found that she has skin cancer. Could it be that she had skin cancer all along, and the recent sunburn did not cause her cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      I got from wikipedia that
      Skin cancer is most closely associated with chronic inflammation of the skin. This includes:

      1. Overexposure to UV-radiation can cause skin cancer either via the direct DNA damage or via the indirect DNA damage mechanism. UVA & UVB have both been implicated in causing DNA damage resulting in cancer. Sun exposure between 10AM and 4PM is most intense and therefore most harmful. Natural (sun) & artificial UV exposure (tanning salons) are associated with skin cancer.[citation needed] Since sunbeds cause mostly indirect DNA damage (free radicals) their use is associated with the deadliest form of skin cancer, malignant melanoma.[citation needed]
      2. Chronic non-healing wounds, especially burns. These are called Marjolin's ulcers based on their appearance, and can develop into squamous cell carcinoma.
      3. Genetic predisposition, including "Congenital Melanocytic Nevi Syndrome". CMNS is characterized by the presence of "nevi" or moles of varying size that either appear at or within 6 months of birth. Nevi larger than 20 mm (3/4") in size are at higher risk for becoming cancerous.
      4. Skin cancer is one of the potential dangers of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation.

      Skin can be protected by avoiding sunlight entirely, or wearing protective clothing while outdoors. Skin cancer is usually caused by exposing skin to UV rays excessively.

      about the treatment
      Most skin cancers can be treated by removal of the lesion, making sure that the edges (margins) are free of the tumor cells. These excisions provide the best cure for both early and high-risk disease.

      For low-risk disease, radiation therapy and cryotherapy (freezing the cancer off) can provide adequate control of the disease; both, however, have lower overall cure rates than surgery.

      Mohs' micrographic surgery is a technique used to remove the cancer with the least amount of surrounding tissue and the edges are checked immediately to see if tumor is found. This provides the opportunity to remove the least amount of tissue and provide the best cosmetically favorable results. This is especially important for areas where excess skin is limited, such as the face. Cure rates are equivalent to wide excision. Special training is required to perform this technique.

      In the case of disease that has spread (metastasized) further surgical or chemotherapy may be required.[11]

      Scientists have recently been conducting experiments on what they have termed "immune- priming". This therapy is still in its infancy but has been shown to effectively attack foreign threats like viruses and also latch onto and attack skin cancers. More recently researchers have focused their efforts on strengthening the body's own naturally produced "helper T cells" that identify and lock onto cancer cells and help guide the killer cells to the cancer. Researchers infused patients with roughly 5 billion of the helper T cells without any harsh drugs or chemotherapy. This type of treatment if shown to be effective has no side effects and could change the way cancer patients are treated

      about how many month it's depend on how your skin can deffend from the ultraviolet radiation.
      sorry for my bad english. But sorry about your friend

    Are there any symptoms associated with skin Cancer other than what is visible on the skin?
    I have checked several websites to find out if there are any other symptoms except those that show up visibly on the skin. Symptoms such as fatigue, or nausea, or... anything. I can't find a single one, yet apparently over 3,000 people in the US die of skin cancer every year! The only things these cancer cites discuss are different types of moles. Are there no other symptoms?

    • ANSWER:
      It is usually pretty obvious by looking at it.
      If you have any other symptoms it is too late to cure.

    What is a catchy brochure title for skin cancer?
    I'm doing a brochure in school about the different types of skin cancer. (Basal, Squamous, and Melanoma) I have all my information down except for a title. I need a title that will catch someone's attention and read it. Does anyone want to help make a catchy title?

    • ANSWER:
      Brochures Click on a Title to view details and add it to cart.
      ABCDE's of Melanoma
      Basal Cell Carcinoma: The Most Common Skin Cancer
      Plastic Nevi (Atypical Moles) and Risk of Melanoma
      Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Second Most Common Skin Cancer
      Skin Cancer Prevention Tips
      Self-Examination Card
      Sunproofing Your Baby

    What is the affect of skin cancer on your body?
    I know how skin cancer is detected and treated, but what exactly does it do to your body when you get. Please explain in detail and links will be very appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      Quite simple. Basal and Squamous cell carcinomas destroy tissues at the surface of the skin, and if left untreated, can develop deep lesions that can become problematic. Its unlikely you would let them get that far along without doing something about them.

      Melanoma, on the other hand, is a silent killer. Its hard to detect because it has no real symptoms, outside of shape, size, and color. Generally it has to be diagnosed by a doctor. Treatment is quite simple, if caught in time, it is simply surgically removed.

      If left untreated, and it metastasizes into the body, then a serious problem exists that might not be fixable.

      General rules, if its the size of a pencil eraser, has irregular borders, has black or blue coloration, is associated with a mole, or it can be quite flat, and/or recent changes have occurred, you should see a physician very soon.

    Skin cancer cause abnormal moles to appear everywhere?
    I think that I have skin cancer because I see a new mole that is abnormal. I see other ones too but they are small. They are asymmetric, which is why I am asking. But they are just slightly bigger than a normal mole.

    • ANSWER:
      If you concerned, go to a dermotologist and get a check-up. Even if you dont have health insurance, a check-up is not too costly.

      If he is concerned at all, he will slice a small piece of it off and send it for testing.

    How can I tell if I have skin cancer, and how do I know if its not a wart or regular mole?
    I have a wart looking bump on my finger. Smaller than a penny. I've had several of these, and my mom had me put on some remover that made the bump all white and eventually peel off. After reading a magazine, I saw that the bumps I was getting looked a lot like a very minor version of skin cancer. How do I know if its skin cancer or just a regular wart?

    • ANSWER:
      I got skin cancer on my lip..thought it was a wart. also. Went to my Family Phy...he told me it was cancer and tried to remove it..he sent it off to be tested..ended up having to go to a Special surgeon to have it it all!! Go to your Doc..don't take ANY chances.

    How long does it take for skin cancer to develop?
    I use to go tanning my senior year of high school, I'd say i went every other day for 2 months.
    But I will never go back to a tanning bed again because of my fear of developing skin cancer.
    Is it possible that I might already have it? Doesn't it sneak up on you later?

    • ANSWER:
      Tanning booths increase your risk of getting skin cancer but the best defense is early detection. Learn to watch for the signs such as changing moles, or white skin blotches.

    Did people die of skin cancer before sun creams were invented ?
    It seems that the people who get skin cancer - are those who regularly sunbathe - so we have pinned the cause on the Sun.
    But what if it's the use of sun creams for years that causes the cancers ?

    • ANSWER:
      Skin cancer is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found on the epidermis (the outermost layers of skin) so the tumor is usually clearly visible. There are three main types of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma.

      The most common symptoms of any type of skin cancer include changes in the skin that do not heal within 4 weeks, a spot or sore that continue to itch, blood, discolored skin, and changes in existing moles such as ragged, notched or blurred edges of mole or enlargement of mole.

      Signs and symptoms of Basal cell carcinoma: Basal cell carcinoma usually looks like a small, slow growing shiny pink or red lump. Sometimes small blood vessels can be seen within the tumor. They usually appear on face, scalp, ears and shoulders. If left untreated, they tend to bleed frequently. This form of skin cancer is least deadly and with proper treatment, it can be completely cured within short period of time.

      Signs and symptoms Squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinoma is usually pink, thickened patch on sun-exposed skin. If left untreated, it tends to become crusty, ulcerate or bleed and it may develop into large mass. Squamous cell is second most common skin cancer; it is fatal but not as fatal as melanoma.

      Signs and symptoms of Melanoma: Most melanomas are brown to black looking lesions with irregular border. Signs that might indicate a malignant melanoma include change in diameter, shape, color or elevation of a mole. Other signs are the appearance of a new mole during adulthood on trunk, neck or head or pain, itching, inflammation, ulceration or bleeding in existing mole.

      Take care...

    What are the vital organs of the body that skin cancer can spread to?
    i know that skin is an organ, but what are the other vital organs in the body that can be affected by skin cancer?

    i have look this up and i cannot find anything that says a specific organ, other than the skin.
    this is for an essay i'm writing for school.
    any help is appreciated : ).
    thanks in advance : ).

    • ANSWER:
      In general most skin cancers will spread if not protected from bright sunlight. Basal cell cancer is one of these. It occurs on the skin surface & spreads to surrounding tissue. Squamous cell cancer has lesions that become open sores & will penetrate the skin & metastasize.It commonly involves the tongue & mouth.Melanoma is the bad one.This one develops from moles & unlike the others will metastasize far from the original site.It travels & spreads by the lymph & blood vessels.Paget's tumors are a rare skin cancer that involves the breast tissue, mostly the milk ducts & nipple areas.It also can be seen as a red, crusting rash in the groin, anus, and sweat glands.

    What happens during a skin check-up/skin cancer screening?
    I have never been to a dermatologist before. I have had lots of exposure to sun in my life and regret tanning for years. I want to make an appointment to get screened for skin cancer or get looked at. What do they do during the appointment? Also, I would like to get a mole removed on my arm. What is that procedure like? Has anybody had it done before? Does it hurt? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      they will examines specific moles/sun spots on your skin. The ones that have characteristics of cancer they will scrape slightly to examine for cancer.

      Its a good thing that cancer develops on the exterior of the skin so you can clearly see it and have early warning signs rather then having it inside you and be undetected till it's too late.

    How many people have moles/skin spots removed from their bodies?
    I have moles/skin spots on my body that will soon need to be removed due to exposure to the sun and just wondered how many other people face this problem?

    • ANSWER:
      When I was 17 I had my first mole removed.
      When I was 22 I had my second removed and it was dysplastic.
      There is a Hx of skin cancer in my family.
      I have to get checked annually.

    Do you know someone who has or had skin cancer?
    I had some recent visits to the dermatologist, and came away a bit shocked. Thinking I was quite healthy, I learned some of my moles were pre-cancerous. I had them removed. Do you know someone who had or has skin cancer? Did you have a skin cancer scare?

    • ANSWER:
      I had the same situation a while ago too but no worries, they were removed so it's fine. My mom also had skin cancer in her moles too but nothing really happened we just got them removed and that's it. Now we just have scars from where they were removed

    How long before you can detect skin cancer?
    Recently, I got sunburned really bad on my back and shoulders. I have a couple new flat freckles. How and when can you tell you have skin cancer? And, can you develop skin cancer without seeing anything noticeable?

    • ANSWER:
      There is usually some change in the skin - a mole or even a red area which a friend of mine has just had diagnosed as skin cancer and is using a chemo cream instead of surgery.
      Any suspicious spots should be reported to a doctor for checking.

    How soon after a sunburn can skin cancer be determined?
    I got a really bad sunburn (after all winter long saying how much skin cancer has risen...) i didnt realize how strong the sun really was and i didnt put any cream on. my skin is very fair so i burned bad. this was 2 weeks ago... now im searching my body almost everyday looking for something diffrent....i need a really good article on this..i havent found one yet.


    • ANSWER:
      You do not say how old you are or what previous sun exposure you have had. Skin cancer is usually not a result of a single sun burn or a weekend in the sun. Non-melanoma skin cancers are caused by cumulative sun exposure and happen many years after the initial UVA/UVB exposure. Unless you are going to the tanning salon frequnetly it would be unusual to get a non-melanoma skin cancer before age 30. I'm not saying that it can't happen but just that it is very unusual and not the norm. As a child I never used sun screen and burned frequently and my first skin cancer did not happen until well past age 30.

      Unfortunately melanoma does not follow the same set of rules. Young women have higher rates of melanoma that young men. While melanoma is not common in young people it is a definite possibility but a melanoma can happen whether you have had lots of sun exposure or not. Getting sun burned certainly does not help but one sun burn does not mean that you are certain to develop a melanoma.

      Just avoid any more sun burns and watch your skin for changes in any moles or the development of any new moles that meet the ABCD criteria for a potential melanoma.

      take care

    Can a doctor tell if something is skin cancer by just looking?
    I have a red itchy, burning patch on my skin that is not leaving...(near my eye) The doctor is not concerned about it and I tend to worry. How does a doctor decide when to biopsy something? Can they tell visually if something is skin cancer or not from all their years of schooling?

    • ANSWER:
      To an extent, yes a doctor can tell some things based on appearance and experience. Skin cancer doesn't usually have a red appearance, nor does it generally itch or burn. You wouldn't be surprised if the doctor told you a rash was hives, and you could trust the diagnosis without having to have a biopsy done. This falls into that same category. You can also get a diagnosis from a simple skin scraping, without having to remove a patch of skin at all, in a lot of skin disorders. Most skin cancer starts with a mole or freckle, and not just a random patch of skin. So your doctor would be able to make a good diagnosis based on appearance and experience, yes.

    How does skin cancer affect the body?
    I was wondering How does skin cancer affect the body? and also how readily it can be treated? also what is the mortality rate of the disease?

    • ANSWER:
      Depends on the type of skin cancer.There are three main types,Basal cell,Squamous cell and Melanoma.Basal cell,will usually appear as a bump or small nodule on the skin.Usually an area that has been exposed to the sun.We see many older men and women who have these on their nose,head.Very treatable with radiation or Mohs surgery.Squamous cell is a little more aggressive than Basal cell.It also appears as a red inflamed patch or nodule.Usually found on the face.Ears are a common place.Very treatable.If either of these are left untreated,they can erode into the skin and surrounding structures.Melanoma occurs in the skin cells that make the pigment for your skin.Usually a silent killer.Look for changes in a mole.Its size,color,shape.If caught early,it is treatable.Late stage has a poor prognosis.

    Can you get skin cancer on your inner thighs by masturbating?
    i have been masturbating for several years and i have a red mole on my innner thigh and im scared if this is skin cancer. can irration damage my immune system and cause me to have skin cancer?
    the mole keeps going away and coming back on the same place, i went to my doctor and she didn't mention it being cancer and gave me some medicine and it went away but it came back. Can this mole be cancerous?

    • ANSWER:
      NO you will not get cancer this way.
      You have most probably fungal (Tinea) infection on inner thigh.
      Get treated .

    How can you tell if you have skin cancer or not?
    I was just wondering how you know if you have skin cancer...I don't think i have it or anything..I am just curious.

    • ANSWER:
      Some symptoms of skin cancer may include the following :

      Enlargement of an existing skin lesion.
      Reddish patch or irritated area, frequently occurring on the chest, shoulders, arms, or legs.
      Poorly defined borders of a skin lesion.
      Ulceration or bleeding of an existing mole.

    I want to know the signs of skin cancer?
    Im just wondering what are some of the signs you have skin cancer.
    Because I have a mole on my cheek that is black and almost looks like a pen mark, its so dark. Its in the shape of a triangle almost, do I have cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      There are many neoplasms (tumors) that you can get on your skin. Most neoplasms are benign and do not metastasize (like a wart). Malignant neoplasms are the ones you have to worry about.

      Types of skin cancers:
      Basale Cell Carcinoma: Most common and least malignant cancers. Cells of the stratum basale (bottom layer of your skin) are altered and cannot produse keratin. They are most commonly seen on the face and look like a shiny, dome shaped bump.
      Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Comes from the cells in your stratum spinosum. It appears as scaly, reddened bump that gradually forms a shallow ulcer with a firm raised border. Its found mostly on scalp, ears, backs of hands and lower lips. It grows rapidly and with metastasize to lymph nodes if its not removed.

      ok the one you are most concerned with

      Malignant Melanomas: Cancer of the melanocytes. Most appear spontaneously but some can come from moles. It comes from accumalted DNA dammage in a skin cell. It metastasizes rapidly.

      You can recognize it with the ABCD rule :)

      A) assymetry- The two sides of the mole dont match
      B) border irregularity- The borders are not smooth and have indentations
      C) Color- The spot contains areas of different colors
      D) Diameter- The spot is larder than 6mm in diameter (the size of a pencil eraser)

      If you are worried have it checked. Its better to know. If you do have cancer and you wait until it starts bleeding to get it checked its too late. A bleeding melanoma means its metastasized into your blood stream and can spread anywhere else in your body, including your brain.

    What percent of red heads get skin cancer?
    My girlfriend who has red hair told me there's an 86% chance she will get skin cancer because of that. I don't believe her and I'm having a hard time trying to find this information.

    • ANSWER:
      I have never seen specific probabilities stated for the different risk factors for Melanoma. Red Hair is one of the risk factors that is a increased risk of Melanoma over black or brown hair. such risk factors are related to the genetics that red headed people are more likely to be fair skinned and their skin burns more easily than others. People with such risk factors (also many moles, Northern Europe decent (e.g. fair skin), blue eyes, family history of melanoma) means that they should be protective of their sun exposure and avoid sun burns.

    will you get skin cancer if you cut a mole off?
    I have this irritating mole and im wondering if i should just cut it off. But im wondering if i will get skin cancer from doing that?

    • ANSWER:
      You risk all sorts of health problems by doing this yourself.

      Most of these stem from the risk of infection, including blood poisoning or even gangrene, some heart attacks are triggered by infection.

      This is surgery - even if minor surgery, and should be carried out by a suitable qualified professional in sterile surroundings.

    Wha is the chance of me getting skin cancer?
    Got sunburn on upper part of my back.
    Was red and painful now it's skin is peeling...
    Should I check for skin cancer?
    By the way, last year I got sun burn on my left arm and now theres 2 new back mole and 1 light brownish spot around 2mm.

    • ANSWER:
      if you're worried about it you should go and get it checked out. if you can see your moles check to see what they look like, if they are shaped weird, like not circular, definitely get it checked out, and also if it's a weird color you should get it checked out

moles skin cancer

Cancer Gifts

Frequently Asked Questions

    Why do Americans expect Obama to change things in just 6 months period? takes time to recover from cancer?
    I know he has promised changed but does it not take time? Put it this way, if a person has fever it takes couple of days to recover but the America has economy cancer gifted by the guy who Americans elected not just once but TWICE!

    • ANSWER:
      Republicans just can't wait a decent amount of time before criticizing, they started calling him the worst ever,2 months BEFORE he took office, so that is an indicator of how credible their whining really is.

    Where can I get a cancer gift for my mom?
    My mom has lung cancer and I would like to find her a comfortable natural fiber blanket to help keep her warm during treatment. I am especially looking for one that says I Am Loved to remind her of her family and show her doctors that she is a human that is still needed in this world. Any help would be great.... Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      You might need to find someone to make one for her. It would be worth every penny.

      Everytime my son is hospitalized he seems to get a free handmade blanket to snuggle up with. They are so cozy! Someone made him a beautiful quilt with a soft fuzzy backing. Hospitals can be cold, especially in the summer when they have air conditioning turned on . . a warm, soft blanket is just wonderful.

      Project Linus - new, handmade blankets and afghans given to seriously ill children

      Links to blanket patterns and people who might be able to help you

      Good luck. It's a great idea and your mother will love it.

    Where would I go to spend a day with a Cancer paitent?
    I live in Columbus, Ohio and I wanted to spend a day with a child who has cancer. Give him/her gifts, if its a girl do her nails and if a boy play games you know stuff like that. Do you have any idea where I could go for that?

    • ANSWER:
      It's a sweet thought, but not a very practical one. You're most likely a caring, kind-hearted individual who would never deliberately harm a child, but unfortunately there are too many people who look like they're decent but actually are not at all, so hospitals must exercise caution to protect their patients from potential harm. If you want to volunteer you'll need to go through the proper procedures, and you'll need to commit to volunteering more than one day. You'll have to apply to become a volunteer, undergo a thorough background check, and attend a training session.

      There's an excellent children's hospital in Columbus, and they have all the information you need to know to become a volunteer on their site, which I'm posting below. If you're a teen volunteer you'll need to be at least 14 and have a parent's written consent.

      ~ skylark : )

      Edit - there may be other hospitals in your area that also have volunteer programs, but all will have similar procedures. Do a Google search to find more if Nationwide Children's isn't near you. You cannot simply show up at any hospital to volunteer, and the majority have restricted access pediatric wards.

    How can I make money to fight off cancer for young children?
    Two 6th grade math classes in my school are trying to help out children who have cancer. We are trying to raise money to fight it and hopefully become well again. We are also trying to raise money for a wii, xbox, psp, and other games like board games so they can have fun. Please respond to this. We need your ideas. Everyone deserves a lifetime so get involved.

    • ANSWER:
      An even better idea is to raise money for your local Make a Wish foundation . . they are feeling the pinch this year . . it cost about 00 for every childs wish . .

      Although you are very sweet to want to raise money for games and other things for these children . . I have to tell you that many of the childrens hospitals and children's clinics are overwhelmed by gifts of this kind. My son was a patient in a childrens hospital and the kids had tons of books, gifts, toys, gaming systems, games, movies, television, dvd, ipod, a game room, movie theater, snack bar . . . and it is good to replenish what is available . .but just as important is the Make a Wish . . where real memories can be made with the child and their familiy at a time when it is very much needed.

      Raising money for Make a Wish can help make an entire family happy for a day or week . . memories that may last a lifetime for all involved.

    What meaningful gifts should I give to each of my family members before I pass?
    I'm 18 years old, have terminal bone cancer, and want to buy my family members something to remember me by.

    A Keepsake.

    I don't have much money so I thought something small like 0 each for 5 of my family members.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi. I'm so sorry to learn about your condition. Are you well enough to throw a nice party or go somewhere for a very nice meal or mini vacation with your family? If so, combine the event with a written note to each of them recalling a special moment between you and them....that would be more personal than going out and buying a gift for each.

      If your health doesn't permit a celebration as stated above, you could buy a very nice watch for each with an inscribed message from you on the inside.

      May God be with you and your family. Good Luck.

    How do I start a fund for my own cancer treatment? Is there a bank or place that will help or make account?
    Im a 33 year old single, african-american woman with no kids, FT employee, PT student and I have recently been diegnosed with Breast Cancer. Being that I was already living paycheck to paycheck before, now I am falling into debt as I am trying to pay co-pays & medical bills as they come. I am not used to asking for help or hand outs of any kind but I need help & have no idea where to start.

    • ANSWER:
      Ask a library where the local breast cancer support groups are. You could also ask the library where other resources are, like for free food boxes, state income support for medical bills, local free medical clinics, etc. Also, God can help you live a better life if you want Him to help you. You can have a personal relationship with God by saying the prayer below. God is our Creator, all-knowing, all-powerful, eternal, holy, love. God loves us and sent us His Son, Jesus Christ, so we can go to heaven if we know and follow Him. Forever means without end -- time on and on without death. Forever is what happens after we die. Either we go to heaven and be with God forever, or we go to hell which is very bad and painful forever. The good people who are saved believers in Jesus Christ go to heaven. The bad people go to hell. We need to know and follow God in this world to get to heaven in the next world. We follow God by loving and obeying Him and loving others for Him. Jesus Christ, God's Son, is our bridge to God. Jesus died on the cross to cancel our sins. We need to accept Jesus into our life as our Lord and Savior forever to receive God's blessing and forgiveness plus go to heaven to be with God forever after we die. This is about being a born-again Christian. Faith in God is a gift from God. You can pray for faith in God. Just speak out and ask God for the faith to believe in Him and to follow Him. Some people find faith in God when they realize the beauty in the world is made by God. Evolution can't explain the world's natural beauty, for example, the parks in the world, animals, flowers, peacocks, sunsets, butterflies, rainbows, etc. After you have your faith on, you can pray a sinner's prayer to be a born-again Christian. This prayer is very important and should be said with a sincere heart and faith in God. This is the prayer: "Dear God, I know that I am a sinner and that Jesus Christ is the sacrifice for our sins. I have done the following sins (state these out) and I pray to discontinue these sins. I pray to receive Jesus Christ into my life as my Lord and Savior forever. In Jesus' name, amen." I'm Lutheran and I like the Baptist churches too. You could try out a Christian church and also see about their weekly Bible study group to learn about God's will for your life. You can pray to God about your daily life and ask a Christian church to pray for you too.

    Is income from donations made to you for cancer treatment taxable?
    Say your child or you have cancer and it will cost thousands for treatment, and you ask for donations, put out donation cans and have fundraisers... You raise like ,000. Is that money taxable if it goes straight to the treatment of your condition?

    • ANSWER:

      You are never required to pay tax on gifts that you receive from persons for whom you did not do anything. However, you must pay tax on "gifts" that are really tips from your customers or bonuses from your employer.

      If the person gives the money to you as a gift that you may use for any purpose and you use it for a medical expense, then you can deduct the medical expense.

      If the person pays for the medical expense directly, then you cannot deduct the medical expense. The donor also cannot deduct the medical expense, unless the patient was a dependent of the donor.

      The donor cannot deduct the donation as a contribution to charity. Only donations to charitiable organizations may be deducted, not donations to individuals.

    Why does both tropic of cancer and capricorn receive the sun direct rays at some point?
    Im not getting why both tropic of cancer and capricorn would receive the suns direct rays at some point when Earth is tilted at 23 1/2 degrees on the ecliptic plane. From what im reading, the tilt never changes. Wouldnt this mean that only 1 line of latitude (either cancer or capricorn) recieve the direct rays all the time while the rest receive less? Can someone please help me on this subject. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      From what im reading, the tilt never changes.

      Correct. The axis points pretty much in the same direction. HOWEVER, the position of the Earth around the Sun doesn't; it makes a full orbit every year, so naturally the angle of incidence is not the same throughout the year.

      You can try it at home if you have an Earth globe at home (it used to be a popular gift years ago), a flashlight, some playdough and a toothpick or something equally small. This might help you understand better than a long explanation because you actually SEE the stuff.

      1) Place the playdough on any position on the globe and stick the toothpick on it, so that the toothpick is firmly placed and "upright" relative to the position it is on. (Use as much playdough as you need.) Remember where its axis is pointing to (e.g. to the door of the room where you're running this test). Also remember that you'll have to rotate the globe around on its axis (you'll see soon why).
      (The toothpick represents a vertical bar relative to the position on the ground on that place. If you plant a stick on the ground, its tip is the highest possible relative to the ground; the toothpick's tip is highest relative to the "ground" of the globe near it.)

      2) Place the globe on one corner of the room, and the flashlight on the center of the room, pointing to the globe. Rotate the globe so that the toothpick is shone upon. Measure the length of the "shadow" on the surface.

      3) Move the globe to the other corner of the room. Remember that the rotation axis of the globe has to be pointing in the same direction (use a compass if you need to). If it's pointing to your house's door, it should be pointing to your house's door after you moved the globe across the room.
      Move the flashlight around, still on the center of the room, so that it shines again on the globe on its new position.

      4) Rotate the globe so that the toothpick is lighted by the flashlight again. Measure the length of the shadow of the toothpick on the globe.

      5) Try other positions of the globe, on other corners, making sure that the axis still points in the same direction (towards your house's door). Reposition the flashlight at the center of the room so it shines again on the globe, and rotate the globe so that toothpick is lighted by the flashlight again. See how the length of the toothpick's shadow varies.

      receive the sun direct rays

      When something is catching sunlight, it's receiving "direct rays" from the Sun.
      I suppose you mean something to the effect of "straight from the vertical (or upright) of the place in the globe". That point in the sky is called the zenith.
      At the tropics, once per year the Sun shines directly overhead:
      - on the summer solstice on the Northern hemisphere (June 21st) for the Cancer tropic;
      - on the summer solstice on the Southern hemisphere (December 21st), corresponding to the winter solstice on the Northern hemisphere, for the Capricorn tropic;
      Any place between those two latitudes has the Sun shining overhead TWICE per year, once when the Sun has its apparent motion towards the solstice, and another time when the Sun has its apparent motion towards the other solstice. As you imagine, this is difficult to describe in words, so I advise you to try "playing around" with some objects (such as what I described above) to see for yourself what this all means.

      Come back if you have more questions.

    How do you deal with finding out he has cancer?
    I just found out that my granddad has bowel cancer, my mum said it can be treated, but I think he has had it for longer than a few months as he had the test for it 9months ago.. What should I do?

    • ANSWER:
      How to address it is different for everyone. For me, when my dad got pancreatic, and then a year later Mom got ovarian cancer, I dealt with it by involving myself in their lives more than ever, and always I made it seem like it wasn't a big deal. If I had to walk barefoot through hell itself or rip my intestines out and snorkle in them, I would have said it wasn't anything at all. I hid the effort so that they didn't feel they were a burden.

      I also told all 6 brothers and sisters that if they had any had any issues with their parents, to deal with it among themselves, and they were not to bring it up with the dying parent at this point. Children can be selfish right up to the dying breath of the parent, and I was not going to permit this. People going through cancer are alone, and afraid.

      They need to know they are loved, and that you will protect them. Find ways to do this. I went to every single doctors appointment. all these things were important because when my parents died, I was ok, and the rest of the family was a wreck. I think it was because I loved them well. Every moment now is a gift. If he survives, it doesn't change anything.

      Find some way to be there, and stick with it all the way. You could emerge a changed person, and have the chance to come out the other side with a love inside you that you will be proud of. Try the link below and read up here and at other sites so that you begin to understand well the situation. My sympathies to your family in this difficult time.

    What is the appropriate thing to do when someone has cancer?
    A family friend recently was diagnosed with breast cancer. What should I do? Fix a dinner for her and her family? Send a card and/or note? Flowers? She and I are not particulary close, but our husbands are. I want to do something appropriate for the situation.

    • ANSWER:
      When I was sick, a family I was babysitting for brought me a sort of gift crate of fruit that I was allowed to eat. Because of a compromised immune system, chemo patients aren't supposed to eat fruit that doesn't have a skin that can be peeled. For example, apples and strawberries aren't good because if insecticides are used, the residue may harm a chemo patient. But bananas, oranges, kiwis, etc are okay, and yummy! It was a really nice gesture, and made me happy. Another thing that may or may not be acceptable (depending on you and her) would be to bring up the possibility of medical marijuana. It was literally the best drug I had during chemo and radiation. It was the best choice for every single side-effect of the treatment. Headaches, lethargy, depression, nausea, you name it. When I was losing weight and didn't want to eat, a couple puffs and I could eat a meal and not throw it up afterward. And as stoney as it sounds, watching a movie or hanging out with a friend and laughing a lot more really does a lot of good for a sick person. And it's legal with a recommendation from your doctor; my doctor was happy to help me through the process of getting my card. Or you could just go with the fruit : )
      Good luck!

    Where can I donate toys/gifts to children during this time of the year?
    I don't think that we should donate toys/gifts around Christmas time only.. it should be all year long! My daughter is having a first year birthday party and there's isn't anything she needs but family. (she's turning one she can survive without toys) I want to donate all the toys she gets in her name but I can not find any toy drives around here. (I live in the bay area of CA)

    Where can I donate toys/gifts at?

    • ANSWER:
      You are so sweet. Check with shelters for abused women. Women often arrive at such shelters with only their kids and the clothes on their backs. Toys are most likely needed there year-round. Or, you could check a children's hospital, especially a cancer hospital for children.

      There should be more people like you.

    5 yr old son w/ cancer. How do I set up bank account for donations to help pay for medical bills?
    Laid off and subsequently lost insurance. 2 weeks ago, my 5 year old son was diagnosed with cancer and we're facing 3 years of treatment. Several friends and family have offered to donate money to help pay for his medical expenses. What kind of bank account do I need to open that will allow people around the country to make a donation, allow me to use the funds to pay his doctor, and limit the taxes I'll have to pay?

    • ANSWER:
      The amounts given are gifts, and you won't owe any tax on them. They aren't deductible for the donors, either.

      Good luck - I hope the treatments are successful for your son.

      Have you looked into CHIPS for him through your state?

    How do you get insurance coverage in the US after having cancer w/out paying a fortune?
    I'm moving back to the US after being up in Canada next year. I am trying to figure out how to go about getting insurance there. I had cervical cancer, been in remission for 15 months. Everything up here was covered, I know it won't be there. We're moving back for my finance's job but I haven't got one yet so I don't have benefits squared away. Hope to have a job with benefits soon.
    Does anybody know the process for getting health insurance to cover everything without paying a fortune?

    • ANSWER:
      Either wait for your job or wait for Jan-2014 when President Obama's health insurance mandates kick in. Then, every insurance company will be forced to accept you and at reasonable fair rates. This is our president's great legacy and gift to us American citizens (and Canadian nationals), who have had major disease and trauma in their lives through no fault of their own.

      Now do you understand why this country has been in an uproar over poor health coverage run by greedy for-profit companies?

    What would be a good gift for a terminally ill person?
    My sister turns 66 this weekend, and lives some distance away. She has brain cancer is not expected to live more than a couple months. She is bedridden except can be in a wheelchair for an hour or so each day. She suffers from some dementia, but has periods of lucidity. She knows what is happening during those moments.

    Any suggestions for a birthday present? I'm at a loss.

    • ANSWER:
      If the doctor will allow it, and she''s having a day, a very quick trip out to a buffet (where you don't have to wait for the food), or getting take out of a really nice meal, might be a good treat.

      An electronic picture frame loaded up with hundreds of pictures of the family.

      A mug that has a family picture of someone she really cares about of printed on it. You can get them at Walgreen, and a box of candies that she can enjoy or make available to her visitors as a treat.

      Some of her favorite music from her childhood made available with a device that it not too difficult to operate, or which you can turn on for her. Familiar music can be calming for someone who has dementia.

      Some comfy lounging gear, like a new plush robe and slippers, clothing that is very easy to put on for someone who is bed-ridden, but still attractive for daytime visits.

      A new book, or book on tape by an author that she enjoys and has not read.

      Don't get hung up on gifts. She is not in the acquisitive mode at this time in her life. A huge hug, a small gift, and a short visit that doesn't wear her out, would be perfect.

      I am sorry that your family is going through this. Best Wishes and Good Luck!!

    What can I do to raise money for my Making Strides Against Breast Cancer walk?
    I'm looking for detailed tips on how I can raise money for the American Cancer Society by way of fundraising for my walk in Central Park in October. I'd be interested in things like bake sales - but how do I go about holding a bake sale? Please help with that and other creative ideas!!
    Here is my link in case you would like to donate:
    Every little bit helps!

    • ANSWER:
      my dept. at work has been involved for several years, we bought krispy kreme donuts on fridays, and people could have one for a donation (they were fresh & hot). we also had an "ice cream social" where anyone in the building could fix their own ice cream sundae for a donation. Last year i went around to the local businesses and got them to donate gift certificates for dinner, free pizza coupons, and other items including a big beautiful sheffelera plant, and we raffled them off and raised 0. that way. I brought the Making Strides folder & brochure, and gave pink bracelets to people who donated. I found this more productive & more fun than going around asking for donations, but whatever works to help the cause. Let's keep walking til we find a cure!

    What to give someone who just diagnosed with cancer?
    I have a friend, more like an older co-worker, whose mother, also a friend, who was recently diagnosed with breast cancer. I want to give both of them something, but don't quite know what to give. I already have a card, but I feel like I should give them something more as they have done so much for me.
    Any suggestions?

    • ANSWER:
      My favorite thing I received was a journal. My mom and I both kept a journal and I am so glad that I did. My mom let me read her journal not long ago and there were so many things that I had completely forgotten. I'm so appreciative to the person who thought of that idea.
      Another great thought is something cuddly, even a teddy bear. Regardless of age, it's always make you feel better to have something soft to cuddle even if it is just a blanket. I had a teddy bear and loved it.
      Most of all, the best gift you can give is just being there for both of them.
      God Bless!

    What is the life expectancy of someone with metastasized leiomyosarcoma cancer?
    I had uterine cancer about 2 years ago. I had a total hysterectomy. Now in January I was diagnosed with the cancer in my lungs. 2 of the tumors were a little bigger than 2 cm. with multiple tumors in both lungs. Now with 18 weeks of chemo the 2 larger tumors have shrunk to about 60 percent. What is my life expectancy?

    • ANSWER:
      God can help you live a better life if you want Him to help you. You can have a personal relationship with God by saying the prayer below. God is our Creator, all-knowing, all-powerful, eternal, holy, love. God loves us and sent us His Son, Jesus Christ, so we can go to heaven if we know and follow Him. Forever means without end -- time on and on without death. Forever is what happens after we die. Either we go to heaven and be with God forever, or we go to hell which is very bad and painful forever. The good people who are saved believers in Jesus Christ go to heaven. The bad people go to hell. We need to know and follow God in this world to get to heaven in the next world. We follow God by loving and obeying Him and loving others for Him. Jesus Christ, God's Son, is our bridge to God. Jesus died on the cross to cancel our sins. We need to accept Jesus into our life as our Lord and Savior forever to receive God's blessing and forgiveness plus go to heaven to be with God forever after we die. This is about being a born-again Christian. Faith in God is a gift from God. You can pray for faith in God. Just speak out and ask God for the faith to believe in Him and to follow Him. Some people find faith in God when they realize the beauty in the world is made by God. Evolution can't explain the world's natural beauty, for example, the parks in the world, animals, flowers, peacocks, sunsets, butterflies, rainbows, etc. After you have your faith on, you can pray a sinner's prayer to be a born-again Christian. This prayer is very important and should be said with a sincere heart and faith in God. This is the prayer: "Dear God, I know that I am a sinner and that Jesus Christ is the sacrifice for our sins. I have done the following sins (state these out) and I pray to discontinue these sins. I pray to receive Jesus Christ into my life as my Lord and Savior forever. In Jesus' name, amen." I'm Lutheran and I like the Baptist churches. You could find a good Christian church and try a weekly Bible study group with them to learn more. You can pray to God about your daily life. God bless.

    What's a good gift for someone who's recently had radiation and chemotherapy treatments?
    I'm trying to buy something for mum who was diagnosed with breast cancer last year. I've already gotten her a human-hair wig... I want to shower her with things she'll appreciate. What's something that would benefit her? Besides love and care, of course.

    • ANSWER:
      The ones I appreciated the most were from my daughter.

      She was only 16 and didn't have a lot of money, but looked carefully and found great gifts for me.

      A gorgeous silk headscarf in my favorite colour - she found it in a second hand shop which was the only way she could afford it, but the colours were perfect and the silk felt great on my bald head.

      Palettes of eye shadows - I rarely wear makeup but as I lost eyebrows and eyelashes with the rest of my hair my eyes looked naked. We had fun experimenting with the colours to find which ones suited my bald look best.

      Body Butter - I found this was great for soothing the healing skin after I got severe burns from the radiation therapy.

      A watch that fits like a loose bracelet - I suffered lymphodema in my left arm following surgery. My usual watch constricted and worsened the condition. Wearing my watch on the other arm felt wrong. She found this watch in an Avon catalog about 12 months after my treatment and it's battery lasted 5 years! It is in my handbag waiting for me to go and get the battery replaced at the moment and I am missing it dreadfully!

      Look for what problems her treatment has caused your mother and find gifts that match those needs. These are the sort of thoughtful gifts she will appreciate the most.

    How do you handle giving a charitable donation in lieu of a gift as requested?
    A friend of ours asked that instead of giving gifts for her birthday, she would rather prefer us to donate $ to charities on the invitation. How do we do this? Do we put a check in her card written out to the organization? Is it appropriate to also give a small gift to her as well?

    • ANSWER:
      If you are doing the donation "in lieu of gifts", then giving a gift also would be tacky. You probably won't offend the friend, but you make make her or other guests feel uncomfortable if others did not bring gifts.

      As far as the donation, you should make the donation to the organization yourself, with a notation that you are making the donation in honor of your friend's birthday, rather than giving your friend the check. Giving her the check will make her party seem more like a fundraiser for the cahrity than a birthday party.

      Sometimes, the charity may have a card stating something along the lines of "a donation has been made in your name". If they do not have a card, then specify which charity you danated to in a simple note inside your friend's birthday card.

      To make the donation special, make sure you donate to a charity that your friend supports. (Ex: Donating to a Christian church-based group would be inappropriate if your friend is Jewish)

      Some charities seem to have a particular niche ("all proceeds will go to dwarf bisexual Eskimo bikers") If you are not sure of which charity she supports, be sure to choose something fairly neutral, like Habitat For Humanity, the United Way, or the American Cancer Society.

    What have you done to contribute your gift to society?
    What have you done to contribute your gift to society?
    If you think of the potential of the human brain, and all of the probable roads that you could have taken , or have chosen to take. Are you satisfied with the life that you endorse?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, as an educator, I am very pleased with my contribution to society. I also volunteer for the AmRed Cross to do training in CPR and disaster relief. I am a volunteer for the Cancer Coalition, helping them to survey people and offer in-service of ways to raise the quality of life.

    What is a good gift for my dying neighbor?
    My next door neighbors are an elderly couple and the wife is on hospice due to cancer. The husband is relativley healthy and still works. I have never spoken to them, just waved from a distance. My husband ran into the gentleman while outside one day. He said he is having a hard time with everything. I would like to give them something to express our sympathy and offer a helping hand. Any suggestions?

    • ANSWER:
      make a bunch of nice home-cooked dinners that he can put in his freezer.

      maybe offer to run errands for him, or to visit his wife on a regular basis?

      the best gifts are those that come from the heart.

    What is the appropriate card or gift for someone starting Chemo?
    I would like to send my words of encouragement or assistance to a neighbor who is going through chemo. Without placing pity on them. Any comfort, object, words that could help. Anyone working with cancer patients that hears their needs.

    • ANSWER:
      For a card, I'd recommend the "Thinking of You" type.

      As to a gift, I'd recommend something cheery that will make them think of you when they look at a pretty suncatcher for their window.

      Of course, plants are always nice, but go for a living plant that will last a long time versus flowers. You can ask a nursery to add cut flowers to a green plant for the best of both worlds.

      If it's a woman and you are CERTAIN she is going to lose her hair from the chemo, another option would be to get her some pretty bonnets or scarves...but again only if you have been told that she is certain to lose her hair and she already knows this to be true.

    What are some of the worst holiday gifts you've ever gotten?
    Just wanna know. Some of my worst were socks zebra cookies made with salt in place of sugar, oh and lets not forget the moldy chocolates, that we didn't know the age of. So what are some of your worst gifts that you've ever received?

    • ANSWER:
      Aww I love getting socks =]

      Well I love all the presents I get, but there is one that I do feel bad about getting. 2 years ago, my grandma was very weak with cancer, but she still got up and got driven to the mall and bought me a CHI hair straightener. First of all, I feel bad that she went and did that, she was so sick =( and it was expensive. She passed away a few months later, so its one of my favorite things to use. I just still feel bad about her getting up and getting it...

    Do you think these are good christmas gifts for mom?
    The magic bullet and the bullet express. Since she has cancer for more then 10 years and she has linphodema(i dont know how to spell it) and cant use the knifes to cut hard stuff. This also explains why my hair is pink.

    • ANSWER:
      sounds fine.....That's cool that your mom is a ten year cancer mom is a 13 year survivor....a toast to both of them.....cancer SUCKS BALLZ.

    What meaningful gift should I get my mom?
    Exactly a year ago she had surgery for breast cancer, so around Christmas last year she felt really bad and wasn't in the holiday spirit. This year she's determined to make it a great Christmas and I want to get her something really special. Keep in mind, there's only a week till Christmas, so I need something I can get (OR make) fast. Any ideas?
    Thanks guys, those were some really neat ideas. I finally found the perfect gift! :)

    • ANSWER:
      Lucky charms will be the best choice for you. Your mom will understand all your best wishes to her. Dongba fish wall hanging represents for healthy, in China, the sick people will go to temples to touch the large wooden carved fish, praying for soon recovery. And the silver bracelet with peony flowers stands for happy life, the one with Chinese character "longevity" is the best gift for our seniorities. The flowers and birds papper cuts are the symbol of peace and happiness. Find them out at the following website:

    If cannabis is a gift from God, why do so many Christians support prohibiting it?
    The bible states all plants were created as a gift to people from God and they are all to be seen as good. It also says that people will use lies and hypocrisy to get others to abstain from consuming some of these gifts. In addition it mentions the use of plants to heal and recently some of these properties are being discovered.

    It seems to me that prohibiting the usage of any plant is against the will of God who intended everyone to be able to consume them as they desire.

    • ANSWER:
      People have been brainwashed by DARE and the war on drugs propaganda to believe that smoking refer will send you mad, make you evil, turn you to harder drugs and crimes, or, as they used to propagate in the 30s, turn you into a pervert.

      That's all it is, brainwashing. there are no facts and figures to actually soundly base their thoughts on. There is no scripture that suggests the herb is sinful. If Jesus turned water into wine, then i can't really see him having any issues with a herb, that you can add to your cooking, and which is good for MS and cancer and arthritis amongst many other things. It also alleviates PMS symptoms, from irritability to painful cramps.

      I sometimes wonder if it was men getting the PMS if they would have decriminalised it yet... but hey, it's just women suffering so who cares right?

      this makes me think of a question...

    What kind of gift to buy someone who is going through chemo?
    i wanna buy something for them but i have no idea. I was thinking of going to the health food store and asking the clerk what kind of special foods are good for people with cancer and then buying that but then i thought that was a bad idea. can anyone suggest something? thanks
    "Why would you think those of us who have chemo need a gift?": because I wanna help in any way so I wanna buy something to help and i care about them- thanks for the ideas!

    • ANSWER:
      That's very thoughtful of you. I have learned that people like to *do* something when a friend is in need. However, I suggest no foods. My taste has changed so radically under chemo that even water tastes like acid! I live in China and people frequently give fruit as gifts . . . so my family is enjoying the benefits!

      However, people are loaning books and DVDs and those are nice. I stay indoors a lot due to the pollution and dust in the air, so it's nice to have some new books/movies to watch.

      Plants and flowers are nice, but you might want to check on allergies.

      Teddy bears? It all depends on the person. Everyone who knows me know darn good and well not to give me anything "cute" to deal with cancer. Cancer is NOT cute, it's NOT cuddly and it most definitely is NOT pink! (Would we dream of giving a man with prostate cancer a blue teddy bear?)

      You could also offer to take your friend shopping when she feels up to it. I took a morning out a couple of weeks ago to go to the local yarn market and I had a blast. My friend and I laughed and laughed and we enjoyed ourselves quite a bit.

      Another thing you could do is offer to be a chemo buddy for your friend. My husband can't come to my chemo sessions (I commute 8 - 9 hours door-to-door to Hong Kong for my chemo) so a friend meets me there. It's helpful to have someone else along.

    What is a good gift in memory of a loved one lost to breast cancer?
    A good friend of mine just lost her aunt to a 5 year battle with breast cancer. This is something very dear to my heart as my mother is a breast cancer survivor. Instead of sending flowers/food, I would love to get her family something in honour of her aunt that supports the breast cancer foundation. I'm just not sure as to exactly what I should do. Any ideas or suggestions would be greatly appreciated.


    • ANSWER:
      You can contact the Susan G Koman Org for cancer. They are an org that supports all brest cancer patients and you can make a donation in your friends aunt's name and present it to her. Another org to contact, would be the cancer foundation of America. Koman is your best bet. Log on to their web site and you will see how you can donate and they will also have a toll free number for you to call them and ask them.
      This is so kind of you. God bless you.

    What would be some nice things to do for my aunt who was recently diagnosed with breast cancer?
    We live about 4 hours away from each other so it's hard to go up to see her. What are some nice things I can do for her that shows I care? I don't want the gift to remind her of what she's going through I want it to show her how much I care and that she is a true fighter. What can I do?

    • ANSWER:
      Well if it was me I would want someone to clean my house or do my carpets or windows. Wash my car, do my weeding. These kind of things relieve tension. Buffet or restaurant gift certificates. Or some lovely Moo Moos to lounge comfortable in. Maybe one of those massagers at bed and bath. Wash her dog.

    Where can I buy my hairdresser a gift card that benefits a charity she supports?
    I don't really want to buy her items with the charity logo all over it, and I think a gift card would be perfect. I just can't seem to find any sites that sell gift cards where some of the proceeds go towards a charity.

    • ANSWER:
      they sell really nice items at all prices, fast delivery, AND they come with a certificate stating, "A donation of x# cups of rice has been made through the purchase of this gift."
      At the same site, you can follow the links on the tabs to charities that support animals, rainforests, and breast cancer prevention and literacy.

    How can I help my friends poor, no rent, no food, single parent with cancer family?
    A friend of mine just told me his mom is a year behind in rent, they have no food in their house, and the single parent is suffering from cancer. On top of that, 3 of her 5 children are very young and cannot care for themselves. The 2 older boys are not mature enough to care for the other children. The only money comes from a large change jar and it goes to gas so the mother can get to work. I'm 16, what can I do to help my friends? What resources are there?

    • ANSWER:
      Uh,it's really bad to see your friend in this situation !
      if you r 16 , you dont have any job yet , right ?
      i think , you only can help her mentaly, make fun for her, for her birthday give her nice gifts , invite her to drink or eat something and tell her that you dont want her to compensation anyway !

    Does anyone know a good poem i can read at a Cancer fundraiser?
    I am a cancer survivor - and i have been asked to read a poem aloud at this fundriser i am going to today ... they didnt give me any specifics for what kind of poem it has to be ... so it can be really anything (happy or sad type of poem) - as long as it goes with the topic of cancer ...

    Thanks so much in advance!

    • ANSWER:
      TODAY IS A GIFT (Laszlo Kotro-Kosztandi) :

      Many people will walk in and out of your life,
      But only true friends will leave footprints in your heart
      To handle yourself, use your head;
      To handle others, use your heart.
      Anger is only one letter short of danger.
      If someone betrays you twice, it is your fault
      Great minds discuss events;
      Small minds discuss people.
      He who loses money, loses much;
      He who loses a friend, loses much more;
      He who loses faith, loses all.
      Beautiful old people are works of art.
      Learn from the mistakes of others
      You can't live long enough to make them all yourself.
      Friends, you and me ... You brought another friend ... and we started our
      group ... our circle of friends ... and like a circle ... there is no
      beginning or end ... Yesterday is history.
      Tomorrow is mystery. Today is a gift.

    What can I do to help my boyfriend through his gastric cancer chemo?
    I'm 19 and I met my man 3 years ago. He is 22 and was recently diagnosed with cancer in his stomach...he was flown to Cali and I stayed in Texas. I feel alone and useless when I can't even hold his hand or see his resting face.

    • ANSWER:
      Try video chat!!!!!!!!!!! I live on it and it can really help. Try sending him funny toys and stuff that you think he would get a kick out of. My dad sent my mom really random gifts that made no sense, but apparently were inside jokes. Also, think of what you would want him to do for you. Sorry about your boyfriend, hope this helps!

    A good gift/favor to give out at a Memorial Concert Fundraiser?
    We're having a memorial concert for my fiance who passed away last year. It is going to be a pretty high-end fund-raiser with Dana Farber as an official sponsor. What would be a nice, small gift to give to everyone who attends? I want something that looks nice, and is appropriate given the occasion. Any ideas?

    • ANSWER:
      My condolences:) .... If he passed away from an illness that has fundraising items (i.e. breast cancer has lots of "pink ribbon" items) you could give those ..... Or have coffee cups, datebooks, note pads, small calculators, or pens made, personalized with his name, years of birth & death, and whatever else you want. There are companies who do things like this in volume.....

    Why is mental illness considered a disease and not a gift?
    People often bealieve that other people with mental illness are diseased. I have come to think that it is not an illness, but a gift. They have the power to see all sides, stay open minded, and close their minds to the world! Those my friends are true gifts, not diseases.
    I have personal experiences with bi-polarity and schizophrenia, i channled it into the arts, mainly poetry, my family does not know nor will they ever.

    The sun goes down the night stars stare,
    What is life if no one cares?
    So as i walk among the trees,
    Relieve me of my memories.

    • ANSWER:
      I think people too often forget (or have never known) what defines a psychiatric disorder.
      Definition of a Mental Disorder according to The DSM-IV-TR/DSM-V is
      A. A behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual.
      B. That reflects an underlying psychobiological dysfunction.
      C. The consequences of which are clinically significant distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning).
      D. Must not be merely an expectable response to common stressors and losses (for example, the loss of a loved one) or a culturally sanctioned response to a particular event (for example, trance states in religious rituals).
      E. That is not primarily a result of social deviance or conflicts with society.

      However there is one major qualifier for any psychiatric disorder- it must be causing clinically significant dysfunction and/or distress.

      So you say you have bipolar disorder (FYI there is no hyphen in bipolar or bipolarity) and schizophrenia and that you have "channelled it" into the arts. Firstly I am curious as to exactly what "it" is, what specifically have you channelled?

      I don't know exactly what problems you have had and how severe they have been but perhaps you don't realize the extortionately level of suffering psychiatric illness cause. The mortality rate for bipolar is over 10%, higher than the mortality rate for most cancers. About 50% will attempt suicide at least once. The likely hood of becoming disabled or homeless is extremely high, the cost to society in North America is in the tens of billions of dollars a year. And of course there is such extraordinary suffering- why do you think so many kill themselves or try to die? The reason is because the pain is too great. Then there is schizophrenia with a mortality rate of 5%. Rates of substance abuse/dependence are about 50% for both conditions however nicotine dependence occurs in about 85% of schizophrenics. This is a major example of the devastation of the disorder that so many people self medicate because they can't tolerate their problems. Schizophrenia causes social withdrawal, apathy, depression, hallucinations, delusions, grossly disorganized behaviour, catatonic behaviour- which is an extremely dangerous and potentially lethal state, blunted/flat affect, alogia ("poverty of speech"), avolition ("poverty of movement"), anhedonia ("without pleasure"), aboulia ("non-will"). Even when properly treated many people experience significant post-schizophrenic depression. And of course drugs, especially antipsychotics used to treat both schizophrenia and bipolar, have very serious risks that are typically outweighed by their benefit but the risks are so high.

      A disease is simply a pathological condition with definable symptoms. Psychiatric disorders fit into that.

      Did you ever think that perhaps you are in the minority, a small percent of people who come to embrace the condition? Is the nearly one million suicides a year (with 98% of those people having a psychiatric disorder) and the 100 million people who try to die, a desperate attempt made from such unbearable symptoms really worth a unique way of viewing things? And if your family does not see things like you do it also means you can't see things like they do.

      Its good you have embarrassed your condition and turned some of it into something positive but I doubt you have scene the destruction mental illness causes. I see the destruction every day and every morning I wake up I am reminded by the pill bottles on my night stand of how ill I was with depression and panic disorder.

      You think your way of seeing things is so great? Try having experienced it and then watching and doing everything and anything to try to help others.

    Do you think these are good christmas gifts for mom?
    The magic bullet and the bullet express. Since she has cancer for more then 10 years and she has linphodema(i dont know how to spell it) and cant use the knifes to cut hard stuff. This also explains why my hair is pink.

    • ANSWER:
      Honey, that was very thoughtful & loving of you coming from a daughter who cares about her mother! I' sure she'll be very happy with what you've gotten for her. Bless your heart for caring. Have a very Merry CHRISTmas & Happy Holidays.*

    How do I deal with losing my dad to cancer?
    My father passed away 13/02/07.In Jan 06 he was diagnosed with terminal cancer, there was nothing they could do, he was riddled with it, and only 56.throughout 2006 my dad was attached perm to chemo,he had a few breaks here and there, one was especially so he could give me away at my wedding in May 2006, a very proud day to have him stand by my side, Slowly dad got worse and each time there was a hospital appointment the news was worse too,finally a course of radiotherapy, just to extend life,and that was over christmas 06.the weekend before dad died, i went to see him, he lived in Bristol, I live in Kent, and my step mum, his wife, told me that they knew how long dad had left, and did I want to know.....12 weeks was what he had been given and that was if it was the cancer that was to kill him.I couldn't believe it, but at the same time i thought of the next 12weeks. My dad died 2 days later. I am broken and now 8 weeks pregnant, with what would have been his 1st grandchild.
    COLIBUS4 - What the hell is that all about....If you have nothing sensible or kind to write then why bother.......disgusting.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry to hear about the lost of your father. We all have to find our own way to deal with death of a loved one. It may be one or a combinination of prayers, counseling, medication, periods of denial, etc. No one can tell you how you "should" grieve or for how long.

      I would first suggest journaling of all the times you can remember how grateful you were (are) to have had a relationship with your Dad and that he was strong enough to stay with you for your wedding. It was just his time to go and we never want to see anyone linger longer then they have to just because we don't want to lose them temporarily.

      Think of the wonderful gift you now carry and know that your Dad will be with you always in spirit and I honestly believe we see our loved ones again when we pass over. It's your time to be happy and make your pregnancy as positive as possible to get the little one off to a great start. Life can be very hard for some, so it's your responsibility to take care of yourself (mind, body, spirit) and prepare with joy.

      Your Dad lastest a long time with cancer and chemo -- he was strong -- now in honor of him -- you be strong and carry on as you should.

      Best Wishes...

    Does anybody have any ideas about a breast cancer bumper box sort of thing of presents?
    A close family member is going in for a breast cancer operation at the end of this month and I was just wondering if anyone had any ideas of what I could put in a basket.. PJ's, chocolates, slippers.. that sort of thing?

    • ANSWER:
      When I had a bilateral mastectomy 3 years ago, I received a multitude of gifts. These included flowers, a bottle of wine, stuffed animals, balloons, and Hershey Hugs and Kisses. I also received a bunch of magazines, books and hand-held games.

      Now, I don't know if your family member is having a unilateral/bilateral mastectomy, or a lumpectomy. However, if it is a mastectomy, she will have a very difficult time moving her arms. That being said, it might be nice to offer some CD's with her favorite music on it, or books on CD. If you offer PJ's, make sure they are BUTTONED jammies, because pull-over jammies will be darned-near impossible.

      Even one of those incline-pillows so she doesn't have to lean all the way back or lie down completely is a great idea. A soft blanket for her to lay on her lap is nice, too.

      Most important? The best thing people did was to offer to do stuff. They either brought meals, or sent gift cards for restaurants that delivered. I couldn't cook due to being incapacitated, and dh couldn't cook due to exhaustion. Other people cleaned our house, others baby-sat.

      Even lots of DVD's, because she will be doing a lot of sitting, and TV gets boring after the first few days!

      The "stuff" I received during my recovery was all very special, don't get me wrong. I kept every single trinket and treasure them. It just worked best for me to have as much extra help as possible. If she knows you are supportive, that is really what matters.

    Cookie exchange party at my house to raise money for cancer. How can this be a success?
    Okay so, I work with the American Cancer Society and we're having a small get together type of thing at my house to raise money.

    It's a cookie exchange and we're making people pay 5 bucks at the door and having them bring cookies. Then we're all gonna try all the different kinds of cookies and watch a Christmas movie, listen to Christmas music, and just kind of chill .

    I want this to be low cost and fun.
    Any ideas?

    • ANSWER:
      Depending on the number of people you are having, you might consider a blind vote on the best cookie, and offer a door prize worth or so to the winner. Put the votes in a hat and count them. Another possibility is to solicit door prizes at local stores, like gift certificates or physical prizes from their inventory. Remember anything they donate can be written off on taxes, and this is almost the end of the year. Sounds like fun.

    Gift ideas for a friend traveling to Europe?
    My friend is graduating college this week and traveling around Europe for 5 weeks. I'd like to get her a small gift that she can use on her trip, but I'm at a loss. She's carrying everything with her in a backpack and staying in hostels. I've already gotten her a book on traveling Europe and she has all her basic necessities. Any ideas on something small I could get her?

    • ANSWER:
      Found this, Should be helpful:

      Aries (March 21 - April 19)
      Active Aries is always looking for ways to stay in shape, particularly during the holiday season... so athletic equipment is usually a good choice. People born under this sign are also fond of the color red, so a cranberry scarf or a scarlet hat could win their favor. If romance is in the air, let Aries know that you put his or her needs first. Buy tickets for two to a sporting event you loathe... or a CD by an artist you can't stand... to win big points with your favorite Ram.

      Taurus (April 20 - May 20)
      Taurus appreciates any gift that appeals to his or her sensual side. A box of gourmet chocolates, a richly colored tapestry or a soft cashmere blanket are all great options for Bulls. This sign also enjoys having money to play with, so a gift certificate to their favorite store is a welcome option. Always remember that quality is more important than quantity – Taurus would rather have a small bottle of expensive cologne than a carafe of the cheap stuff.

      Gemini (May 21 - June 20)
      Quick-witted Geminis enjoys gifts that appeal to their sizable intellects. A challenging book is always welcome, as is a magazine subscription. This sign rules the hands, so some scented hand lotion or a sparkling ring might delight. Geminis also love to entertain, so a set of glassware might fit the bill. If you want to splurge on a special Twin, give them the latest cell phone or PDA, so they can keep in touch with their gazillion friends.

      Cancer (June 21 - July 22)
      Sentimental Cancer loves gifts that have personal meaning. Handmade items always delight, whether it's a finger painting, angora sweater or mincemeat pie. This sign also has a special affinity for silver – a monogrammed hand mirror or picture frame would be very well received. Since Crabs have an affinity for liquids of all kinds, a special bottle of wine, a fancy cappuccino maker or a shiny tea kettle are also good possibilities. And don't forget that these Moon children love the domestic arts – a cookbook specializing in comfort food is another sure winner.

      Leo (July 23 - August 22)
      Lions love gifts that make them look and feel terrific. Hair accessories, cosmetics and grooming items are all good choices for this image-conscious sign. Leos love drama, and enjoy presents that involve a bit of flair. Opera tickets, gold jewelry or animal print lingerie are right up this cat's alley. Leos also love to gamble, so a sheaf of lottery tickets or a weekend getaway to the casino could make them purr with delight. When shopping for clothing, remember that Lions have a special affinity for red, gold and purple.

      Virgo (August 23 - September 22)
      Virgins love practical avoid dust-catching baubles. A bread-making machine or a power drill would be equally welcome. These folks are also known to pride themselves on their impeccable appearance. Scented soaps, lotions and shampoos made by an earth-friendly company might be just the ticket. Virgos are also incredibly organized and might appreciate a good watch or a leather-bound date book. Or try a health-conscious basket of organic foodstuffs.

      Libra (September 23 - October 22)
      Librans have a special affinity for music, and always appreciate a good CD to add to their voluminous collection. If you want to do something really special for a Libran friend, splurge on a two concert tickets – this sign hates to do anything alone. Born beneath the sign of the scales, they also need plenty of balance in their lives, so a pair of candlesticks or bookends might appeal. If you're still stumped for ideas, have a lavish bouquet of red roses delivered accompanied by a loving handwritten note.

      Scorpio (October 23 - November 21)
      Scorpions are secretive by nature and enjoy gifts that obscure their appearance in some way. A pair of designer sunglasses, a filmy scarf or a slouchy hat are all great choices for this sign. These mystery-lovers also enjoy moody, atmospheric stories. A collection of film noirs on DVD are sure to go over well with your favorite Scorpion. The rumors concerning this sign's sexual appetite are happily true, so seductive lingerie would get plenty of use. Since Scorpions also like to get beneath the surface; a gift certificate for a deep-cleansing facial will be appreciated.

      Sagittarius (November 22 - December 21)
      As far as Archers are concerned, half the fun of getting gifts is ripping them open! If Sag doesn't like a present, though, he or she will tell you outright. Avoid awkward scenes this holiday season by giving this outdoor enthusiast some camping equipment. Hiking boots or a water-proof parka would also be appropriate. These animal lovers adore any gift associated with their pets. A calendar filled with pictures of dogs or horses is sure to elicit a big smile. Finally, you can always feed this sign's wanderlust with a comprehensive atlas.

      Capricorn (December 22 - January 19)
      Career-oriented Capricorn always enjoys gifts that will boost their job status. A leather laptop carrier or monogrammed briefcase would be welcome. Contrary to popular belief, though, Goats aren't all work and no play. This sign is blessed with a wicked sense of humor, so try the BBC's "The Office" series on DVD. Capricorns also love luxurious presents they'd never buy for themselves, like a silk bathrobe.

      Aquarius (January 20 - February 18)
      You never know what this unpredictable sign will be doing from moment to moment – one week it's skydiving and the next it's yoga! Still, this quirky sign always appreciates technological gadgets, whether it's an all-region DVD player or an iPod Nano. If you'd like to choose something a little more personal, why not make a photo album detailing all of your exploits with the Water-Bearer? Aquarius may not show it, but they harbor a special fondness for their friends. Still stumped for ideas? A basket filled with brand new socks is both weird and practical enough for this sign, which rules the ankles.

      Pisces (February 19 - March 20)
      These mystics love gifts of all kinds, but especially ones that help them escape the harsh realities of life. A bottle of champagne, a kaleidoscope or a book of fairy tales will appeal to your Fishy friends. And because Pisces is a Water sign, it's a good bet they'll appreciate bath salts, foaming cleansers and shower gels. If you'd like to give something really special, a digital camera will make a bit hit with this natural-born photographer. Looking for a romantic gift? Choose a gilt-edged volume of love poetry.


    a website that would donate gifts for an american cancer society fashion show?
    ok, im having a fashion show to raise money for the american cancer society, and im hoping to give out swag bags, but i need websites or something that would donate stuff for the swag bags.

    please help its for a really good cause!

    • ANSWER: is the best one I have seen on net. To get best cooperation from the companies there get local media to help co sponsor which they usually will do if theior contribution is just publicity. An even better way may be contacting local businesses who always want to be affiliated with a good cause. Check with someone you know in the chamber of commerce or at local radio station for that.

    Is there any proof that people with end stage cancer and in a coma can hear?
    A family member passed away last week, she had cancer. While in her last hours we all took turns telling her we loved her and that she was free to go in peace. Is there any evidence that supports the theory that she could hear us?

    • ANSWER:
      Take comfort in having been present and that you and your family members were able to come together and express their love for her. Grieving is the first part of the healing process and by comforting her with soft words and loving permission to leave this world in peace, whether or not she was aware, was most important for all. As the other writer above put it, some people who have come out of comas were able to recall the conversations around them.
      To help guide a loved one to heaven's door, and telling them it is OK to go, and suffer no more, is a great last gift to give someone you love.

    What does it mean when you dream of having cancer?
    Okay so i had a dream where i went to the doctor and that doctor sended me to another clinic. I go there with my mom but my mom didn't want to come with me so she stayed in the car. I go in the clinic and they said i had blood cancer, but that didnt suprise me at all. I told my mom but she didnt care at all.

    So what does this mean? :/

    • ANSWER:
      I would get checked out by a doctor just to be safe. It may not predict actually illness, but a more symbolic illness, but you want to be safe and get checked out. Encourage your mother, too, as she is in the dream. On a more symbolic level, it could indicate indifference on your mom's part to your health and well being.

      Most dreams are messages from the subconscious mind, which picks up on cues and clues that the conscious mind is in denial of. Basically, I believe that there are FOUR types of dreams: 1. symbolic dreams; 2. dreams that rehash the day's events; 3. messages from the subconscious that are straight messages and not symbolic, and finally, 4 psychic/premonition dreams or dreams that actually predict coming events.

      I have had many psychic dreams. It is a gift. Those who do not or have not had them do not understand the gift.

    How many days should I go in a tanning bed to get tan and not get skin cancer?
    I got a gift card but now I don't know if I should go. If i only go like 3 times a month would that be okay?

    • ANSWER:
      I'd be cautious on the tanning but three times a month may be alright. I wouldn't do more then that.
      I only suggest it once a week IF you suffer skin issues.. but be careful. Also they may sell a tanning cream to help look in to that.

    What should I get my mom (who is battling breast cancer) for Christmas?
    Okay, I just don't know what to get her. Should I get her something that is Pink to go along with the breast cancer theme, or something else that doesn't have anything to do with that, I just don't know????? HELP!

    She found out in late August and is enduring 16 weeks of Chemo then 4 weeks of radiation with a treatment everyday for the radiation, then possibly a hormone treatment after all that! I love her more everyday. She has had an incredibly optimistic personality, even after a full removal of her right breast. Please, if you have any ideas they would all be greatly appreciated!


    • ANSWER:
      Tell her how much you love her first, she needs family like you I would think that's the most important gift of all, ask her what she would like maybe there's a special place she would like to go maybe a movie or out to eat and the to of you bond, maybe a family portrait, gift card to her favorite store, a beautiful piece of jewelry a heart don't have to be expensive it's the thought that counts. I wouldn't do the pink thing she needs a day without thinking of that even though it's hard for everyone. good luck I will pray for you all.

    What shops should I approach for an auction I am having at a cancer fundraiser?
    I am looking for items that people can bid on for my fundraiser. Anyone have any ideas on what stores I can approach? It is being held in resto/bar so I cannot ask other restaurants for dinner gift certificates.

    • ANSWER:
      You can ask local museums to donate passes for a visit, or better yet, a yearly membership

      Local gyms, same thing, membership passes for 6 or 12 months

      Local attractions (zoos, amusement parks, any places like that)

      Local spas - bet lots of people would bid for a massage or even a mani/pedi

      You can ask bigger retailers if they could donate any items (a plasma TV would be nice) or at least, a gift card or two

      Airlines used to donate tickets to charity. If there's an airport local to you, it still could be worth asking them

      Cars arent selling right now. Maybe you can ask a local car dealer or two if they would be willing to donate a new car out of inventory - it would be good for them to get the donation and the publicity

      If you're not getting enough items or you want to bring in bigger ticket pieces, you can check online for "consignment auction" sites - they provide items for charities to auction. You have to pay for them, but only if they sell. So for example if they make a vacation package available to your organization for 0, you set the minimum bid at 0, and if it sells at that price, or better yet, higher, you keep the difference.

    What is a good gift to get to remember my grandfather at Christmas, he died in March?
    The family has alot of pictures so I am looking for a suggestion other then photos. As long as I don't go overboard the family is the kind that does not mind a reminder as he was 78 and had colon cancer for 2 years.

    • ANSWER:
      tell a story about him, something nice that you remember about him, write it down and make it into a funny story,..the family will remember him with a laughter....that is a great gift. or you can make a play abot him, imitate him and be happy that you are all related to him.

    What are some ways to support cancer patients?
    I'm not exactly sure what I am trying to ask really. I just want to support cancer patients some how. I know all about wearing a pink ribbon for breast cancer, but is there any other things I can do? And does anyone have any ideas of any fundraisers I could do? Thanks

    • ANSWER:
      Depending on how old you are, (25 Years old, and Up) You can Be a Chemo Angel, in which you can send a cancer patient a weekly letter and gifts)
      OR if you are under the age of 25. Go to "Make a Child Smile" or Hugs and Hope" and send children thinking of you cards and stickers, or letters letting them know you are thinking of them. All that is needed is one book of stamps and you can make 20 children smile. :)

cancer gifts

Pulmonary Carcinoma

Frequently Asked Questions

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a form of lung cancer that begins in?
    A the epithelium of the bronchi.
    B the pulmonary lymph nodes.
    C the squamous type I cells of the alveoli.
    D the mucous glands of the bronchi.
    E the respiratory bronchioles.

    Need help on this question anyone.

    • ANSWER:
      as i have looked in the wikipedia article below, scc is not specific to the lungs, but may occur in any part of the body, as long as the squamous epithelial cells are affected...any also, its effects on the lungs are on the bronchi...

      since i know fairly about squamous cells, before reading the article i presume that my choices are A and C...but it is also stated in the artcile that the bronchi are my answer is


    Where is the quantifiable data describing the dangers of cigarettes?
    for 25 years people have been telling me that there is 'irrefutable proof' of health hazards from smoking, but all anyone offers for proof is unsubstantiated propaganda.

    Where's the hard data? Where's the quantifiable evidence? (Qualitative analysis is meaningless without quantitative analysis.)

    can you provide ANY links to any MEANINGFUL data?

    • ANSWER:
      Ding et al. Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma. Nature DOI:10.1038/nature07423

      Some original landmark studies:
      STEINER PE, BUTT EM, EDMONDSON HA. Pulmonary carcinoma revealed at necropsy, with reference to increasing incidence in the Los Angeles County Hospital. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1950 Dec;11(3):497–510.

      CLEMMESEN J. Bronchial carcinoma, a pandemic. Dan Med Bull. 1954 Apr;1(2):37–46.
      Burch PR. Lung cancer and smoking: is there proof. Br Med J. 1976 Sep 11;2(6036):640–640.
      Doll R. Landmark perspective: Smoking and death rates. JAMA. 1984 Jun 1;251(21):2854–2857.

      WYNDER EL, GRAHAM EA. Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchiogenic carcinoma; a study of 684 proved cases. J Am Med Assoc. 1950 May 27;143(4):329–336.

      DOLL R, HILL AB. Smoking and carcinoma of the lung; preliminary report. Br Med J. 1950 Sep 30;2(4682):739–748.

      DOLL R, HILL AB. A study of the aetiology of carcinoma of the lung. Br Med J. 1952 Dec 13;2(4797):1271–1286.

      SCOTT RB. Some medical aspects of tobacco-smoking. Br Med J. 1952 Mar 29;1(4760):671–675.

      SADOWSKY DA, GILLIAM AG, CORNFIELD J. The statistical association between smoking and carcinoma of the lung. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1953 Apr;13(5):1237–1258.

      HAMMOND EC. Smoking in relation to lung cancer. Conn State Med J. 1954 Jan;18(1):3–9.

      Personally, I see smokers with such severe vascular damage that they undergo multiple revascularizations of their legs before eventually having them cut off. Many of them have renal failure, COPD and heart disease, too, in MUCH greater proportions than their non-smoking counterparts.

      Did you know smoking is the #1 cause of impotency? (It's all about blood flow) When you're old and can't get it up, think of me :)

    What causes slightly swollen lymph nodes around the neck?
    What causes slightly swollen lymph nodes around the neck? I have tested for common viruses particularly HIV. The testing has been over two year with resoundingly negative results. Don't mean to be a hypochondriach, but I think HSV or HPV, which I relatively commonplace, do not mnifest themselves in this manner. Does anyone know what the possible causes might be?

    Thank you kindly.

    • ANSWER:
      There are a couple of reasons for inflamed lynph nodes. This normally happens with almost all types of infections because the lympatic system is the gateway to get rid of dead bacteria.

      There are a couple of reasons why you would have chronic lymphadenopathy. Extra pulmonary TB, some carcinomas, lymhatic carcinomas.

      There are ways to findout if one of these are the culprits. The doctor should be able to distinguish if the nodes are mobile or non-mobile, if they are soft or hard ( nodular) which could mean a cancer of some sort.

      He should also be able to do an Incision and drainage which could easily isolate and identify a lot of things by doing a culture and sensitivity.

      Its also possible if you were a chronic smoker before.

    What does "metastic carcinoma with unknown primary tumour and pulmonary embolism" mean on a death certificate?
    My boyfriends mother died last week and I was wondering what this means.
    Oh wow. Okay, thank you so much for answering.

    • ANSWER:
      It means that she had cancer that had spread through her body and they weren't sure where the tumor was located that started it and that she had a blood clot in the lung.

    What are some diseases that would cause one to cough blood?
    I'm curious, because I read a book in which one of the characters is always coughing up blood, then dies in the end. So, what diseases would cause somebody to do this, more specifically, ones that are long-term, but still usually fatal. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      ~Just to name a few~
      Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
      Alveolar hydatid disease
      Bronchial adenoma
      Bronchogenic carcinoma
      Bronchogenic cyst
      Carbamoylphosphate synthetase deficiency
      Cardiac failure, left sided
      Echinococcus granulosus
      Foreign body in respiratory tract
      Goodpasture's syndrome
      Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia
      Histiocytosis X
      Hughes-Stovin syndrome
      Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis
      Klebsiella sp
      Laryngeal carcinoma
      Lung abscess
      Lymphomatoid granulomatosis
      Microscopic polyangiitis
      Mitral valve stenosis
      Mycobacterium tuberculosis
      Oropharyngeal cancer
      Pulmonary arterio-venous malformation
      Pulmonary embolism
      Pulmonary hypertension
      Pulmonary infarction
      Pulmonary oedema
      Systemic lupus erythematosus
      Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia
      Wegener's granulomatosis
      Yersinia pestis

    What are other options other then chemotherapy for stage 2 breast cancer?
    My 75 year old mother made a life decision today ...............she is not going to go through with chemotherapy treatments. She has decided to pursue just radiation and hormone therapy. Is there any other treatment options she can take. She is afraid that chemo is not worth the risks at her age and would rather just live her life to the fullest without it.

    • ANSWER:
      *Prevention & Cure of Breast Cancer--If U press the surrounding area on both sides of palms, soles, wrists and ankles regularly three times a day and then breast cancer shall not grow further. Side benefit is that Ur menses cycles are regulated.Acupressure & Indian Natural Remedies can cure breast cancer safely & totally in 45-90 days. T & C apply.

      In Ur case, target therapy is helpful to have total cure. “Target therapy” is worth trying.

      ‘Target Therapy’ [Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies] proved to be effective for all types of cancer [including brain tumors, leukemia, melanoma, Crohn’s Disease, bone marrow cancer, breast cancer, etc., ] & all the most dreaded and incurable diseases.

      TARGET THERAPY* It is the God-given therapy communicated to the mankind through THE RIGVEDA, one of the Hindu scriptures.
      Target Therapy---Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies, [comprising Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Bio-chemic salts, Herbal Remedies, Yoga/Meditation, Magneto-therapy, Sidha, etc.,] U can have sizable & perceivable relief in 45-90 days. @ no/affordable costs, No side effects, and No Hospitalization.

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse ‘Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.
      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ Vol. I & II--- by Dr.Devendra Vora, D.Sc.,M.D.,F.R.C.P.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India. Available all over the globe in all Indian languages. Dr.Vora, cured and caused to cure more than 2.00 lac cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

      Latest recorded documentation on cure for ‘breast cancer’-live case.
      •1. A diabetic patient aged 62 years from Hyderabad. Mastectomy of left breast in 2005 and recurrence of tumors in the left chest in 2011. Metastases/Secondaries spread to sternum and complained of breathing problems, constipation, insomnia, severe pain edema in the left chest. Chemotherapy is fraught with severe reactions & doctors refused to treat her due to advancing age & extremely weak constitution. On 01102011 Doctors @ Image Hospitals, Hyderabad predicted, in the light of prognosis, metastases, etc., that she would live for a month. Patient shifted to Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies on 17102011. Feed back Dated 01012012-sleeping well, edema and pain subsided substantially and no problem of breathing on passing very stinking stools on 15122011. Again the patient approached us for further treatment and the domiciliary treatment is commenced on 25042012 and she is getting on well. Her son made a phone on 12052012 and told that her appetite improved, constipation issues solved, sleeping well. Excepting that she has severe sciatica pain, for which we suggested them to contact an Acupuncturist @ Hyderabad.
      •On 10062012, her son rang up and sought further medication for stomachache, bronchial asthma. Sciatica pain under check.
      •Impression of CT Scanning- Dated: 22092011 [before commencement of target therapy—Known case of carcinoma of left breast, post modified radical mastectomy, multiple lung secondaries, chest wall metastases.
      CT Scanning Dated 21062012 [after 2 sets/bouts of target therapy] Bilateral pulmonary sternal metastases, Bilateral plural effusion. Target therapy for another 45 days continues.

    What is calcified granuloma of the lungs?
    I was just told that I had this. Need info please.

    • ANSWER:
      Hey! It's (((mom 2-2))) Hi! =D

      Copy and paste for ya:

      Calcified granulomas are scars within the lung that usually arise
      from sites of prior infections.
      They are commonly caused by fungal infections such as histoplasmosis
      which is endemic to the Ohio River Valley
      and coccidiomycosis which is endemic to areas of California.
      Calcified granulomas are usually benign
      and do not cause any problems in the lung.
      They are not treated in any way.
      Very rarely, scars or fibrotic areas may turn into cancers,
      so called scar carcinomas.
      These are usually detected by serial X-rays that note a change in the size,
      shape or contour of a lesion.
      It would be good to review your xray with your physician and discuss these questions with him/her.

      - Ralph Panos, MD
      Associate Professor
      Pulmonary, Critical Care & Sleep Medicine
      Department of Internal Medicine
      College of Medicine
      University of Cincinnati

    How can you calm your parent when they have cancer?
    My grandmother is freaking out because she has ovary cancer. She thinks she's going to die.

    • ANSWER:
      U may try 'target therapy' to render the best comforts and for a peaceful and comfortable journey to the heavens.

      Target Therapy---Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies, [comprising Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Bio-chemic salts, Herbal Remedies, Yoga/Meditation, Magneto-therapy, Sidha, etc.,] U can have sizable & perceivable relief in 45-90 days. @ no/affordable costs, No side effects, and No Hospitalization.

      Latest recorded documentation on cure for ‘breast cancer’-live case.

      It is a terminal case, and target therapy helped to live longer by 9 months with the “least discomfort” till her last breath on 26072012.. Hence, ‘target therapy is worth trying.
      •1. A diabetic patient aged 62 years from Hyderabad. Mastectomy of left breast in 2005 and recurrence of tumors in the left chest in 2011. Metastases/Secondaries spread to sternum and complained of breathing problems, constipation, insomnia, severe pain edema in the left chest. Chemotherapy is fraught with severe reactions & doctors refused to treat her due to advancing age & extremely weak constitution. On 01102011 Doctors @ Image Hospitals, Hyderabad predicted, in the light of prognosis, metastases, etc., that she would live for a month. Patient shifted to Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies on 17102011. Feed back Dated 01012012-sleeping well, edema and pain subsided substantially and no problem of breathing on passing very stinking stools on 15122011. Again the patient approached us for further treatment and the domiciliary treatment is commenced on 25042012 and she is getting on well. Her son made a phone on 12052012 and told that her appetite improved, constipation issues solved, sleeping well. Excepting that she has severe sciatica pain, for which we suggested them to contact an Acupuncturist @ Hyderabad.
      •On 10062012, her son rang up and sought further medication for stomachache, bronchial asthma. Sciatica pain under check.
      •On 10062012, her son rang up and sought further medication for stomachache, bronchial asthma. Sciatica pain under check.
      •Impression of CT Scanning- Dated: 22092011 [before commencement of target therapy—Known case of carcinoma of left breast, post modified radical mastectomy, multiple lung secondaries, chest wall metastases.
      CT Scanning Dated 21062012 [after 2 sets/bouts of target therapy] Bilateral pulmonary sternal metastases, Bilateral plural effusion. Target therapy for another 45 days continues. She is still fine with the least discomfort as on 25072012.

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ [Vol.I & II] available in all Indian Languages all over the globe] by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.
      Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

    My Dad has Kidney Cancer and has started coughing up lung tissue. What can I expect?
    My father has stage four kidney cancer and was taken to the hospital recently when he started coughing up lung tissue. He is in a lot of pain and is trying to manage with pain medications but still seems able bodied. I am wondering if anybody else has endured a similar experience and if you can share with me what this might mean? Is this a bad sign that things are going to start to deteriorate quickly or is this common in the early stages of terminal illness?

    • ANSWER:
      No case of stage IV metastatic malignancy can be considered early disease.
      It would sure help us to see a chest x-ray or CT scan of the thorax
      to get an idea of the metastatic tumor volume in his lungs.
      - - - -
      Where is his pain ?
      Bone metastases from renal carcinoma are more likely to cause pain than lung metastases.
      What do his lab work / blood test results look like ?
      CBC, serum chemistries, oximetry (blood oxygen concentration) ?
      Any fever or signs of pulmonary infection ?
      - - - -
      We have far to little information to go by here.
      How do you know this is lung tissue he is coughing up ?
      When it comes to trying to predict the future,
      we need as much clinical information as possible.
      Your dad's doctor or doctors have all of this information.
      We don't even know your dad's age.
      - - - -
      Why are you not getting this information from the doctors who know your dad's case ?
      I always advise people to go with their family members when they have doctor visits.
      That way you can ask the doctors who have the information needed to make guesses.
      - - - -
      It is important to realize that no doctor ever knows the future precisely.
      Will your dad deteriorate quickly ? No doctor can predict this.
      I have seen 5 cases of sudden acute bleeding from the lungs/major bronchi
      resulting in rapid deterioration and death.
      This can occur totally unpredictably.

    does anyone know what cause bilateral hilar lymphropathy?
    Is leukemia a cause of this? I also hear that Hodgkin's lymphoma was one. What is the most common reason? Thanks for any help anyone can offer.

    • ANSWER:
      Lymphomas fall into 1 of 2 major categories. Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL, previously called Hodgkin's disease) and all other lymphomas (non-Hodgkin's lymphomas or NHLs). There are many causes of hilar lymphadenopathy, including infection, neoplasm, granulomatous disease and reactive hyperplasia. Infections consist predominantly of tuberculosis and pulmonary fungal infection , particularly histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis. More rarely, lymphadenopathy may be seen in viral pneumonia and mycoplasma pneumonia infection. The neoplastic causes include lymphoma, leukaemia, metastatic carcinoma from lung cancer, cancer of the oesophagus and breast cancer. Among the extrathoracic primary tumours, kidney, testis, head and neck neoplasms are the most likely origins. Hilar lymphadenopathy may also be observed in Castlemans disease, amyloidosis thoracic, angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, chronic berylliosis, Wegeners granulomatosis chest, cystic fibrosis and chronic mediastinitis. Sarcoidosis is a highly frequent cause of intrathoracic lymphadenopathy, particularly in young adults. Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy is a radiographic term that describes the enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes. It is easily and most commonly identified by a chest x-ray. Unlike most other adenopathies, mediastinal lymphadenopathy is less frequently a result of infection. Infections frequently involve the hilar region and include histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and tuberculosis.


      It is extremely important to obtain an accurate diagnosis before trying to find a cure. Many diseases and conditions share common symptoms.

      The information provided here should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.

      Hope this helps
      matador 89

    Why do I always feel depressed or shameful after I've fingered myself?
    I feel good while I do it and for like five seconds after but then I get all depressed. What's up?

    • ANSWER:
      Because you have all of the following:
      Acid Reflux Disease (GERD)
      Antisocial Personality Disorder
      Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD)
      Altitude Sickness
      Alzheimer's Disease
      Anorexia Nervosa
      Aspergers Syndrome
      Avoidant Personality Disorder
      Back Pain
      Bad Breath (Halitosis)
      Bipolar Disorder (BD)
      Bladder Cancer
      Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
      Bone Cancer
      Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
      Brain Cancer
      Breast Cancer
      Brain Tumors
      Brain Injury
      Canker Sores (Cold Sores)
      Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)
      Celiac Disease
      Cervical Cancer
      Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
      Colon Cancer
      Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
      Cradle Cap
      Crohn's Disease
      Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
      Dependent Personality Disorder
      Diaper Rash
      Down Syndrome
      Drug Abuse
      Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB)
      Ear Infections
      Ear Problems
      Eating Disorders
      Enlarged Prostate
      Epilepsy (Seizure)
      Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
      Eye Problems
      Gallbladder Disease
      Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
      Genital Herpes
      Genital Warts
      Glomerulonephritis (Nephritis)
      Gum Diseases
      Head Lice
      Hearing Loss
      Heart Attacks
      Heart Disease
      Heat Stroke
      Heel Pain
      Herniated Discs
      Hiatal Hernia (Hiatus Hernia)
      Histrionic Personality Disorder
      Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar)
      Hyperkalemia (High Potassium)
      Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
      Infectious Diseases
      Infectious Mononucleosis (Glandular Fever)
      Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)
      Iron Deficiency Anemia
      Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
      Irritable Male Syndrome (IMS)
      Joint Pain
      Juvenile Diabetes
      Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
      Kidney Diseases
      Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
      Liver Cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
      Lung Cancer
      Mad Cow Disease
      Melena (Blood in Stool)
      Memory Loss
      Mucus In Stool
      Multiple Personality Disorder
      Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
      Muscle Cramps
      Muscle Fatigue
      Muscle Pain
      Nail Biting
      Narcissistic Personality Disorder
      Neck Pain
      Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
      Osteoarthritis (OA)
      Ovarian Cancer
      Ovarian Cyst
      Panic Attack
      Paranoid Personality Disorder
      Parkinson's Disease (PD)
      Penis Enlargement
      Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
      Personality Disorders
      Peptic Ulcers
      Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)
      Peyronie's Disease
      Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)
      Post Nasal Drip
      Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
      Premature Baby
      Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
      Prostate Cancer
      Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD)
      Renal Failure
      Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
      Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
      Rheumatic Fever
      Rotator Cuff
      Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
      Schizoid Personality Disorder
      Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)
      Sinus Infections
      Skin Cancer
      Skin Rash
      Sleep Disorders (Sleep Apnea)
      Social Anxiety
      Staph Infection (MRSA)
      Stomach Cancer
      Strep Throat (Sore Throat)
      Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
      Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
      Tennis Elbow
      Termination of Pregnancy (Abortion)
      Testicular Cancer
      Tooth Decay
      Trisomy Syndrome
      Tuberculosis (TB)
      Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
      Varicose Veins
      Williams Syndrome
      Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)
      Yellow Fever

    Could I be pregnant with these symptoms?
    I have been experiencing some symptoms so did a test which was negative but the symptoms continue. I spotted for a few days last week when my period was due (which didnt come), my breasts are swollen , I could eat the supermarket out of food and I feel tired and sometime a little ligh headed. I did have a period last month but instead or 4 days long it was only 1 day. I will do a test in a few days but wanted some girlie advise!

    • ANSWER:
      sounds like you might have one of the following:

      * Aagenaes syndrome
      * Aarskog syndrome
      * Aase Smith syndrome
      * Aase syndrome
      * ABCD syndrome
      * Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome
      * Abdominal aortic aneurysm
      * Abdominal chemodectomas with cutaneous angiolipomas
      * Abdominal cystic lymphangioma
      * Abdominal obesity metabolic syndrome
      * Aberrant subclavian artery
      * Abetalipoproteinemia
      * Abidi X-linked mental retardation syndrome
      * Ablepharon macrostomia syndrome
      * Abrikosov's tumor
      * Abruzzo Erickson syndrome
      * Absence of gluteal muscle
      * Absence of septum pellucidum
      * Absence of Tibia
      * Absence of tibia with polydactyly
      * Absent abdominal musculature with microphthalmia and joint laxity
      * Absent breasts and nipples
      * Absent corpus callosum cataract immunodeficiency
      * Absent patella
      * Absent T lymphocytes
      * Abuse dwarfism syndrome
      * Acalvaria
      * Acanthamoeba infection
      * Acanthocheilonemiasis
      * Acanthocytosis
      * Acanthokeratodermia
      * Acanthoma
      * Acanthosis nigricans
      * Acanthosis nigricans muscle cramps acral enlargement
      * Acardia
      * Acatalasemia
      * Accessory deep peroneal nerve
      * Accessory navicular bone
      * Accessory pancreas
      * Aceruloplasminemia
      * Acetylcarnitine deficiency
      * Acetyl-coa acetyltransferase 2 deficiency
      * Achalasia
      * Achalasia Addisonianism Alacrimia syndrome
      * Achalasia alacrimia syndrome
      * Achalasia microcephaly
      * Achalasia, familial esophageal
      * Achard syndrome
      * Achard-Thiers syndrome
      * Acheiropodia
      * Achondrogenesis type 1A
      * Achondrogenesis type 1B
      * Achondrogenesis type 2
      * Achondrogenesis type 3
      * Achondrogenesis type 4
      * Achondroplasia
      * Achondroplasia and Swiss type agammaglobulinemia
      * Achromatopsia
      * Achromatopsia 1
      * Achromatopsia 2
      * Achromatopsia 3
      * Achromatopsia incomplete, X-linked
      * Acidemia, isovaleric
      * Acinic cell carcinoma
      * Acitretin embryopathy
      * Ackerman syndrome
      * Acoustic neuroma
      * Acquired agranulocytosis
      * Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia
      * Acquired angioedema
      * Acquired fructose intolerance
      * Acquired hemophilia
      * Acquired hypoprothrombinemia
      * Acquired ichthyosis
      * Acquired prothrombin deficiency
      * Acquired pure megakaryocytic aplasia
      * Acral dysostosis dyserythropoiesis
      * Acral lentiginous melanoma
      * Acro coxo mesomelic dysplasia
      * Acrocallosal syndrome, Schinzel type
      * Acrocephalopolydactyly
      * Acrocephaly pulmonary stenosis mental retardation
      * Acrodermatitis
      * Acrodermatitis enteropathica
      * Acrodysostosis
      * Acrodysplasia scoliosis
      * Acrodysplasia with ossification abnormalities, short stature, and fibular hypoplasia
      * Acrofacial dysostosis 1, Nager type
      * Acrofacial dysostosis ambiguous genitalia
      * Acrofacial dysostosis atypical postaxial
      * Acrofacial dysostosis Catania form
      * Acrofacial dysostosis Preis type
      * Acrofacial dysostosis Rodriguez type
      * Acrofacial dysostosis, Palagonia type
      * Acrofrontofacionasal dysostosis syndrome
      * Acrogeria, gottron type
      * Acrokeratoelastoidosis of Costa
      * Acromegaloid changes, cutis verticis gyrata and corneal leukoma
      * Acromegaloid facial appearance syndrome
      * Acromegaloid features, overgrowth, cleft palate, and hernia
      * Acromegaloid hypertrichosis syndrome
      * Acromegaly
      * Acromelic frontonasal dysplasia
      * Acromesomelic dysplasia
      * Acromesomelic dysplasia Campailla Martinelli type
      * Acromesomelic dysplasia Hunter Thompson type
      * Acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type
      * Acromicric dysplasia
      * Acroosteolysis dominant type
      * Acropectoral syndrome
      * Acropectorenal field defect
      * Acropectorovertebral dysplasia
      * Acrorenal mandibular syndrome
      * Acrorenal syndrome recessive
      * Acrospiroma
      * ACTH deficiency
      * ACTH resistance
      * Actinic cheilitis
      * Actinomycetales infection
      * Acutane embryopathy
      * Acute articular rheumatism
      * Acute biphenotypic leukemia
      * Acute cholinergic dysautonomia
      * Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
      * Acute erythroblastic leukemia
      * Acute erythroleukemia
      * Acute fatty liver of pregnancy
      * Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis
      * Acute idiopathic polyneuritis
      * Acute intermittent porphyria
      * Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
      * Acute lymphoblastic leukemia congenital sporadic aniridia
      * Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Childhood
      * Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia
      * Acute monoblastic leukemia
      * Acute mountain sickness
      * Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 1
      * Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 2
      * Acute myeloblastic leukemia type 3
      * Acut

    What does the cancer number mean? My dad has had colon cancer for a few yrs & it has spread to his lungs.?
    My mom keeps referring to cancer numbers but won't go into details. First it was like 2, 5, 11 and now she said it went up to 750 and now 1100. I don't understand what those numbers mean. If anyone knows for sure....please state source, I really need to know and have tried to research and haven't found anything.

    • ANSWER:
      There are many "cancer numbers" for the hundreds of types of cancers that we humans develop. There are numerous blood tests available to follow colon adenocarcinomas - if that is the histologic type of your dad's malignancy.
      We do not have this information here.

      Probably the "CEA" blood test - Carcinoembryonic antigen .
      It would sure help if you knew which test.
      If this is the CEA, the numbers would indicate significant growth of the stage IV colon adenocarcinoma with pulmonary metastases.
      Stage IV adenocarcinoma of the colon cannot be cured,
      so this would not be a good sign.
      Is he receiving chemotherapy?

      Of course the medical oncologist treating your dad would know much more about this than any of us over the internet. It is best to go with your family member when there are visits to the medical oncologist who has all of the information which we do not have here. We cannot see the x-rays or CT scans of the lungs. We don't know exactly which test you are asking about.

      In short, we have to guess with inadequate information. The oncologist who is seeing your dad on a regular basis must be - or should be - explaining all of this at each office visit. That is part of the job he or she is being paid to do.

      Note that these "numbers" never tell us the future. There is no way to know how long someone with a malignancy has to live by any blood test numbers. The key to these "numbers" is the trend - AND - the clinical observation of how the person is functioning. Your dad's oncologist knows all of this.

      To know what is going on, you need to be there. I drove 1200 miles to be there when my mom saw her urologist for discussion of her bladder carcinoma. Maybe you are a great distance away and cannot travel. It is very dificult to get first hand information long distance.

    what is a CEA medical blood test for?
    carcinoma embryotic blood levels are 3.4 for average levels. 4.3 is a smokers level, nd mine was 5.9. what does this test measure?

    • ANSWER:
      The most common reason for doing a CEA test is to monitor response to treatment in patients with known cancers, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. A decreasing CEA level means treatment is fighting the cancer. A stable or increasing CEA level may mean the treatment is not working and that the tumour is growing. A single CEA measurement isn’t very useful but serial CEA measurements over a period of time, can show trends in disease progression or regression.

      CEA can be elevated in a number of cancers including cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (colon, rectum, stomach, oesophagus, liver, or pancreas) and other cancers including cancer of the ovary, breast, prostate and lung.

      CEA can also be raised in some non-cancerous conditions such as liver disease, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis), pancreatitis, and obstructive pulmonary disease.
      Smokers tend to have higher CEA levels than non-smokers.

    Are benign tumors in the lung rare?
    I have a mass in my lung (the top right part of my lung). My doctor said it might be a pancoast tumor, but is not 100% sure. Are benign tumors in the lungs rare? Or what else can it possibly be, IF it is not a pancoast tumor? Can it be something noncancerous? If so, what is the likelyhood of it not being cancerous?

    Does anybody have any information on benign tumors in the lungs and/or symptoms? I've done research online but want to see if you guys have any valueable information. If so, thanks so much.

    • ANSWER:
      i will give you a thing to read

      Benign lung tumors are classified into different groups, but all are non-cancerous masses that may be removed surgically. Despite the fact that these nodules are not actually cancer, they should still be looked at by a medical professional to ensure that there are no potentially malignant lesions present on the lungs. Although these tumors rarely threaten a patient's life, they can cause harmful symptoms and illnesses and should be handled seriously.
      Three primary kinds of benign tumors are found in the lungs.

      Hamaratomas make up 75 percent of benign lung tumors, the most common type found. They can occur in children, but the majority of these are found in adults and are located on the edges of the lungs.
      Bronchial adenomas account for half of all benign pulmonary tumors. This term also includes characinoid tumors and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, both of which are actually low-level malignant lung tumors.
      Mucous gland adenomas are the third main type of benign lung tumor. They're completely malignancy-free, found in the main or smaller bronchi.
      Regardless of type, most benign lung tumors arise on the lung's outer periphery. These non-life-threatening nodules can also be found within the lungs' centrally located tracheobronchal tree.
      The most common type of benign lung tumor, hamaratomas, occur on the lungs' periphery and are generally made up of fat, cartilage and epithelial cell tissue. They are firm and marble-like growths.
      Bronchial adenomas sprout from mucous glands and tracheal (or windpipe) ducts and are identified by their ability to spread very slowly, since they are low-grade malignant tumors.
      Found in both the main and local bronchi, mucous gland adenomas are column-like in appearance and are sometimes shaped like small mushrooms.
      Time Frame
      The average patient diagnosed with benign lung tumors is 45 to 50 years old, and the incidence of the hamaratoma benign lung tumor peaks in patients from 50 to 60.
      Meanwhile, a mere 6 percent of common benign tumors of the lung have been found in patients younger than 30. These cases are also very rare among children and adolescents.
      Doctors can opt to perform surgery to remove benign lung tumors, and do so primarily to ensure there are no potentially harmful lesions on the lungs. Cancer-free lung masses are also frequently removed in cases where they provoke troublesome symptoms, such as pneumonia or collapsing lung tissue.
      Detecting the symptoms of benign lung tumors are key in leading to their diagnosis and removal. Symptoms include a range of behaviors such as persistent coughing and wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing up of blood, fever or a rattling sound in the lungs. Although non-cancerous tumors of the lung generally don't endanger a patient's health, some can obstruct the lungs, facilitating pneumonia, lung tissue collapse and difficulty breathing

      Read more: Types of Benign Lung Tumors |

    Anybody had a total thyroidectomy owing to papilary carcinoma?
    Would like to share experiences.

    • ANSWER:
      No personal experience here but here is a case study if it helps.

      Case Author(s): J. Philip Moyers, M.D. and Farrokh Dehdashti, M.D. , 10/1/95 . Rating: #D1, #Q4

      Diagnosis: Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma to the lungs and neck
      Brief history:
      Patient is status post thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma with follicular variant.

      Anterior and posterior whole body I-131 images

      View main image(tr) in a separate image viewer

      Full history/Diagnosis is available below


      Diagnosis: Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma to the lungs and neck
      Full history:
      18-year old woman with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid status post total thyroidectomy with removal of lymph nodes in the neck and supraclavicular regions. MRI demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodules.

      200 mCi I-131 sodium iodide p.o.
      Anterior and posterior whole body I- 131 images demonstrate multiple areas of increased uptake in the neck, as well as diffuse pulmonary uptake.
      Well differentiated papillary, follicular, and mixed carcinomas are represented in about 75% of all primary thyroid malignancies. The overall 5-year survival rate of well differentiated carcinoma is over 95% in properly treated patients. Papillary carcinomas tend to metastasize via the interstitium to local nodal groups while follicular carcinomas tend to metastasize hematogenously. The remaining thyroid malignancies include poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid may be seen in multiple endocrine neoplasia type IIA and IIB. At our institution, after a total or subtotal thyroidectomy, I- 131 whole body imaging is usually performed to evaluate for metastatic disease. If metastatic disease is demonstrated or if residual activity is demonstrated within the neck, and it is unclear whether this represents metastatic disease or functioning residual thyroid tissue, the patient receives an ablative dose of I-131. In this case, metastatic disease was suspected on the basis of multiple pulmonary nodules demonstrated on MRI. Therefore, an ablative dose was given prior to a diagnostic dose and imaging was performed after the ablative dose of 200 mCi of I-131. To achieve maximum sensitivity in detecting functioning lesions, follow-up whole-body I-131 imaging is usually performed 4-6 weeks after the patient has been removed from thyroid supplementation so that the patient has an elevated TSH. Follow-up imaging may be done at 6 month intervals (at shorter intervals in patients with extensive or progressive disease and longer intervals in patients with stable or slowly progressive disease) until disease is eradicated and after which imaging may be performed at 3-5 year intervals in patients with high risk of recurrence. Since the dose is greater than 30 mCi, the patient must be hospitalized according to NRC regulations. In this case, multiple small pulmonary nodules were demonstrated on MRI. Other malignancies which can present as diffuse multiple small pulmonary nodules include a GI malignancy, usually pancreas, and GU malignancies, usually renal cell carcinoma.
      References: 1) Mettler FA. Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Imaging. 1991 (3rd edition). 2) McDougall IR. Thyroid Disease in Clinical Practice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992 (1st edition).

      Update 7/98. NRC regulations now allow larger doses to be administered as an outpatient, provided one first documents the clearance rate from the patient so that dosimetry to family members can be calculated.

      The patient had MRI of the chest, which showed multiple pulmonary nodules.

      Major teaching point(s):
      In order to diagnose metastatic thyroid carcinoma, the normal biodistribution of I-131 should be known. Normal biodistribution of I-131 includes the salivary glands, stomach, kidneys, and bowel. The lungs are not a normal site of I-131 accumulation and if lung activity is demonstrated, diffuse pulmonary metastatic disease is the diagnosis.

      ACR Codes and Keywords:
      General ACR code: 23

      References and General Discussion of Thyroid Scintigraphy (Anatomic field:Face, Mastoids, and Neck, Category:Neoplasm, Neoplastic-like condition)

      Search for similar cases.

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      Return to the Teaching File home page.

      Case number: tr003
      Copyright by Wash U MO

    Anyone know what pains that are similar to a heart attack might also be related to (chest, back, jaw pain)?
    I have been having these pains for quite some time now (at least 6 months). The pain starts in my chest and shoots to my spine then up through my jaw and ear. I am 24 and a heart attack seems slim. They did an EKG and an Echocardiogram and they both came back normal. If anyone knows what else it could possibly be, please let me know. I am at a loss.

    • ANSWER:
      There are many other that might mimic as a heart attack, hope this helps you out:
      Chest Pain

      Skin and subcutaneous lesions [including adiposis dolorosa, thrombophlebitis of thoracoepigastric vein (Mondor's disease)]
      Breast lesions
      Chronic cystic mastitis
      Acute breast abscess or mastitis
      Musculoskeletal disorders
      Bruised or fractured rib
      Periosteal hematoma
      Costochondritis (Tietze's syndrome)
      Slipping costal cartilage
      Intercostal muscle “stitch” or cramp
      Intercostal myositis
      Pectoral or other muscular strain
      Shoulder girdle disorders (e.g., subacromial bursitis)
      Cervical disc herniation
      Dorsal spine osteoarthritis
      Thoracic outlet syndrome
      Herpes zoster
      Tabes dorsalis
      Pericardial disease
      Congenital absence of left pericardium
      Mediastinal disease
      Mediastinal emphysema
      Cardiovascular disease
      Acute myocardial infarction
      Angina pectoris
      Aortic valvular disease
      Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
      Mitral valve prolapse
      Acute aortic dissection
      Thoracic aortic aneurysm
      Primary pulmonary hypertension
      Ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm
      Pleural or pulmonary disease
      Pleuritis of any etiology (e.g., pneumothorax)
      Pulmonary hypertension
      Pulmonary thromboembolism
      Bronchogenic carcinoma
      Metastatic tumor
      Other parenchymal lesions
      Gastrointestinal disease
      Esophageal lesions
      Esophageal spasm
      Mallory-Weiss syndrome
      Esophageal rupture
      Foreign body
      Zenker's diverticulum
      Plummer-Vinson syndrome
      Peptic ulcer disease (with or without perforation)
      Gastric distention
      Biliary disease
      Acute cholecystitis
      Biliary colic
      Distention of the liver
      Subphrenic abscess
      Splenic infarct
      Splenic flexure syndrome
      Psychogenic causes

    What are the symptoms and signs of Lung cancer ?What are the symptoms and signs of Emphysema?

    • ANSWER:
      Emphysema is destruction of lung parenchyma leading to loss of elastic recoil and loss of alveolar septa and radial airway traction, which increases the tendency for airway collapse. Lung hyperinflation, airflow limitation, and air trapping follow. Airspaces enlarge and may eventually develop bullae.
      Symptoms of emphysema:
      * Shortness of breath
      * Chronic cough with or without sputum production
      * Wheezing
      * Decreased ability to exercise
      Additional symptoms that may be associated with this disease include the following:
      * Anxiety
      * Unintentional weight loss
      * Ankle, feet, and leg swelling
      * Fatigue
      Possible Complications of Emphysema:
      * Recurrent respiratory infections
      * Pulmonary hypertension
      * Cor pulmonale (enlargement and strain on the right side of the heart)
      * Erythrocytosis (increased red blood cell count)
      * Death
      Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. About 85% of cases are related to cigarette smoking. Symptoms can include cough, chest discomfort or pain, weight loss, and, less commonly, hemoptysis; however, many patients present with metastatic disease without any clinical symptoms. The diagnosis is typically made by chest x-ray or CT scan and confirmed by biopsy. Depending on the stage of the disease, treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination. Despite advances in treatment, the prognosis remains poor, with only 15% of patients surviving > 5 yr from time of diagnosis. For patients with stage IV (metastatic) disease, the 5-yr overall survival rate is < 1%. Improving survival requires focusing attention on smoking cessation, early detection, and research into the genetic profile of lung tumors and developing novel forms of therapy.

    Can someone plz explain those Tumor Marker readings?
    My neighbor's 73 y/o.
    She was diagnosed with lung Cancer(she had radical mastectomy 6 yrs ago)
    and dyastolic dysfunction.
    Here are here tumor marker's readings:
    CEA 6.1
    CA 15.3: 323.7
    CA 19.9: 40.6

    Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      * Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). It was found that serum from individuals with colorectal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, lung carcinoma and breast carcinoma, as well as individuals with medullary thyroid carcinoma, had higher levels of CEA than healthy individuals (above 2.5 ng/ml).
      Monitoring CEA levels may be useful for detecting cancer recurrence after tumor excision if the patient initially had an elevated CEA and for refining estimates of prognosis by stage.
      * CA 15-3 and CA 27-29 are elevated in most patients with metastatic breast cancer. Levels may also be elevated in other conditions. These markers are primarily used to monitor the response to therapy. The normal level is usually less than 30 U/mL (units/milliliter), depending on the lab. But levels as high as 100 U/mL can be seen in women who do not have cancer.
      * CA 19-9 was originally developed to detect colorectal cancer but proved more sensitive for pancreatic cancer. It is primarily used to judge the response to treatment in patients with advanced pancreatic cancers. CA 19-9 can also be elevated in other GI cancers, particularly cancer of the bile ducts, and some benign bile duct and cholestatic disorders. Normal blood levels of CA 19-9 are below 37 U/mL (units/milliliter). A high CA 19-9 level in a newly diagnosed patient usually means the disease is advanced.
      Her 5 year survival is difficult due to the following grounds:--
      * Metastatic cancer: Breast cancer has been spread to the lungs. In stage IV, cancer has spread to other organs of the body, most often the bones, lungs, liver, or brain.
      * Old age.
      * Diastolic dysfunction (Diastolic heart failure). The heart is not filled up with enough oxygenated blood for systemic circulation.
      * Pulmonary circulation. Millions of pulmonary alveoli is filled with fluid in the left lung and gas exchange (oxygen is in and carbon dioxide is out) is not taking place. If pulmonary circulation fails, the other two circulations (systemic circulation & coronary circulation) are bound to fail.
      Please note that I am not a medical professional.

    Cancer can originate nearly everywhere in the body and spread. Why do we never hear of heart cancer?
    Looking for real...not silly...unless silly is real.

    • ANSWER:
      Heart cancer is rare but occurs as both a primary cancer and as a secondary cancer. Just because you have never heard about it does not mean it doesn't exist.

      This is one of those questions that people ask in here all the time. So, here is the answer reposted:

      Heart cancer is rare, but I know that it occurs because people in the Sarcoma group where I go have Angiosarcoma. It is a rare disease so not many people have heard about it (also referred to as Cardiac Sarcoma or Angiosarcoma of the Heart).

      Cardiac Sarcoma

      Primary cardiac tumors.

      With heart angiosarcoma the "patients can be asymptomatic for a long time or they can present with symptoms mimicking acute pericarditis, pulmonary embolism, or tricuspid stenosis."

      Image of Angiosarcoma of the Heart

      Cancer BackUp: Angiosarcoma of the Heart

      "Angiosarcomas represent 1% of all sarcomas. One-third of the cases occur on the skin, one-fourth of the cases occur in the soft tissue or organs such as breast, liver, heart and lungs." - Sarcoma Alliance.

      Other rare types of malignant heart tumor includes pericardial mesothelioma and a primary heart lymphoma (which can occur in people with AIDS).

      Secondary cancers (originate elsewhere in the body) can also metatasize to the heart including lung and breast carcinoma, soft-tissue sarcoma, renal cancer, malignant melanoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and sometimes Kaposi's Sarcoma.

    are x-rays the only way to know wheter you have died because of a pulomarny ademia?
    if you have a pulomarny adema as the cause of death but you werent sick didnt have any trama how did they get the cause of death to be a adema was xray the only way they could have found that out

    • ANSWER:
      Pulmonary edema is NOT a CAUSE of death, it would be one of the final physiologic derangements leading to death, but whatever the initiating event, disease or injury that caused the pulmonary edema to ultimately form is rightfully listed as the cause of death.

      If you have a DC with pulmonary edema listed, it should be kicked back by your state Bureau of Vital Statistics, as that is a nonsense listing, much like "cardiopulmonary arrest", which is not a cause of death, it is a DESCRIPTION of death, but gives no information about why the heart and lungs stopped.

      Now pulmonary EMBOLUS or embolism is another story. That can stand alone as a cause of death, or again can be the final physiologic derangement from injury or other disease. For example, people with pancreatic cancer often become hypercoagulable and will die of pulmonary embolus even without injury. In that case, the cause of death should be listed as carcinoma of the pancreas.

      So, to the crux of your question. Autopsy is one way, the one I am most familiar with, of diagnosing pulmonary edema. Perhaps a radiologist who reads this could comment.

    How to lower eosinophil count?
    i have high eosinophil count, more than the permissive limit

    • ANSWER:
      There ARE many causes for eosinophilia, around 100s of etiologies.
      more common include:
      •Allergic state
      •Tissue invasion by parasites
      •Drug hypersensitivity
      •Connective tissue disease
      •Fungal infection
      •Eosinophilic pulmonary syndrome.
      •Adrenal insufficiency .
      •Cholesterol embolism.
      •Drug induced.
      •Food allergy.
      •Scabies .
      •Carcinoma especially with radiation therapy .
      •Myeloproliferative disorders .
      •Eosinophilic granuloma .
      •Parasitic infection.
      •Loeffler's syndrome
      •Eosinophilic leukaemia
      •Pulmonary infiltration with eosinophilia
      •Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
      •Hypereosinophilic syndrome
      •Addison's disease & many more............. U need to consult ur physician dear as treatment option are different for each etiology.Thorough CHECK UP is mandatory ....Good luck!!

    Can someone tell me if this is legal?
    All employment categories are subject to the completion of a pre-employment medical examination by, and the receipt of, a medical clearance from professionals selected by the School Board. The medical examination may consist of a physical examination and/or testing for potentially impairing, disabling, communicable and terminal diseases or conditions including, but not limited to, tuberculosis and other pulmonary diseases, carcinoma, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, DIABETES, hypertension, anemia, cardiovascular diseases, muscular skeletal diseases or disorders, hearing and visual impairments, mental or nervous disorders, alcoholism and drug abuse.

    -->>>this was in a job posting for a teacher position. I'm diabetic. I was just wondering if I wouldn't be hired on the basis of having been diagnosed with diabetes?

    The position is for an elementary special education teacher for the visually impaired.

    I capitalized "diabetes", not them. Just to show the point in the paragraph I was talking about.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, it's legal. Diabetics are not a legally protected class. Health insurance for those with pre-existing conditions costs more.

      Be aware that they're reserving the right to test and examine for these conditions, but that unless you edited it out, they're not saying they would not hire such a person.

      I'd go ahead and apply, and make no secret of my diabetes, but assure them it's under control and has been for some time, if that's the case.

    What is kemo cancer? What is the side effects?Treatment? Etc........?
    Chemo or kemo or kimo.I don't know the correct spelling.Please tell me anything you know about kemo cancer.Does it involves coughing up blood?etc.

    • ANSWER:
      What you mean is Chemotherapy,it's a drug based medical treatment to all oncology(cancer)cases,(while Cobalt therapy is radiation based to treat cancer) coughing up blood (Hemoptysis) is definitely not's only a manifestation of some respiratory diseases such as Pulmonary Tuberculosis or a sign of Bronchogenic Carcinoma. side effects of chemotherapy are hair loss,vomiting,body weaknesses because the drugs destroy not only the cancer cells but the body's healthy cells too. i strongly advise you to seek professional expert to be certain of what your health problem is.

    I am an obese woman with 2 kids. I need to find an effective birth control method....?
    I am 24 years old, with normal blood pressure. I've tried the depo shot, but gained ALOT of weight during the 12 week period. I cant seem to remember to take the damn pill on time, and I am too heavy for the patch.... I am considering Mirena, but dont want a perforated uterus, also considering Nuva Ring.....please help....

    • ANSWER:
      Mirena would be a great option for you. At 24, it is a little early to judge if you are done having children. An IUD would allow you to avoid pregnancy, and still have the ability to control whether another child is a consideration down the road. There are also surgical options, like a vasectomy for your partner, or a tubal ligation for yourself. Best make sure that your decision is what is best for you.

      MIRENA is contraindicated when one or more of the following conditions exist:
      1.Pregnancy or suspicion of pregnancy.
      2.Congenital or acquired uterine anomaly, including fibroids if they distort the uterine cavity.
      3.Acute pelvic inflammatory disease or a history of pelvic inflammatory disease, unless there has been a subsequent intrauterine pregnancy.
      4.Postpartum endometritis or infected abortion in the past 3 months.
      5.Known or suspected uterine or cervical neoplasia, or unresolved abnormal Pap smear.
      6.Genital bleeding of unknown etiology.
      7.Untreated acute cervicitis or vaginitis, including bacterial vaginosis or other lower genital tract infections, until infection is controlled.
      8.Acute liver disease or liver tumor (benign or malignant).
      9.Woman or partner has multiple sexual partners.
      10.Conditions associated with increased susceptibility to infections with microorganisms. Such conditions include, but are not limited to, leukemia, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and I.V. drug abuse.
      11.Genital actinomycosis.
      12.A previously inserted IUD that has not been removed.
      13.Hypersensitivity to any component of this product.
      14.Known or suspected carcinoma of the breast.
      15.History of ectopic pregnancy or condition that would predispose to ectopic pregnancy.

      The nuvo ring is another option, fairly easy to use, but still will require remembering to change it. Otherwise nothing truely worrisome. Estrogen is still present with this device, so it raises cardiovascular risks...stroke, heart attack, blood clots, pulmonary emboli, etc.

      Abstinence is always an option, and condoms. Good luck.

    want to find out about a cancer called small cell carcinoma and what the symptons are?

    • ANSWER:
      Without treatment, small cell carcinoma of the lung has the most aggressive clinical course of any type of pulmonary tumor, with median survival from diagnosis of only 2 to 4 months. Compared with other cell types of lung cancer, small cell carcinoma has a greater tendency to be widely disseminated by the time of diagnosis, but is much more responsive to chemotherapy and irradiation.

      Because of its propensity for distant metastases, localized forms of treatment, such as surgical resection or radiation therapy, rarely produce long-term survival.[1] With incorporation of current chemotherapy regimens into the treatment program, however, survival is unequivocally prolonged, with at least a 4- to 5-fold improvement in median survival compared with patients who are given no therapy. Furthermore, about 10% of the total population of patients remain free of disease over two years from the start of therapy, the time period during which most relapses occur. However, even these patients are at risk of dying from lung cancer (both small and non-small cell types). The overall survival at 5 years is 5% to 10%.

      At the time of diagnosis, approximately 40% of patients with small cell carcinoma will have tumor confined to the hemithorax of origin, the mediastinum, or the supraclavicular lymph nodes. These patients are designated as having limited stage disease, and most 2-year disease-free survivors come from this group. In limited stage disease, median survival of 16 to 24 months with current forms of treatment can reasonably be expected.[5-7] A small proportion of patients with limited stage disease may benefit from surgery with or without adjuvant chemotherapy; these patients have an even better prognosis. Patients with tumor that has spread beyond the supraclavicular areas are said to have extensive stage disease and have a worse prognosis than patients with limited stage. Median survival of 6 to 12 months is reported with currently available therapy, but long-term disease-free survival is rare.

      The pretreatment prognostic factors which consistently predict for prolonged survival include good performance status, female gender, and limited stage disease. Patients with involvement of the central nervous system or liver at the time of diagnosis have a significantly worse outcome. In general, patients who are confined to bed tolerate aggressive forms of treatment poorly, have increased morbidity, and rarely attain 2-year disease-free survival. However, patients with poor performance status can often derive significant palliative benefit and prolongation of survival from treatment.

      Regardless of stage, the current prognosis for patients with small cell lung cancer is unsatisfactory even though considerable improvements in diagnosis and therapy have been made over the past 10 to 15 years. Therefore, all patients with this type of cancer may appropriately be considered for inclusion in clinical trials at the time of diagnosis.

    Is there such a thing as heart cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Cancer of the heart does exist, both as a primary and secondary cancer. It is rare and can occur in children or adults.

      I know that it occurs because people in the Sarcoma group (sarcoma alliance) where I go have Angiosarcoma. So, I probably hear about it more often than most. It is a rare disease sometimes referred to as Angiosarcoma of the Heart or Cardiac Sarcoma.

      Cardiac Sarcoma

      Angiosarcoma of the Heart

      With heart angiosarcoma the "patients can be asymptomatic for a long time or they can present with symptoms mimicking acute pericarditis, pulmonary embolism, or tricuspid stenosis."

      Cancer BackUp: Angiosarcoma of the Heart

      Other rare types of malignant heart tumor includes pericardial mesothelioma and a primary heart lymphoma (which can occur in people with AIDS). Secondary cancers (originate elsewhere in the body) can also metatasize to the heart including lung and breast carcinoma, soft-tissue sarcoma, renal cancer, malignant melanoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and sometimes Kaposi's Sarcoma.

      I'm not sure why people think that cancer of the heart does not exist. This question is asked on a fairly regular basis:;_ylt=Ang9UVFESzbwgA01Tsbmi5rsy6IX?p=heart+cancer

    what are common symptoms of a pleural effusion?

    • ANSWER:
      Dyspnea is the most common symptom associated with pleural effusion and is related more to distortion of the diaphragm and chest wall during respiration than to hypoxemia. In many patients, drainage of pleural fluid alleviates symptoms despite limited improvement in gas exchange.
      Underlying intrinsic lung or heart disease, obstructing endobronchial lesions, or diaphragmatic paralysis can also cause dyspnea, especially after coronary artery bypass surgery.
      Drainage of pleural fluid may partially relieve symptoms but also may allow the underlying disease to be recognized on repeat chest radiographs.
      Less common symptoms of pleural effusions include mild, nonproductive cough or chest pain.
      Other symptoms may suggest the etiology of the pleural effusion.
      More severe cough or production of purulent or bloody sputum suggests an underlying pneumonia or endobronchial lesion.
      Constant chest wall pain may reflect chest wall invasion by bronchogenic carcinoma or malignant mesothelioma.
      Pleuritic chest pain suggests either pulmonary embolism or an inflammatory pleural process.
      Systemic toxicity evidenced by fever, weight loss, and inanition suggests empyema.
      Physical: Physical findings, which do not usually manifest until pleural effusions exceed 300 mL, include the following:

      Decreased breath sounds
      Dullness to percussion
      Decreased tactile fremitus
      Egophony (E-to-A change)
      Pleural friction rub
      Mediastinal shift away from the effusion (observed with effusions >1000 mL): Displacement of the trachea and mediastinum toward the side of the effusion is an important clue to obstruction of a lobar bronchus by an endobronchial lesion, which can be due to malignancy or, less commonly, a nonmalignant cause such as a foreign body.

    my brother in law got lung cancer, got tumor in right lung, spread to left lung, which is best treatment ,ta?
    he is 40yrs old, he is in stage 4 as per doctor said, if any one can share , which treatment is best in this situation, and which doctor or hospital is best in this situation ( in india, or anywhere else), thanks

    • ANSWER:
      With Ur strategic support & co-operation, Ur beloved brother-in-law can have the best humanly possible cure/relief right @ home, wherever U people are. Trust in 'target therapy' is 90% effective and medicine and religious compliance renders 10% cure. He can as well, hopefully, come outof even IV stage metastasized lung cancer.

      Target Therapy---Chemotherapy with the aid of Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies, [comprising Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Bio-chemic salts, Herbal Remedies, Yoga/Meditation, Magneto-therapy, Sidha, etc.,] U can have sizable & perceivable relief in 45-90 days. @ no/affordable costs, No side effects, and No Hospitalization.

      Latest recorded documentation on cure for ‘breast cancer’-live case.

      It is a terminal case, and target therapy helped to live longer by 9 months with the “least discomfort” till her last breath on 26072012.. Hence, ‘target therapy is worth trying. When terminal case gave good relief, an early stage breast cancer renders total cure.
      •1. A diabetic patient aged 62 years from Hyderabad. Mastectomy of left breast in 2005 and recurrence of tumors in the left chest in 2011. Metastases/Secondaries spread to sternum and complained of breathing problems, constipation, insomnia, severe pain edema in the left chest. Chemotherapy is fraught with severe reactions & doctors refused to treat her due to advancing age & extremely weak constitution. On 01102011 Doctors @ Image Hospitals, Hyderabad predicted, in the light of prognosis, metastases, Stage-IV etc., that she would live for a month. Patient shifted to Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies on 17102011. Feed back Dated 01012012-sleeping well, edema and pain subsided substantially and no problem of breathing on passing very stinking stools on 15122011. Again the patient approached us for further treatment and the domiciliary treatment is commenced on 25042012 and she is getting on well. Her son made a phone on 12052012 and told that her appetite improved, constipation issues solved, sleeping well. Excepting that she has severe sciatica pain, for which we suggested them to contact an Acupuncturist @ Hyderabad.
      •On 10062012, her son rang up and sought further medication for stomachache, bronchial asthma. Sciatica pain under check.
      •On 10062012, her son rang up and sought further medication for stomachache, bronchial asthma. Sciatica pain under check.
      •Impression of CT Scanning- Dated: 22092011 [before commencement of target therapy—Known case of carcinoma of left breast, post modified radical mastectomy, multiple lung secondaries, chest wall metastases.
      •CT Scanning Dated 21062012 [after 2 sets/bouts of target therapy] Bilateral pulmonary sternal metastases, Bilateral plural effusion. Target therapy for another 45 days continues. She is still fine with the least discomfort as on 25072012.

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ [Vol.I & II] available in all Indian Languages all over the globe] by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.
      Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 2.00 lac cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

    about aspergillus plz give me some information tanx?

    • ANSWER:
      Taxonomic Classification

      Kingdom: Fungi
      Phylum: Ascomycota
      Order: Eurotiales
      Family: Trichocomaceae
      Genus: Aspergillus

      Description and Natural Habitats

      Aspergillus is a filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungus found in nature. It is commonly isolated from soil, plant debris, and indoor air environment. While a teleomorphic state has been described only for some of the Aspergillus spp., others are accepted to be mitosporic, without any known sexual spore production.


      The genus Aspergillus includes over 185 species. Around 20 species have so far been reported as causative agents of opportunistic infections in man. Among these, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most commonly isolated species, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus glaucus group, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus ustus, and Aspergillus versicolor are among the other species less commonly isolated as opportunistic pathogens. See the list of obsolete names and synonyms for older names of these species.

      Pathogenicity and Clinical Significance

      Aspergillus spp. are well-known to play a role in three different clinical settings in man: (i) opportunistic infections; (ii) allergic states; and (iii) toxicoses. Immunosuppression is the major factor predisposing to development of opportunistic infections [1037]. These infections may present in a wide spectrum, varying from local involvement to dissemination and as a whole called aspergillosis. Among all filamentous fungi, Aspergillus is in general the most commonly isolated one in invasive infections. It is the second most commonly recovered fungus in opportunistic mycoses following Candida.

      Almost any organ or system in the human body may be involved. Onychomycosis, sinusitis, cerebral aspergillosis, meningitis, endocarditis, myocarditis, pulmonary aspergillosis, osteomyelitis, otomycosis, endophthalmitis, cutaneous aspergillosis, hepatosplenic aspergillosis, as well as Aspergillus fungemia, and disseminated aspergillosis may develop [122, 560, 631, 739, 791, 802, 808, 830, 865, 929, 943, 1149, 1516, 1952]. Nosocomial occurrence of aspergillosis due to catheters and other devices is also likely [1371]. Construction in hospital environments constitutes a major risk for development of aspergillosis particularly in neutropenic patients [1348].

      Aspergillus spp. may also be local colonizers in previously developed lung cavities due to tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis, pneumoconiosis, ankylosing spondylitis or neoplasms, presenting as a distinct clinical entity, called aspergilloma [843, 1045]. Aspergilloma may also occur in kidneys [964].

      Some Aspergillus antigens are fungal allergens and may initiate allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis particularly in atopic host [820, 1257]. Some Aspergillus spp. produce various mycotoxins. These mycotoxins, by chronic ingestion, have proven to possess carcinogenic potential particularly in animals. Among these mycotoxins, aflatoxin is well-known and may induce hepatocellular carcinoma. It is mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and contaminates foodstuff, such as peanuts [1556].

      Aspergillus spp. can cause infections in animals as well as in man. In birds, respiratory infections may develop due to Aspergillus. It may induce mycotic abortion in the cattle and the sheep [2120]. Ingestion of high amounts of aflatoxin may induce lethal effects in poultry animals fed with grain contaminated with the toxin.

      Since Aspergillus spp. are found in nature, they are also common laboratory contaminants.
      more on.........
      please refer this i didnt give full information.

    Esophagal Cancer. What would the final stages be? Can anyone tell me.?
    I knew someone that I just found out recently died within 4 months of being diagnosed with esophagal cancer. I would like to know what happens during the end stages. Can you please tell me what happens. It was so quick. Is it painful?

    • ANSWER:
      It depends somewhat whether it is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.
      It may spread to the lungs and liver - both vital organs.
      When someone dies within 4 months of diagnosis,
      the malignancy must have been far advanced at the time it was found.
      Some people with this die of debilitation from being unable to eat.
      Some die from lung or liver failure.
      Many die from an opportunistic infection that is overwhelming when a person is in a weakened state - especially pneumonias.
      Some die with either bleeding or blood clotting - pulmonary emboli or strokes.
      I've seen many people die with esophageal carcinomas.
      No two were exactly alike.
      Some have significant pain and some do not.
      Each person is different

    Metastases Breast Cancer spread in LIVER now suffering from JAUNDICE, please suggest?
    My mum is suffering from Metastases Breast Cancer stage IV.[ The cancer is spread in her LIVER, BONES, LUNGES ] . Now we found that she is having JAUNDICE. Is it curable????? please suggest me

    • ANSWER:
      When ‘target therapy’ is helping a breast cancer patient to survive since past 9 months, Ur beloved mother may also survive by His grace, with Ur strategic support.
      Target Therapy---Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies, [comprising Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Bio-chemic salts, Herbal Remedies, Yoga/Meditation, Magneto-therapy, Sidha, etc.,] U can have sizable & perceivable relief in 45-90 days. @ no/affordable costs, No side effects, and No Hospitalization.

      Latest recorded documentation on cure for ‘breast cancer’-live case.
      •1. A diabetic patient aged 62 years from Hyderabad. Mastectomy of left breast in 2005 and recurrence of tumors in the left chest in 2011. Metastases/Secondaries spread to sternum and complained of breathing problems, constipation, insomnia, severe pain edema in the left chest. Chemotherapy is fraught with severe reactions & doctors refused to treat her due to advancing age & extremely weak constitution. On 01102011 Doctors @ Image Hospitals, Hyderabad predicted, in the light of prognosis, metastases, etc., that she would live for a month. Patient shifted to Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies on 17102011. Feed back Dated 01012012-sleeping well, edema and pain subsided substantially and no problem of breathing on passing very stinking stools on 15122011. Again the patient approached us for further treatment and the domiciliary treatment is commenced on 25042012 and she is getting on well. Her son made a phone on 12052012 and told that her appetite improved, constipation issues solved, sleeping well. Excepting that she has severe sciatica pain, for which we suggested them to contact an Acupuncturist @ Hyderabad.
      •On 10062012, her son rang up and sought further medication for stomachache, bronchial asthma. Sciatica pain under check.
      •On 10062012, her son rang up and sought further medication for stomachache, bronchial asthma. Sciatica pain under check.
      •Impression of CT Scanning- Dated: 22092011 [before commencement of target therapy—Known case of carcinoma of left breast, post modified radical mastectomy, multiple lung secondaries, chest wall metastases.
      •CT Scanning Dated 21062012 [after 2 sets/bouts of target therapy] Bilateral pulmonary sternal metastases, Bilateral plural effusion. Target therapy for another 45 days continues.

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ [Vol.I & II] available in all Indian Languages all over the globe] by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.
      Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

    what is most diagnosis of this condition?
    80.years man with dyspnea eccho revealed severe mitral incoptance -EF81%-pulmonary ht75mmg-no mobility disorders of myocardium...x-ray chest revealed bilatral pleural effusion mild to modrate heart size within normal limits no pulmonary cogestion or oedema lab investigation looks normal with age he is not smoker at all ------what cause of bilatal effusion and pulmonary hypertension thank u ...dr.assaad pulmonologist

    • ANSWER:
      Specific causes of pleural effusions

      1. Tuberculosis: effusion from either primary or reactivation disease

      2. CHF: altered profile with diuresis

      3. Cirrhosis: leakage through diaphragmatic defects

      4. Pulmonary embolism: any profile possible

      5. Drugs: bromocriptine (pleural effusions, thickening, pulmonary infiltrates

      6)Kaposi's sarcoma (serosanguinous) in AIDS

      7) Cryptococcosis
      8) Cystic Fibrosis
      9) Cor Pulmonale

      Pleural effusions in lung insterstitial diseases
      Pleural effusions may result from coexisting conditions that result from the underlying CTD( connective tissue disordere) , such as pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and uremia. Both interstitial lung disease and pleural effusions have also been reported to result from therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, such as methotrexate

      Other causes include :


      cardiac failure with mitral incompentence resulting in pulmonary hypertension
      renal failure
      fibroma of ovary


      carcinoma of bronchus
      subphrenic abscess,
      pulmonary embolus

      carcinoma of bronchus

      thoracic duct obstruction (malignancy)

      CSF !
      From a ventricular-pleural shunt

    Papillary carcinoma cleared but have breathlessness . read optional for detail?
    16 years girl chest pain 3 years.breathlessness one year .april 2007 diagnosis papillary carcinoma of thyroid nith lung metastasis .may 2007 total thyroidectomy.june2007 i-131 largerdose.dec2007 ct chest plain lung mets regressed completely.medicines ELTROXIN 250mcg,calcium tablets,INDRAL 20 mg.breathlessness continues (even after rest)and chest pain.continues bedriddensince june 2007.pulse rate high root cause for my breathlessness and the treatment?ECG,ECHOHEMOGLOBIN NORMAL.PFT,DLCO NEAR NORMAL.PLEASE NOTE THAT THERE WAS NO breathleness for 2 days when I-131 was givenon 08.06.2007

    • ANSWER:
      Persistent breathlessness can be caused by recurrance of the pulmonary metastases. If the recent repeat CT is clear check with your physician about the Inderal. It could be the cause of the shortness of breath. What is the purpose of the inderal if you are no longer hyperthyroid?

    my grandad has a very bad chest chough, what could this be?
    he has had it for a month and as my gran says he can't speak 3 words without coughing. he says its in his chest, and he refuses to go to the doctor, but he has been to see a nurse but she doesnt know what it is as she isn't experienced enough.
    thank youu

    • ANSWER:
      Yeah its really important that he sees a doctor, and like the previous poster said, guilt him into going, tell him to do it for you. What sort of cough is it? Phlegmy? Dry? There can be a whole heap of causes for cough:
      - Persistent post viral cough from a resent cold or flu
      -Community acquired pneumonia
      -Asthma/Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD)
      -Some medications can cause a persistent cough especially some blood pressure meds
      -Pulmonary oedema (fluid on the lungs) which can be cause by kidney problems or early stages of heart failure

      I dont want to alarm you by pointing out the possibilities, but it just trying to let you know how important it is that he sees a doctor. If you could give us some more details about the cough it would be helpful for us to narrow down the possibilities.

      Good luck! I know how stubborn some older people can be, especially men!

    HELP! biology cell questions... =] (squamous cell carcinoma.)?
    i need information on these questions.
    i looked all over the place but i can not seem to find the answers to them.
    i'll appreciate the information given. =]

    --- squamous cell carcinoma -- specifically on the vagina. the cell comes from cervical cancer.

    1. what are it's organelles? are there any organelles found only in this specific cell? missing organelles?

    2. what is the main function?

    3. what tissue does it make up?

    4. organ or organ system it has a direct affect on?
    function on organ or organ system it has a direct affect on?


    • ANSWER: is the best site I can fin don this. You're right, it's an obscure subject. It says there are keratin pearls due to keratinisation, which is the possible answer for question 1.

      I have also found:
      Most common cause of death is due to renal failure. Local invasion by the tumor leads to ureteral compression, hydronephrosis, renal atrophy, and loss of renal function. Pyelonephritis may be superimposed on the hydronephrosis.

      Death can also occur from sepsis as a complication of pyelonephritis or vesico-vaginal or recto-vaginal fistulas, large bowel obstruction from direct extension into the rectosigmoid colon, secondary hemorrhage from direct invasion of blood vessels, pulmonary embolism and complications of radiation therapy.

      Gaah sorry I couldn't be more useful

    what does ref range mean on a blood test?
    just want to know about the red cell count

    • ANSWER:
      RBCs contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. How much oxygen your body tissues get depends on how many RBCs you have and how well they work. The RBC count is almost always part of the CBC (complete blood count) test.

      The test can help diagnose anemia and other conditions affecting red blood cells.

      The general the range is as follows:

      Male: 4.7 to 6.1 million cells per microliter (cells/mcL)
      Female: 4.2 to 5.4 million cells/mcL

      Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

      The examples above show the common measurements for results for these tests. Some laboratories use different measurements or may test different specimens.
      What Abnormal Results Mean

      Higher-than-normal numbers of RBCs may be due to:

      Cigarette smoking
      Congenital heart disease
      Cor pulmonale
      Dehydration (such as from severe diarrhea)
      Kidney tumor (renal cell carcinoma)
      Low blood oxygen levels (hypoxia)
      Pulmonary fibrosis
      Polycythemia vera

      Your RBC count will increase for several weeks when you move to a higher altitude.

      Drugs that can increase the RBC count include:


      Lower-than-normal numbers of RBCs may be due to:

      Bone marrow failure (for example, from radiation, toxins, or tumor)
      Erythropoietin deficiency (secondary to kidney disease)
      Hemolysis (RBC destruction) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause
      Hemorrhage (bleeding)
      Multiple myeloma
      Nutritional deficiencies of:
      Vitamin B-12
      Vitamin B-6

      Drugs that can decrease the RBC count include:

      Chemotherapy drugs

    could that be a tumor/cancer/or cirrhosis. please your opinion?
    I have sever left side pain (upper abdomen, chest and mid back radiating towards lower back)
    I have hepatitis b and other symptoms that I am trying to understand. Doctors think that I have something else besides hep. B - here I go:
    Blood test: ast 48, alt 85, cholesterol 256, triglycerides 211, VLDL cholesterol 42, LDL171, HDL 43, cholesterol/hdl ratio 6.0.
    CT -mosaic attenuation pattern, other CT mosaic perfusion, X-Ray - possible pulmonary venous pressure, ultrasound enlarged liver, ekg - normal, stress test - normal, blood pressure -normal.

    constant chest and back pain (mid), lower back pain, swollen abdomen with constant pain that is always followed by chest pain, breathing normal but feel lack of breathing, tiredness, depression, bitter mouth, nausea, sleeping over 10 hours a day (it is not because I want)

    Anything I do with the body it increase the abdominal pain is if I am stretching the skin and inside organ

    please give me your opinion

    • ANSWER:
      It is my opinion that you are exhibiting the symptoms of chronic active hepatitis. Begin treatment now so that you do not develop hepatocellular carcinoma in the future.

    Sharp pains beneath ribs on my left side when i breathe.. Stress??
    I'm really stressed at the moment because of exams next week and i have been having pains when i breathe in or out deeply.

    Panadol doesn't help.

    Is it just stress?

    • ANSWER:
      could be Pleurisy. Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration (also called pleuritic chest pain) and other symptoms. Pleurisy can be generated by a variety of infectious and non-infectious causes. The effects of pleurisy can often be felt long after the condition has gone away.

      Contents [hide]
      1 Causes
      2 Symptoms
      3 Famous cases
      4 References in literature
      5 References
      6 External links

      [edit] Causes
      Bronchial carcinoma
      Lung or chest wall abscess
      Pulmonary infarction

      [edit] Symptoms
      Inspiratory chest pain
      Shortness of breath
      Weight loss
      Poor appetite
      Pain may limit chest expansion on affected side.
      Rapid shallow breaths
      Inability to take a deep breath
      Itching in sites on the back (near the site of the lungs, but no visible rashes)

      Go see a dr.

    how many disesas in world?
    I accept accordind to world health orgrnicen.How many diseasas prevented?how many can caure?

    • ANSWER:
      Your question is pretty much impossible to answer in exacting terms. Cancer for instance has over 200 varieties itself. Some are curable, some not. Some are curable in early stages, others not. A lot also depends on the patient. Have they good nutrition and diet, are they physically well, and are they old or very young--all these things factor in as to whether a disorder or disease is curable.

      In addition, it depends on the recognizing body of persons from where the conclusions are drawn. Yes, everyone will include tuberculosis (one example) but other more obscure or rare conditions or ones that appear infrequently in the race of people which the question is being asked.

      All that said I would add that 204 general disorders or maladies have generally recognized, each has from a few to hundreds of variants and types.

      These 204 are:

      •Acid Reflux Disease (GERD)
      •Antisocial Personality Disorder
      •Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD)
      •Altitude Sickness
      •Alzheimer's Disease
      •Anorexia Nervosa
      •Aspergers Syndrome
      •Avoidant Personality Disorder
      •Back Pain
      •Bad Breath (Halitosis)
      •Bipolar Disorder (BD)
      •Bladder Cancer
      •Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
      •Bone Cancer
      •Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
      •Brain Cancer
      •Breast Cancer
      •Brain Tumors
      •Brain Injury
      •Canker Sores (Cold Sores)
      •Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)
      •Celiac Disease
      •Cervical Cancer
      •Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
      •Colon Cancer
      •Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
      •Cradle Cap
      •Crohn's Disease
      •Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
      •Dependent Personality Disorder
      •Diaper Rash
      •Down Syndrome
      •Drug Abuse
      •Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB)
      •Ear Infections
      •Ear Problems
      •Eating Disorders
      •Enlarged Prostate
      •Epilepsy (Seizure)
      •Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
      •Eye Problems
      •Gallbladder Disease
      •Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
      •Genital Herpes
      •Genital Warts
      •Glomerulonephritis (Nephritis)
      •Gum Diseases
      •Head Lice
      •Hearing Loss
      •Heart Attacks
      •Heart Disease
      •Heat Stroke
      •Heel Pain
      •Herniated Discs
      •Hiatal Hernia (Hiatus Hernia)
      •Histrionic Personality Disorder
      •Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar)
      •Hyperkalemia (High Potassium)
      •Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
      •Infectious Diseases
      •Infectious Mononucleosis (Glandular Fever)
      •Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)
      •Iron Deficiency Anemia
      •Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
      •Irritable Male Syndrome (IMS)
      •Joint Pain
      •Juvenile Diabetes
      •Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
      •Kidney Diseases
      •Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
      •Liver Cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
      •Lung Cancer
      •Mad Cow Disease
      •Melena (Blood in Stool)
      •Memory Loss
      •Mucus In Stool
      •Multiple Personality Disorder
      •Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
      •Muscle Cramps
      •Muscle Fatigue
      •Muscle Pain
      •Nail Biting
      •Narcissistic Personality Disorder
      •Neck Pain
      •Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
      •Osteoarthritis (OA)
      •Ovarian Cancer
      •Ovarian Cyst
      •Panic Attack
      •Paranoid Personality Disorder
      •Parkinson's Disease (PD)
      •Penis Enlargement
      •Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
      •Personality Disorders
      •Peptic Ulcers
      •Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)
      •Peyronie's Disease
      •Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)
      •Post Nasal Drip
      •Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
      •Premature Baby
      •Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
      •Prostate Cancer
      •Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD)
      •Renal Failure
      •Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
      •Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
      •Rheumatic Fever
      •Rotator Cuff
      •Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
      •Schizoid Personality Disorder
      •Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)
      •Sinus Infections
      •Skin Cancer
      •Skin Rash
      •Sleep Disorders (Sleep Apnea)
      •Social Anxiety
      •Staph Infection (MRSA)
      •Stomach Cancer
      •Strep Throat (Sore Throat)
      •Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
      •Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
      •Tennis Elbow
      •Termination of Pregnancy (Abortion)
      •Testicular Cancer
      •Tooth Decay
      •Trisomy Syndrome
      •Tuberculosis (TB)

    What does these symptoms suggests?
    My dad is a heavy smoker. These past few months he's been having difficulty in breathing, wheezing, having back pains and just the other day he got drunk and vomitted with blood. Since then he started coughing up blood.

    They went to the doctor this morning for the first time and got an x-ray. Mom said the x-ray itself showed a white lump.. something similar to this:

    what do you think is it? like based on the symptoms and the picture what lung diseases do you think it could be?

    the x-ray results will be released on January 5th but i'm just trying to figure out what it could be just to prepare myself for the worst.
    Thanks for the answer so far. and yes my dad is not experiencing weight loss nor any disturbances in eating. Also, his cough is getting worse and seems to be not going anywhere.

    • ANSWER:
      Since that picture is not the actual results from your father it is hard to say. That x-ray could suggest several different possibilities of neoplastic masses, benign or malignant in nature. Since you didn't mention any major weight loss or sleep or eating disturbances I'll assume there wasn't any, which could be expected with a malignancy. The masses could also suggest a lung infection that has disseminated. The x-ray could be showing pleural effusion or consolidation characteristic of pneumonia. Did they do a blood culture by chance? Depending on the radiologist's opinion, that could helpful. At the worst, small cell carcinoma with paraneoplastic syndrome..would explain back case chronic bronchitis or pneumonia that has caused pulmonary edema and persistent coughing enflaming and bursting esophageal capillaries, explaining hemoptysis. In any case I wish you the best.

    what are the acute effects of asbestosis?

    • ANSWER:
      Asbestos primarily affects the respiratory system. The immune and cardiovascular systems, and possibly the GI system, are also affected by asbestos exposure.
      The respiratory, immunologic, cardiovascular, and GI systems might be adversely affected by asbestos inhalation and by ingestion of contaminated media or subsequent to mucociliary removal from the respiratory tract. Skin nodules (corns) from handling asbestos-containing materials can also occur.

      No deaths due to acute exposure to asbestos have been reported, but even brief (<1 year) high exposures increase risk for future disease. Chronic inhalation exposure can cause death due to asbestosis and cancer. The risk of developing asbestos-associated disease continues even after exposure has ceased. Fibrosis in the lung can lead to increased resistance to blood flow through the pulmonary capillary bed, resulting in pulmonary hypertension and compensatory hypertrophy of the right side of the heart.

      Immunologic abnormalities, such as increased concentrations of autoantibodies and depressed lymphocyte responsiveness (Immunologic Effects section), are usually mild or absent in persons who have not developed clinical signs of asbestosis. Cardiovascular effects are secondary to pulmonary changes.


      Respiratory Effects
      Asbestos exposure can result in asbestosis, mesothelioma, or carcinoma.
      Inhalation of asbestos fibers can cause parenchymal (lung) asbestosis, pleural asbestosis (now termed "asbestos-related pleural abnormalities"), pleural mesothelioma, and lung carcinoma. All four syndromes can be present in a patient. Exposure to other carcinogens, dose, intensity and duration of exposure, individual susceptibility, and elapsed time since initial exposure (latency) all can play a role in disease development. Short-term high-level or chronic low-level asbestos exposure have been associated with lung cancer, mesothelioma, and pleural disorders; higher doses are more likely to produce parenchymal asbestosis. Even brief or relatively low exposures from work-related, household, and natural sources can induce pleural plaques or mesothelioma. In some circumstances, exposures in household members can approach occupational levels. One year of heavy exposure (e.g., manufacture of asbestos products, asbestos spraying, insulation work with asbestos materials, or demolition of old buildings) or 5 to 10 years of moderate exposure (e.g., construction or shipbuilding) could increase the lung cancer risk twofold or more. In some circumstances of extremely high asbestos exposure, a twofold increase of lung cancer can be achieved with exposure of <1 year (International Expert Meeting on Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Cancer 1997). Smoking and exposure to other toxicants increase the risk of asbestos-associated lung cancer.

      Kamp and Weitzman (1997) report that there is general agreement that histologic or radiologic asbestosis is associated with a significant increase in the risk for lung cancer. However, disagreement exists as to whether asbestosis is simply a marker for high-dose exposure, or whether the interstitial fibrosis of asbestosis is the cancer-producing factor. It is also not necessary to have asbestosis to develop asbestos-related lung cancer.

      According to Rosenberg (1997) and Kamp and Weitzman (1997), of workers certified as having asbestosis, about 20% died of pneumoconiosis, 39% died of asbestos-related lung cancer; 9% died from mesothelioma, and 32% died from other causes; 50% of the deaths occurred within 10 years after diagnosis.

      Asbestosis is pulmonary fibrosis of the pleura or parenchymal interstitial tissue.
      Inhalation of asbestos fibers can lead to a characteristic pneumoconiosis or diffuse interstitial fibrosis, termed asbestosis. Either heavy exposure for a short time or lower level exposure over a longer period may result in asbestosis; some cases have resulted from intense 1-day exposure. The disease can affect the lung parenchyma or pleural tissue. Clinical manifestations typically appear 20 to 40 years after onset of exposure; however, radiologic changes can occur in <20 years.

      Parenchymal asbestosis is characterized as a lung disease involving a restrictive pattern, with obstructive features due to small airway disease, as well as gas exchange abnormalities. It is usually associated with higher exposure levels and radiograph changes, but mild fibrosis can occur at lower exposure levels, and pulmonary function changes can occur even without radiographic changes. Mossman and Churg (1998) feel that the development of asbestosis requires heavy exposure, possibly even involving a minimum threshold of about 25 to 100 fibers/mL/year. Latency is inversely proportional to exposure, and is now about 12.6 to 20.2 years; at lower doses, a longer latency would be expected. Smoking can worsen the result of asbestos exposure, possibly because of the increased particle retention (leading to decreased lung defenses) that takes place in smokers.

      Asbestosis patients typically have elevated levels of antinuclear antibody and rheumatoid factors and a progressive decrease in total lymphocyte count with advancing fibrosis. Self-perpetuating host responses might affect the progression of fibrosis, even after exposure ceases. Fibroinflammatory patterns other than conventional asbestosis have also been described for workers with occupational exposure to asbestos. Differentiation of treatable diseases from asbestosis is very important. The differential diagnosis might include the collagen vascular diseases, radiation fibrosis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

      Pleural plaques have not been shown to be premalignant.
      Pleural effects can occur even in the absence of parenchymal asbestosis. The incidence of pleural abnormalities in persons employed in asbestos-related occupations can be high (20% to 60%). Asbestos-related pleural abnormalities are found as pleural plaques, mainly involving the parietal pleura, sometimes with calcification; and diffuse pleural thickening, which is a collective name for pleural reactions involving mainly the visceral pleura. These abnormalities include benign asbestos-related pleural effusions, blunted costophrenic angle, crow's feet or pleuroparenchymal fibrous strands, and rounded atelectasis (International Expert Meeting on Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Cancer 1997). Pleural plaques are oval areas of acellular collagen deposits, usually located bilaterally on the inferior and posterior surfaces of the pleura; they are usually asymptomatic and without clinically important findings (International Expert Meeting on Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Cancer 1997). Pleural plaques are not lung cancer precursors, although persons with pleural plaques have an increased incidence of lung cancer. Migration of inhaled asbestos to the pleura is the most likely cause of plaques. In regions where plaques are not endemic, 80% to 90% of the plaques that are radiologically well defined are attributable to occupational asbestos exposures (International Expert Meeting on Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Cancer 1997).

      Diffuse pleural fibrosis refers to noncircumscribed fibrous thickening of variable cellularity, usually found in the parietal, but mainly the visceral, layers. In occupational asbestos exposures, such diffuse fibrosis is probably a result of benign asbestos pleuritis with effusion; it might or might not be associated with rounded atelectasis. Diffuse pleural thickening, which is observed radiologically, can be associated with mild or, rarely moderate to severe restrictive pulmonary function deficits such as decreased ventilatory capacity (International Expert Meeting on Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Cancer 1997).

      Mesothelioma is a signal tumor for asbestos exposure and can appear after relatively low-level exposures.
      Mesotheliomas are tumors arising from the thin serosal membranes that surround internal organs. The majority of mesotheliomas are due to asbestos exposure, although the National Cancer Institute (NCI) states that up to 30% have unknown causes. Pleural and peritoneal mesotheliomas are uncommon in the general, unexposed population. Although all asbestos types can cause mesothelioma, several studies have suggested that in humans the amphibole mineral form might be more likely to induce mesothelioma than the serpentine form. Evidence shows that peritoneal mesotheliomas are associated with higher levels of asbestos exposure than pleural mesotheliomas. Unlike asbestos-related bronchogenic cancer, mesothelioma risk does not appear to be influenced by smoking.

      Mesothelioma can occur with low asbestos exposure; however, very low background environmental exposures carry only an extremely low risk. The dose necessary for effect appears to be lower for asbestos-induced mesothelioma than for pulmonary asbestosis or lung cancer. However, an extremely short exposure period might be sufficient to cause this rare tumor. A long latency period is typical-a minimum of 10 years from the first exposure is required to attribute the mesothelioma to asbestos exposure. Latency periods have been up to 57 years, although more intense exposures can result in latencies as short as 20 to 30 years. In most cases the latency interval is 30 to 40 years (International Expert Meeting on Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Cancer 1997). Some studies indicate that risk of mesothelioma from a given level of asbestos exposure depends primarily on elapsed time since exposure, with risk increasing dramatically after a lag period of about 10 years.

      An estimated 1,500 cases of mesothelioma per year occur in the United States (compared with an average of 130,000 cases of lung cancer per year, mostly due to smoking). Data on death rates from pleural or peritoneal mesotheliomas over the past 10 to 20 years indicate that mesotheliomas are increasing in males over 65 years of age who have histories of occupational exposure to asbestos. Rom (1998) states that the incidence of mesothelioma in the United States is increasing; the incidence of mesothelioma is peaking in their exposure-related mesothelioma incidence from 1940 to 1970. In the United Kingdom, where imports of asbestos peaked in the 1960s and 1970s, a peak in mesothelioma deaths is expected in 2020.

      Lung Cancer
      Latency for lung cancer is 10 to 30 years or more.
      There is little doubt that all types of asbestos can cause lung cancer. A latency period of 10 to 30 years or more exists between the onset of asbestos exposure and occurrence of the tumor. Whether asbestos exposure will lead to lung cancer depends not only on cumulative exposure, but also on other underlying lung cancer risks. The incidence of lung cancer from all causes is high in the general population, so asbestos as a causative factor is difficult to prove in an individual patient. The presence of asbestosis is an indicator of high exposure, but lung cancer can occur in its absence as well. Pleural plaques occur at lower levels of asbestos exposure, and diffuse pleural thickening occurs at moderate to high levels of exposure.

      It is unclear whether a threshold asbestos dose exists for lung cancer.
      All four major histologic types of lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large-cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma) are associated with asbestos exposure. Although asbestos-associated lung cancer tends to occur in the lower lung fields, histologic type and anatomic location are of no help in determining whether the tumor is due to asbestos. As stated previously, even 1 year of heavy exposure or 5 to 10 years of moderate exposure can increase lung cancer risk twofold or more. The relative risk of lung cancer is estimated to increase 0.5% to 4% for each fiber per cubic centimeter per year (fiber-years) of cumulative exposure (International Expert Meeting on Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Cancer 1997). At very low levels of asbestos exposure, the risk of lung cancer appears to be undetectably low (International Expert Meeting on Asbestos, Asbestosis, and Cancer 1997).


      Other Carcinogenic Effects
      Increased incidence of GI cancers has been reported among asbestos workers.
      Some mortality studies of asbestos workers have revealed small increases in the incidence of death from cancer at one or more extrathoracic sites, including the larynx, the kidneys and the GI system-notably the esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum. Presumably, these cancers (other than the larynx) are due to swallowing asbestos fibers.

      The consequences of ingesting asbestos fibers are a subject of controversy.
      In contrast, other epidemiologic studies have not detected statistically significant associations between asbestos ingestion and extrathoracic cancers. Various researchers and regulatory groups have reviewed the weight of evidence and have not been able to reach a consensus on the effects of ingested asbestos fibers. Whether GI neoplasms can be induced by ingesting asbestos-contaminated drinking water (or other ingestion sources) remains controversial. In humans, asbestos bodies have been identified in extrapulmonary tissues including tonsils, thoracic and abdominal lymph nodes, pleura, peritoneum, liver, spleen, kidneys, adrenals, small intestine, pancreas, and bone marrow, as well as the lungs. In any case, oral exposure to asbestos should be avoided.


      Cardiovascular Effects
      Cardiovascular effects are secondary to pulmonary fibrosis.
      Fibrosis of the lung can lead to increased resistance to blood flow through the capillary bed, resulting in cor pulmonale. This condition can also occur with less severe fibrotic disease, especially if chronic obstructive lung disease is simultaneously present, as commonly seen in cigarette-smoking asbestos workers. Pulmonary hypertension can occur before decreased respiratory function is clinically detectable. Limited data from case reports suggest that constrictive pericarditis due to fibrous thickening can also result from asbestos exposure (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry 2001).


      Immunologic Effects
      Immunologic abnormalities have been noted in persons with asbestosis.
      Immunologic abnormalities have been observed in asbestos workers with clinical signs of asbestosis and have also been reported in environmentally exposed persons. Despite some variability, most studies indicate that cell-mediated immunity can be depressed in workers who have radiologic evidence of asbestosis. Autoantibodies (rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies) are typically present in these workers. Caplan syndrome (the coexistence of pneumoconiosis with rheumatoid changes) also has been noted in asbestos workers, although it is more common in coal miners and workers with other pneumoconiosis. The implications of these immunologic changes are difficult to assess, but they are of special concern because depressed immune function might be a factor in the etiology of asbestos-induced cancer.

    What are the best sites to learn about pulmonary thyroid carcinoma?
    Our friend was just diagnosed w/ it after removal a lymph node in his neck. I do know they have said it is already spread but I am wondering how they know that. I want to learn about it w/out overwhelming him w/ questions. Next week he will get his thyroid biopsied. I am trying to find the cure rate and treatment options. He did say they know something he wrong w/ his liver too. I don't think it sounds good but would like to learn to see.
    p.s. I am just one of those who likes to research and that is how I deal w/ things. My dad has prostate cancer and I learned alot about it and even taught him and we all helped him decide what treatment to get and so far he is in remission for a year.

    • ANSWER:
      they called it pulmonary-thyroid because it probably started in the lungs and is spreading toward the thyroid as evidenced by blood tests showing either greatly elevated or greatly diminished levels of the hormone the thyroid produces.
      So start your research with lung cancer, and then metastasized lung cancer.

    who are the most likely people to get lung cancer?
    like age groups, smokers, drug users? etc

    • ANSWER:
      Current research indicates that the factor with the greatest impact on risk of lung cancer is long-term exposure to inhaled carcinogens, especially tobacco smoke. While some people who have never smoked do still get lung cancer, this appears to be due to a combination of genetic factors and exposure to secondhand smoke. Radon gas and air pollution may also contribute to the development of lung cancer.(Wikipedia)
      Lung cancer is more common in older adults. It is rare in people under age 45.
      Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer.
      The more cigarettes you smoke per day and the earlier you started smoking, the greater your risk of lung cancer. There is no evidence that smoking low-tar cigarettes lowers the risk.
      However, lung cancer has occurred in people who have never smoked.
      Secondhand smoke (breathing the smoke of others) increases your risk of lung cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, an estimated 3,000 non-smoking adults will die each year from lung cancer related to breathing secondhand smoke.
      The following may also increase one's risk of lung cancer:
      * High levels of air pollution
      * High levels of arsenic in drinking water
      * Radon gas
      * Asbestos
      * Family history of lung cancer
      * Radiation therapy to the lungs
      * Exposure to cancer-causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust (MedlinePlus)
      An estimated 171,900 new cases of lung carcinoma are diagnosed each year in the US, and the disease causes 157,200 deaths annually. The incidence is rising in women and appears to be leveling off in men. Black men are at especially high risk.
      Cigarette smoking, including passive (secondhand) smoking, is the most important cause. Risk differs by age and smoking intensity and duration; risk after smoking cessation declines but probably never returns to baseline. Exposure to radon, a breakdown product of naturally occurring radium and uranium, is the most important environmental risk factor in nonsmokers. Occupational exposure to radon (in uranium miners); asbestos (in construction and demolition workers, pipefitters, shipbuilders, and automotive mechanics); silica (in miners and sandblasters); arsenic (in workers in copper smelting, pesticide manufacturing, and wood-treatment plants); chromates (in stainless steel and pigment manufacturing plants); nickel (in battery and stainless steel manufacturing plants); chloromethyl ethers; beryllium; and coke oven emissions (in steel workers) accounts for a small number of cases per year (see Environmental Pulmonary Diseases). The risk of cancer is greater with combined exposure to occupational toxins and cigarette smoking than with either one alone. COPD and pulmonary fibrosis may increase susceptibility; β-carotene supplementation may increase susceptibility in smokers. Air pollution and cigar smoke contain carcinogens but have never been shown to cause lung carcinoma.(Merck)
      Please see the web pages for more details on Lung cancer.

    Why there is no heart cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      You are misinformed. Cancer of the heart does exist, both as a primary and secondary cancer. It is rare and can occur in children or adults.

      I know that it occurs because people in the Sarcoma group (sarcoma alliance) where I go have Angiosarcoma. So, I probably hear about it more often than most. It is a rare disease sometimes referred to as Angiosarcoma of the Heart.

      Cardiac Sarcoma

      Angiosarcoma of the Heart

      With heart angiosarcoma the "patients can be asymptomatic for a long time or they can present with symptoms mimicking acute pericarditis, pulmonary embolism, or tricuspid stenosis."

      Cancer BackUp: Angiosarcoma of the Heart

      Other rare types of malignant heart tumor includes pericardial mesothelioma and a primary heart lymphoma (which can occur in people with AIDS). Secondary cancers (originate elsewhere in the body) can also metatasize to the heart including lung and breast carcinoma, soft-tissue sarcoma, renal cancer, malignant melanoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and sometimes Kaposi's Sarcoma.

      I'm not sure why people think that cancer of the heart does not exist. This question is asked on a fairly regular basis:;_ylt=Ang9UVFESzbwgA01Tsbmi5rsy6IX?p=heart+cancer

    what is tinomo scca of the lateral tongue/cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Diagnosis and Procedures

      Medical Disclaimer:
      Patients and consumers reading the articles herein should review the information carefully with their professional health care provider. The information is not intended to replace medical advice offered by physicians. (continued)

      Learn more about your diagnosis.

      Learning about your diagnosis is key to understanding more about your condition. Please review our Head and Neck Frequently Asked Questions or submit your own question.

      Types of Head and Neck Cancer

      Below are some descriptions to help you better understand your (or your loved one's) diagnosis. While not all the information is covered, it will give you a general description and greater knowledge. If you still have questions take the opportunity to ask your doctor for further explanations.

      See our Glossary of Terms for other medical definitions.

      Cancer of the Nasopharynx

      * Sinus Cancer
      * Nasal Cancer

      Mouth (Oral) Cancer

      * Lip cancer
      * Tongue Cancer
      * Tonsillar Cancer
      * Palatal Cancer
      * Salivary Gland Cancer
      * Floor of Mouth Cancer
      * Cheek (buccal) Cancer

      Neck Cancer

      * Laryngeal Cancer
      o Supraglottic
      o Glottic
      o Subglottic
      * Other Cancers on the neck

      Laryngeal Cancer:

      The larynx is the area of the body from the hyoid bone to the epiglottis. It is critical to voice production, swallowing and breathing. Ninety-five percent of laryngeal cancers are SQUAMOUS CELL CARCIMONA. These tumors arise from the cells of the membranes lining the larynx. Less common tumors of the larynx include carcinosarcoma and verrucous carcinoma. In addition, some tumors that benign, or noncancerous also occur in the larynx. Although the cause of cancer is unknown, there is a strong association between smoking and alcohol use and laryngeal cancers. More than 95% of laryngeal cancers occur in smokers. Continuing to smoke during and after treatment significantly increases your risk of recurrence.

      Cancers of the larynx are classified by their site of origin. The larynx is commonly divided into three segments: 1) Supraglottic 2) Glottic and 3) Subglottic.

      The Supraglottic Larynx is comprised of the epiglottis, the aryepiglottic folds, the ventricular folds and the laryngeal ventricles. Tumors in this area can cause hoarseness or airway obstruction and or swallowing problems. Tumors may be fairly large, before they are diagnosed. They are usually treated with surgery (partial laryngectomy or total) and radiation.

      Glottic cancer refers to the vocal folds. Generally, hoarseness and airway obstruction are the first signs. If a tumor is confined to the larynx, it may be successfully treated with radiation and or laser cordectomy.

      Subglottic tumors occur infrequently. They are in a less accessible area of the larynx and therefore often required a total laryngectomy. The surgeon may also have to remove all or part of the thyroid glands and adjacent lymph nodes.

      In addition to these laryngeal tumors, cancers can directly involve the larynx from nearby sites. For example, a cancer on the tongue base may invade the epiglottic space.

      Medical testing for cancer of the larynx may include chest x-ray, complete blood count, serum chemistry studies, pulmonary function studies, and MRI. Your doctor will perform a biopsy before proceeding with treatment of the tumor to confirm the diagnosis and often an endoscopoy to determine the extent or stage of the tumor (see CANCER STAGING ).

      Treatment of laryngeal cancer traditionally includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Treatment may consist of a single form, or be a combination of several modalities. The combination that is best suited for you is determined by multiple factors. Factors include: placement of tumor, size of tumor, patient’s general health. Also of concern to is whether or not the cancer has invaded the LYMPH NODES or if it has METASTHESIZED. Your physician’s primary concerns are eliminating the cancer and preserving function. Please ask your medical specialist for further information on the specific procedures relevant to your case.


      Cancer of the soft palate (or roof of mouth) is relatively rare. The soft palate anatomically divides the mouth from the nose. The overwhelming majority of tumors arise on the side facing the tongue. Although rare, these tumors are generally more readily visualized and thus are often identified earlier than other oral cancers. Larger tumors may create ulcerations or even perforation of the soft palate. Soft palate tumors tend to spread to the superior constrictor muscles and pterygoid fossa if left untreated.

      Treatment of cancers in this region typically includes a combination of surgery and radiation. Radiation treatment is often the modality of choice for small lesions, as a full-thickness resection of the soft palate impairs speech production (Resonance- link to definition), and swallowing. In small lesions (less than one centimeter) surgery may be the primary form of treatment, because full closure of the tissue removed is possible. Large lesions that require both surgery and radiation typically also require the services of a Prosthodontist . This dental specialist, in conjunction with your speech and swallowing specialist will create a prosthesis to fill the area of removed tissue to restore function.

      Supracricoid Partial Laryngectomies

      The Supracricoid Partial Laryngectomies (SCPL) are a subset of surgical procedures that are available to the Head and Neck Surgeon for the management of selected cancers of the larynx. The SCPLs are a subset of conservation laryngeal operations.

      SCPL refers to the resection of the diseased or affected part of the larynx that is removed at the time of operation. The defect in the larynx is then reconstructed at the time of operation with what is known as a crico-hyoidal impaction. The specific type of impaction is either a cricohyoidoepiglottopexy, a cricohyoidopexy, or a tracheocricohyoidoepiglottopexy. Exactly which reconstruction is used is determined by the location of the patient’s cancer, the extent of involvement of the tumor and the patient's overall condition. The SCPLs are all alike in that the anterior component of the vocal cords is removed bilaterally in addition to the immediate area above and below the vocal cords. If the tumor then extends either above or below the actual vocal cords (or glottis), then either of the above reconstructions is performed. In addition, one of the arytenoids (the cartilage that controls the vocal cords) can also be removed.

      The benefits of the SCPLs are that rather large tumors can be effectively removed from the larynx while still preserving swallowing, speech and the airway functions of the larynx. While the patient's voice will never be normal after any of the supracricoid partial laryngectomies, the patient is able to communicate readily without the aid of any prosthesis or electronic device, and most importantly, the vast majority of patients do not need a permanent tracheostomy. A tracheostomy is necessary in the immediate post-operative period, but we are usually able to remove this in the few days after surgery, before the patient even leaves the hospital. Then, as the surgery and tracheostomy sites heal, the patient relearns how to speak and swallow. Obviously then, if we can avoid the permanent hole in the neck needed with more traditional laryngeal surgeries, then the patient can lead a more normal and active life with fewer, if any, restrictions.

      The SCPLs do, however, have some contraindications. Not everyone is a candidate for conservation laryngeal surgeries, and very specific criteria have to be met to be able to perform the resection and reconstruction while still removing the entire tumor. Obviously, the first goal of any cancer operation is to remove all of the cancer. In addition, pulmonary function must be assessed before performing any of the above surgeries. While patients recuperate from their surgery, there is often a moderate amount of aspiration of saliva and even diet into the airway. While the patient relearns to swallow in usually no more than seven to ten days, it is important that he have healthy lungs so that he can tolerate this small degree of aspiration. In addition, SCPLs do not give patients a normal voice. Patients are, however, able to communicate readily and without the use of any assisted devices.

      Once a patient is found to have cancer of the larynx, it is then up to his treating surgeon to assess the extent of the disease and consider the patient's surgical options. If SCPL is an option, then we like to use it as we feel that not only is the patient’s long-term function significantly improved as compared to traditional therapy but also long-term cancer control is not sacrificed.


      The buccal cavity includes the inner surface of the lips. The Floor of mouth is the "U"-shaped lining over the hyoglossus and mylohyoid muscles. It is a deep area, extending all the way to the mandible (lower jaw). The buccal cavity (BC) and floor of mouth (FOM) are intimately connected. The move in synchrony with the tongue during to allow one to swallow. The major salivary glands empty secretions through the membranes that line the FOM and BC.

      Over 97% of all cancers of this region are SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA. Leukoplakia and erythroplasia often appear prior to a cancer diagnosis. Because of their interconnection with tongue and mandible, tumors in this region tend to spread locally. Distal metastasis is rare. The major risk factors in developing cancers in this region are alcohol and tobacco use. Other possible causes include, the Herpes Simplex 1 virus, and marginal oral hygiene. Chronic irritants, such as dentures are not strongly correlated with FOM/BC cancer.

      The treatment for cancers of the FOM and BC is determined primarily from the stage of the lesion. The physican’s primary goals in treatment are elimination of cancer and preservation of function/appearance. The two primary treatments are radiation, surgery, or a combination of both. Neck surgery may also be required if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. Techniques developed over the past decade have greatly improved quality of life for patients with FOM and BC cancer.

      Tonsillar Cancer


      The tonsils are made of lymphoid tissue, which contains cells of the immune system that are involved in fighting infection. The palatine tonsils are what we commonly refer to as “the tonsil;” however, there is also a patch of lymphoid tissue at the base of tongue, called the lingual tonsil. Other lymphoid tissue occurs in the nasopharynx (high in the pharynx behind the nasal passages) and this is refered to as the adenoid. Together, the palatine tonsils, the lingual tonsil and the adenoid make up a ring of lymphoid tissue in the pahrynx – Waldeyer’s ring.

      The most common cancers that occur in the tonsils are squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA). Lymphoma can also occur in the tonsil. The cancers that occur in the tonsil are similar to those that occur elsewhere in Waldeyer’s ring. Lymphoepithelioma is an older term for a non-keratinizing undifferentiated SCCA.

      Risk Factors

      The risk factors for SCCA are smoking, drinking and in particular the combination of heavy smoking with heavy drinking. More recently viral infection has been implicated in the etiology of SCCA in the upper aerodigestive tract. Human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA has been found in SCCA of the tonsil. However, we do not know what role HPV plays in the development of cancer at this location. Risk factors notwithstanding, there are individuals who develop SCCA in the tonsil (and at other sites in the upper aerodigestive tract) without having any of the known risk factors. Currently, we have limited understanding of what factors may lead to development of SCCA of the tonsil in individuals who neither smoke nor drink. It may be that DNA viruses such as HPV may play a role in the process of carcinogenesis in these individuals.

      Signs and Symptoms

      Most tonsilar cancers are relatively quiet until they become very large or ulcerate. Most often, the first presenting symptom is that of a neck mass. Many tonsilar cancers have early spread to lymph nodes in the neck (cervical metastasis) and this is a common presenting feature of these cancers. The cervical metastases tend to be cystic and can be confused with a benign neck lump called a branchial cleft cyst. Because of the lack of symptoms in tonsilar SCCA, tonsilar asymmetry (one tonsil being larger than the other) in an adult is sufficient reason to perform a tonsillectomy to rule out cancer. In addition, if SCCA is diagnosed in the neck and the site of origin is not identified, a tonsillectomy is usually performed to rule out the tonsil as the source of the cancer. Fortunately, tonsilar SCCA does not have a high rate of early spread to distant sites such as the lung.


      Tonsilar SCCA is staged according to size of the tumor and degree of involvement of bone and deep muslces. It is also important to evaluate the neck for metastatic spread of SCCA, which tends to occur rather early in the course of the disease. Distant spread is relatively infrequent and, in most cases, can be ruled out with a simple chest X-ray. In cases where there is extensive or bilateral neck disease a CT scan of the chest or a whole body PET scan may be obtained.


      Options for treatment depend on size of the tumor, whether adjacent structures (tongue, palate, bone) are involved, and degree of neck spread. Surgery followed by radiation therapy is the form of treatment that offers the best chance of cure. Surgery can sometimes be done through the mouth (transorally) as one would do a tonsillectomy in a child; however, this approach can only be done for the smaller tumors. Larger tumors usually require a different approach by splitting the mandible (mandibulotomy and mandible swing) or by entering the pharynx laterally (lateral pharyngotomy). A neck dissection with removal of lymph nodes structures is almost always performed because of the high rate of early tumor spread to the neck. Patients who have mandibulotomy or pharyngotomy as the approach for tumor removal require a temporary tracheostomy tube which in general stays in place for 4-14 days.

      Combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy (chemoradiation) has also been used for these tumors. In these cases, neck dissection is performed afterward for any patient that initially presented with palpable neck disease. Combination chemoradiation is still in its early stages and we do not have complete information on tumor control with this modality, although the early results suggest cure rates that are comparable to those obtained with surgery. For smaller tumors, the results with surgery, both in terms of tumor control and functional outcome, are better with surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy. The decision to choose one form of treatment over another has to be individualized. Factors that influence the choice of treatment are the size and location of the tumor, the experience of the treating team (surgeon, radiation oncologist, and medical oncologist), and the preference of the patient and his/her family.


      Tumors of the tonsil, like most tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract, can affect speech and swallowing functions. The treatment of these tumors, whether it is surgery or radiation or chemotherapy, can also interfere with normal speech and swallowing. The process of rehabilitation involves prevention of complications and early intervention to maximize functional outcome. Dental care is quite important as is nutrition, swallowing ability and adequate social support.

      Click here for details about surgical procedures.

      Cancer Staging

      A system of classifying and comparing tumors was developed. This information is included in this site for educational purposes and is not meant to suggest severity prognosis. Please contact your heathcare provider for specifics concerning your tumor.)

      Primary Tumor (t)


      No available information on primary tumor


      No evidence of primary tumor


      Carcinoma insitu


      Greatest diameter of primary tumor less than 2 cm


      Greatest diameter of primary tumor 2-4 cm


      Greatest diameter of primary tumor more than 4 cm


      Tumor greater than 4 cm with deep invasion

      Nodal Involvement (n)


      Nodes cannot be assessed


      No clinically positive nodes


      Single positive homolateral node less than 3 cm


      Singe positive node 3-6 cm or...

      Multiple clinically positive nodes, none over 6 cm


      Homolateral node larger than 6 cm and, or bilateral nodes

      Distant Metastasis (m)


      Not assessed


      No known distant metastasis


      Distant metastasis present (specify)

      Postsurgical treatment Residual Tumor (r)


      No residual tumor


      Microscopic residual tumor


      Macroscopic residual tumor (specify)

      Cell type-squamous cell carcinoma
      Tumor Grade (G)


      Well differentiated


      Moderately well differentiated


      Poorly differentiated

    what to expect in the final weeks of lung cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      You mean to say Terminal Stage of cancer, Poor Prognosis the events are as under:

      he symptoms of lung cancer depend on its type, its location, and the way it spreads. Usually, the first and most common symptom is a persistent cough. People with chronic bronchitis who develop lung cancer often notice that their coughing becomes worse. If sputum can be coughed up, it may be streaked with blood (called hemoptysis (see Symptoms and Diagnosis of Lung Disorders: Hemoptysis)). If a lung cancer grows into underlying blood vessels, it may cause severe bleeding.

      Lung cancer may cause wheezing by narrowing the bronchus in or around which it is growing. Blockage of a bronchus may lead to the collapse of the part of the lung that the bronchus supplies, a condition called atelectasis (see Atelectasis). Other consequences of a blocked bronchus are shortness of breath, and pneumonia, with coughing, fever, and chest pain. If the tumor grows into the chest wall, it may produce persistent chest pain.

      Lung cancer may grow into certain nerves in the neck, causing a droopy eyelid, small pupil, sunken eye, and reduced perspiration on one side of the face—together these symptoms are called Horner's syndrome (see Horner's Syndrome: A Droopy EyeSidebar). Cancers at the top of the lung may grow into the nerves that supply the arm, making the arm painful, numb, and weak—this condition is called Pancoast syndrome. Nerves to the voice box may also be damaged, making the voice hoarse. This damage happens mainly in people whose cancers involve the left lung.

      Lung cancer may grow directly into the esophagus, or it may grow near it and put pressure on it, leading to difficulty in swallowing. Occasionally, an abnormal channel (fistula) between the esophagus and bronchi develops because of invasion by the cancer, causing severe coughing during swallowing because food and fluid enter the lungs.

      A lung cancer may grow into the heart, causing abnormal heart rhythms, blockage of blood flow through the heart, or fluid in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart. The cancer may grow into or compress the superior vena cava (one of the large veins in the chest); this condition is called superior vena cava syndrome. Obstruction of this vein causes blood to back up in other veins of the upper body. The veins in the chest wall enlarge. The face, neck, and upper chest wall—including the breasts—swell and become tinged with purple. The condition also produces shortness of breath, headache, distorted vision, dizziness, and drowsiness. These symptoms usually worsen when the person bends forward or lies down.

      Symptoms of lung cancer that usually arise later include loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, and weakness. Fluid accumulations around the lung (pleural effusions (see Pleural Disorders: Pleural Effusion)) occur when the cancer has spread into the pleural space. They can lead to shortness of breath. Severe shortness of breath, low levels of oxygen in the blood, and cor pulmonale (see Cor Pulmonale: A Disorder Stemming From Pulmonary HypertensionSidebar) may develop if cancer spreads within the lungs.

      Lung cancer may also spread through the bloodstream to the liver, brain, adrenal glands, spinal cord, and bone; less commonly lung cancer may spread to other parts of the body. The spread of lung cancer may occur early in the disease, especially with small cell carcinoma. Symptoms—such as headache, confusion, seizures, and bone pain—may develop before any lung problems become evident, making an early diagnosis difficult.

      Paraneoplastic syndromes (see What Are Paraneoplastic Syndromes?Sidebar) consist of effects that are caused by lung cancer but occur far from the lungs, such as in the metabolic system, nerves, and muscles. These syndromes are not related to the size or location of the lung cancer and do not necessarily indicate that the cancer has spread outside the chest; rather, they are caused by substances secreted by the cancer (such as hormones, cytokines, and a variety of other proteins).

    Name all diseases in the world?

    • ANSWER:
      Acid Reflux Disease (GERD)
      Antisocial Personality Disorder
      Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD/ADD)
      Altitude Sickness
      Alzheimer's Disease
      Anorexia Nervosa
      Aspergers Syndrome
      Back Pain
      Bad Breath (Halitosis)
      Bipolar Disorder (BD)
      Bladder Cancer
      Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
      Bone Cancer
      Brain Cancer
      Breast Cancer
      Brain Tumors
      Brain Injury
      Canker Sores (Cold Sores)
      Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)
      Celiac Disease
      Cervical Cancer
      Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
      Colon Cancer
      Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
      Cradle Cap
      Crohn's Disease
      Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
      Diaper Rash
      Down Syndrome
      Drug Abuse
      Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB)
      Ear Infections
      Ear Problems
      Eating Disorders
      Enlarged Prostate
      Epilepsy (Seizure)
      Erectile Dysfunction (ED)
      Eye Problems
      Gallbladder Disease
      Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
      Genital Herpes
      Genital Warts
      Glomerulonephritis (Nephritis)
      Gum Diseases
      Head Lice
      Hearing Loss
      Heart Attacks
      Heart Disease
      Heat Stroke
      Heel Pain
      Herniated Discs
      Hiatal Hernia (Hiatus Hernia)
      Hyperglycemia (High Blood Sugar)
      Hyperkalemia (High Potassium)
      Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
      Infectious Diseases
      Infectious Mononucleosis (Glandular Fever)
      Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)
      Iron Deficiency Anemia
      Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
      Irritable Male Syndrome (IMS)
      Joint Pain
      Juvenile Diabetes
      Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)
      Kidney Diseases
      Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
      Liver Cancer - Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
      Lung Cancer
      Mad Cow Disease
      Melena (Blood in Stool)
      Memory Loss
      Mucus In Stool
      Multiple Personality Disorder
      Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
      Muscle Cramps
      Muscle Fatigue
      Muscle Pain
      Nail Biting
      Narcissistic Personality Disorder
      Neck Pain
      Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
      Osteoarthritis (OA)
      Ovarian Cancer
      Ovarian Cyst
      Panic Attack
      Parkinson's Disease (PD)
      Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
      Personality Disorders
      Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)
      Peyronie's Disease
      Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)
      Post Nasal Drip
      Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
      Premature Baby
      Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
      Prostate Cancer
      Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD)
      Renal Failure
      Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
      Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
      Rheumatic Fever
      Rotator Cuff
      Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD)
      Sinus Infections
      Skin Cancer
      Skin Rash
      Sleep Apnea
      Sleep Disorders
      Social Anxiety
      Staph Infection (MRSA)
      Stomach Cancer
      Strep Throat (Sore Throat)
      Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
      Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
      Tennis Elbow
      Termination of Pregnancy (Abortion)
      Testicular Cancer
      Tooth Decay
      Tuberculosis (TB)
      Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
      Varicose Veins
      Williams Syndrome
      Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)
      Yellow Fever

pulmonary carcinoma

Colon Cancer Survival Rate

Colon cancer can be a critical illness. Often, people who have colon cancer take a very tough road since they live in uncertainty and in that path, recovery isn't often a possibility. A great deal of us have heard about colon cancer but you'll find really couple of people who understand what colon cancer really is, how it starts, what it does for the body and how long does colon cancer individuals reside. Obviously, not realizing always poses a issue since when we're not informed, we have the tendency to panic.

Even though cancer is considered to be a morbid subject for conversation, plenty of people are still writing about colon cancer survival rates in order for individuals to be informed and hopefully, settle down. This may particularly benefit affected individuals since they are able to put their worries to rest.
According to different research published in various medical journals, the location of the tumor can considerably impact colon cancer survival rates. In the Usa, it is reported that tumors which are located close towards the modest intestines give out a 63% colon cancer survival rates whilst inside the descending colon (or in the decrease part), the colon cancer survival rate is 66%. Alternatively, if the tumor is identified around the transverse colon, the colon cancer survival rate is 59%.

The country exactly where the patient resides might also have an effect on the colon survival rate. To illustrate, the survival statistics performed inside the United states offers us with a 62% colon cancer survival rate as composed to 43% colon cancer survival rate in Europe. Possibly 1 with the elements affecting the figures may be the quality of therapy obtainable, whereas other studies also conclude that the number of colon cancer screening issues implemented also account for the distinction inside the statistical figures. As with any other disease, detection is always much better than cure and early detection of colon cancer can drastically influence the colon cancer survival rates.

Obviously, the state and diagnosis also affects the survival rates of colon cancer patients. Individuals having a stage 1 colon cancer includes a survival rate of 93% although those with malignant cancer cells and classified at stage 3 only has 59%. The colon cancer survival rate drops to a whopping 20% for individuals with stage 4 colon cancer.

Anyone who suffers from colon cancer still has a chance to survive and possibility of getting cured is not totally out of reach. In case you see any sign of colon cancer affecting you or your loved ones or friends, seek support immediately.

Frequently Asked Questions

    What is the survival rate of colon cancer?
    I found out tonight my grandpa may have colon cancer. They are going to have to do tests on him in the coming week.

    What is the survival rate of colon cancer?

    My grandpa is 67 and he has been in remission from prostate cancer for about 10 years now.

    • ANSWER:
      At stage 0 the 5 year survival rate is 100%.
      At stage 4 it is 5%.

    What is the survival rate for Colon Cancer?
    My aunt was recently diagnosed with Colon Cancer. I really don't know too much about it. What is the survival rate? Is it usually treatable as far as cancer goes? I welcome any comments from surivors or people with relatives with cancer or anyone really. Thanks in advance.

    • ANSWER:
      If the tumor is confined to the colon, it's actually very easy to deal with nowadays. A surgeon can simply remove the affected length of colon (it's just a big tube) and sew the ends together, and your aunt will be good as new! (almost).

      The prognosis is not so good if it has spread to other places, but cancer has become much more of a treatable disease in the last few years.

      My best wishes to your aunt. I hope she doesn't smoke, and is improving her diet.

    What are the survivar rates for stage 4 colon cancer?
    My grandma just found out she has stage 4 colon cancer. Have you or anyone you know had stage 4 colon cancer and know the survival rates?

    Other than the cancer she is failry healthy.


    • ANSWER:
      5 year survival is not 50%, closer to 10% or less. Average survival is about 2 years, meaning half live longer. This assumes patients go through the usual drugs of 5FU, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, avastin, and erbitux. While the treatment can be tough, others tolerate amazingly well and preserve a very good quality of life. Treatments are definitely worth trying at least. I have many older patients with metastatic colorectal cancer- they frequently do very well with treatment.


    Are certain cases of colon cancer more aggressive than others?
    My dad passed away from colon cancer in december of 2007 only after 9 months. but i read that the survival rates were higher than that. he had surgery,chemo and radiation. i was wondering if certain cases can be more aggressive and harder to treat than others?

    • ANSWER:
      98% of colon cancers above the anal verge are adenocarcinomas and although they do vary in aggressiveness it is not drastic. There are other rare types that are much more aggressive. Survival rates are dependent on stage. Stage 4 colon cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 5%. There are those that survive past 5 years and of the other 95% there are those who survive 1 week and others survive 4 years and 11 months. It is difficult to apply these rates to an individual without a good understanding of the disease process and even then it is just one piece of the puzzle.

    what isthe survival rate if the cancer spread to your lymph nodes?
    My grandpa had colon cancer. He had an operation to remove the cancer. But on his 6 week check up they told him the cancer spread to his lymph nodes. What is the survival rate when the cancer has spread to your lymph nodes?

    • ANSWER:
      We need to know the stage at a minimum to answer you. Are you saying the cancer spread to the lymph nodes while on treatment? This would not be good.

    Which kind of common cancer has the best survival rate?
    Other than basal cell skin cancer, what kind of common cancer has the best five year survival rate? Obviously no cancer is good, but who has better odds of survival, say someone diagnosed with early stage breast cancer or someone with early stage Hodgkin lymphoma? How about early stage melanoma or colon cancer? What percentage of people with say Hodgkin lymphoma die as opposed to percentage with say breast cancer or colon cancer or kidney cancer? I'm asking for a friend who is tired of being told Hodgkin lymphoma is "a good cancer to get." He thinks it's really insulting.

    • ANSWER:
      I don't know about the comment being insulting, but I'd think the person who said ANY kind of cancer is a good kind to get is a moron who has never been diagnosed with cancer.

      Just sayin.

    What is the survival rate of stage 3 colon cancer?
    My friend is a 45 year old male, late stage 3 colon cancer. It is close to the anus and they might have to remove the anus as well. He is in decent physical shape (slightly pudgy), and has started working out. He looks fine right now but he is going to start chemo later today.

    what should I expect?
    What will he go through?
    Will my buddy Al survive?


    • ANSWER:
      His chances are fairly good IF HE FOLLOWS his medical plan. It is so important not to miss treatments and speak to him about a med that will bring up his red cell count, the doctors know what it is. I wish you both alot of success

    What is the survival rate for colon cancer patients?
    my mom received chemo but what she says it is a preventive measure against cancer. she knows she doesnt have CA. Does this mean that chemo can be for non-cancer patients?

    • ANSWER:
      Chemo is not used as a preventative measure. Survivability for colon cancer is highly dependent on the stage which may be difficult for you know since your mother is obviously not telling you the truth. At best she probably has at least a 3A cancer which has a 5-year survival rate of about 80%. I hope this is the case as stage 4 is not curable. Early stage colon cancer does not require chemo.

    What is the survival for brain cancer and colon cancer?
    I hear that Lmphoma caner is really bad it has very slow survival rate.

    • ANSWER:
      By the impact of Chemo with 'target therapy' survival rate can be increased considerably high. How? Details follow----------------

      The symptoms of lymphoma---------an offshoot of blocked energy + accumulated toxins in brain, lymphatic system, thyroid, spinal cord, spleen, hormonal imbalance with a displaced solar plexus

      Chemotherapy with the aid of ‘Target Therapy’ [Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies] proved to be effective for all types of cancer [including brain tumors, leukemia, melanoma, Crohn’s Disease, breast cancer, etc., ] & all the most dreaded and incurable diseases.

      TARGET THERAPY* It is the God-given therapy communicated to the mankind through THE RIGVEDA, one of the Hindu scriptures.
      Target Therapy---Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies, [comprising Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Bio-chemic salts, Herbal Remedies, Yoga/Meditation, Magneto-therapy, Sidha, etc.,] U can have sizable & perceivable relief in 45-90 days. @ no/affordable costs, No side effects, and No Hospitalization.

      Dr.Vora designed it in such a way that the costs are the least for the survival/rescue of common man and the poor in villages, towns and metropolis on the globe; with NO insurance cover. It is most suitable to all the youngsters on this entire globe.
      U may study it, discuss with Ur family members/friends/acquaintances and slowly and steadily implement it for the best results.

      •No side effects and no risk. If it clicks, mostly possible, U shall have a cure. Lest, the therapy keeps mum. No extra risk. It is the most suitable line of treatment even for the terminally ill patients. Cancer cure/prevention is quite possible. U may try it for any incurable disease including cancer of any organ[s], post-surgical recurrence of tumors, Leukemia, HIV/AIDS, Crohn’s Syndrome, Gilbert’s Syndrome, colon cancer, Thalassemia, Muscular Dystrophy, Autism, bone TB., Tinnitus, all brain & spinal cord disorders, CLL, Crohn’s Syndrome, endometriosis, etc., ---it should aim @ [3] steps.
      1. Removal of toxins from all internal organs & purging through Normal Drainage systems, feces, urine, menses [females], skin, lungs.
      • 2. Activating all the internal organs to make each & every organ to function up to optimum levels.
      3. Supplying vitamins, nutrients, micro-nutrients, minerals, trace elements for invigorating the entire Immune system to produce antibodies.

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.
      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ [Vol.I & II] available in all Indian Languages all over the globe] by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.
      Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

    What are the symptoms of colon cancer, and what are the symptoms of stomach cancer?
    How can you know if you have one of these diseases?

    what is the survival rates for both diseases?

    • ANSWER:
      The symptoms for colon cancer can be as simple as slight bleeding from the back passage or a simple change in bowel habits. Stomach cancer would often be signified by a mass in that region but this can obviously be benign. Survival rates obviously depend on how early you seek medical help. If you have any symptoms even if you think they are only minor you should approach your GP as early diagnosis and treatment means better survival.

    Is it possible to have colon cancer so young?
    My husband has every symptom listed of colon cancer except for weight loss, but he is only 31 years old. This just can't be right... I made him get checked out today and now we are just waiting for a specialist to to look at his colon next week.

    • ANSWER:
      Colon cancer can occur at any age, but the symptoms are far more commonly displayed by lesser illnesses. Colonic cancers are more prevalent in older patients, but there has been an increase in the number of younger patients who follow a western style diet high in processed foods.

      "Common illnesses are common" is one of the first things quoted to medical students, and there are many common ailments which singly or in combination can cause all of the symptoms of colonic cancer. Accurate diagnosis involves taking tissue samples for microscopic examination and the process in which this is done can be a bit uncomfortable but is not painful.

      The internet and self-diagnosis can in many ways be more worrying than the illness itself. Stop assuming it's cancer and let the expert make a diagnosis. Even if your worst fears are realised, then early detection and modern treatment ensure a high survival rate; treatments have dramatically improved even in the three years that I've been interested in oncology.

    what are the symptoms of colon cancer, and what are the symptoms of stomach cancer?
    How can you know if you have one of these diseases?

    what is the survival rates for both diseases?

    • ANSWER:
      Stomach cancer, pain and dark blood often in stools.

      Colon cancer, severe cramps and likely fresher blood from behind.

      Survival rate for colon cancer is 80 - 95 percent in my experience, or opinion. That's after 5 years of success, post-op.

      Stomach cancer is worse I think, though you can have 2/3 of your stomach removed and be okay.

      There's just one catch with the colon though, you could keep having cancerous polyps for removal.

      And if too late, an ostomy pouch would be required, maybe only temporary, maybe permanent.

    What are the symptoms of colon cancer, and what are the symptoms of stomach cancer?
    How can you know if you have one of these diseases?

    what is the survival rates for both diseases?

    • ANSWER:
      Cancer is very difficult to diagnose based on clinical signs and symptoms. This is because many of them are very general and are shared by many other diseases. One of the ways to diagnose cancer of the stomach and colon is through insertion of a tube or probe with a camera into the gut or the anus (for colon cancer) in order to visualize the tumor and to get a sample for biopsy.
      The symptoms of stomach and colon cancer include anorexia, malaise, weakness, abdominal pain, and constipation. This list is no doubt incomplete since cancer can manifest as anything. Signs of colon and stomach cancer include weight loss, abdominal mass, and black, tar-like stool due to internal bleeding. If you or anyone you know has these symptoms, see your doctor as soon as possible.

      To help prevent cancer, you need to lower your risk. Increase your fibre intake, and live a healthy lifestyle with plenty of exercise and reduction of smoking (better if you quit). Also, ask your doctor about cancer screening.

      Finally be very careful of people who will claim that they can cure cancer with herbs and other things. Ask them if they are a licensed medical doctor and if their treatment has been studied and tested and published in peer-reviewed science and medical journals.

    What are the symptoms of colon cancer, and what are the symptoms of stomach cancer?
    How can you know if you have one of these diseases?

    what is the survival rates for both diseases?

    • ANSWER:
      Rule of thumb: any bleeding from lower gastro-intestinal tract causes bleeding PR (fresh, red-colored blood) and any upper GI bleeding causes malena( passing of black, tarry, sticky stools). By this, we can generally say gastric cancer would present as:
      malena, weight loss, anemia, and hematemesis( vomiting of blood)
      and colonic cancer would present as:
      bleeding PR(per-rectum), weight loss, anemia and tenusmus( feeling of wanting to defecate frequently but passing only small amount of stools on each occasion)
      I'm not sure about the survival rates, but as far as I know, gastric cancers are more serious.

      Download free medical ebooks at:

    What are the chances of survival with colon cancer?
    My good friend has stage 4 colon cancer. He recently had surgery at Vanderbilt Hospital (a world-class facility) and the doctor said his prognosis was better than they expected but that wasn't a clear enough answer for me. I couldn't find clear information on the web so I asked here thinking maybe someone here could share some info.

    • ANSWER:
      The median survival with treatment is 2-2.5 years.
      The 5 year survival rate is 5%.

    I have blood in my stools sometimes,does that nescesarily mean I have colon cancer?
    Yes,I don't know if I really have colon cancer or not.And I am to embaressed to ask my doctor if I do,considering the fact that I would have to tell him that I have blood in my stools.

    • ANSWER:
      Though blood in the stool may not necessarily mean colon cancer, it is important to have it checked by a doctor.

      As some of the others have mentioned, the color of the blood in your stool is significant. Bright colored blood could mean hemorrhoids and dark colored blood must surely be investigated.

      I am familiar with colon cancer because my dad and grandma died from it. Most of the time in the initial stages, there are hardly any symptoms. But once you pass out blood, it could already be stage one. But stage one colon cancer means that the survival rate is more than 90% and the patient need not go through chemotherapy.

      So, even if it is colon cancer, early detection can help you survive to a ripe old age. So I would suggest that you go see a doctor immediately. There is nothing to fear. In fact it will give you peace of mind.

      A friend of mine had blood in his stools and he thought he has hemorrhoids. He delayed seeing a doctor for 6 months. In the end, his whole rectum had to be removed and a colostomy has to be constructed to allow feces to flow out from his stomach into a bag. He no longer has control over his bowel movements.

      I hope you see a doctor immediately because too many people have ignored the early warning signs.

      BTW, no one here can tell from your symptoms whether you have or do not have colon cancer. Even the doctors cannot tell unless you go through a colonoscopy and have a fecal occult blood test.

      You make your own decisions. We are not qualified doctors here. So, take what others say with a pinch of salt. That includes me!


    What is the survival rate for these cancer operations?
    for a woman in her 80s,
    Brain cancer
    Colon cancer
    Bone cancer
    Oh! I should have mentioned, it's not all one person! one woman has Brain cancer, another has Colon cancer and after a medical mixup one woman was told she had Bone cancer (but didnt).
    The woman with Brain cancer was told the outcome would be uncertain, but the woman with Colon cancer has seen immediate improvement.

    • ANSWER:
      Those are not operations you listed a few types of cancer and they each have at least a few procedures to remove them. People are cleared for surgery and it is rare for anyone to die from surgical complications regardless of age.

    Can anyone tell me what the prognosis is for someone who has stage II colon cancer?
    I'm sorry that I can't phrase that a little bit less harsh, but I have recently found out someone that I know has stage II colon cancer. He has had surgery and is in round 2 of a six month chemo treatment. Will my friend survive? For how long?

    • ANSWER:
      Most cancers are measured in survival 5-year survival rates. This is the percentage of people alive 5 years after being diagnosed with the same kind and stage of cancer. Stage 2A colon cancers have a 5-year survival rate of 80% and 2B has a 75% survival rate. Long term survival depends on how well they respond to treatment. If is not uncommon for some cancers such as breast cancer or melanoma to recur 10-15 years later. This is not the case with colon cancers when they recur it is usually within 2-4 years.

    How long can you live with stage 4 cancer?
    My best friends mom has stage 4 colon cancer and it has spread to her lungs already, and she is losing her hair. She heard in school that stage 4 cancer gives you 6 months to live, and it freaked her out. any help with this?

    • ANSWER:
      There is no timetable for this sort of thing. Stage 4 cancer is not curable, but some cancers can be managed well allowing people to live for years with the disease. Unfortunately colon cancer is not one of them. It has a 5 year survival rate of 5%.

    My dad has colon cancer. How dangerous is this type of cancer?
    I just found out my dad has colon cancer. He has to go to the hospital next week and will be there for a week due to surgery. Apparently he's in an "early stage" or something, I don't really know a lot about this type of cancer. Does anyone know how dangerous this type of cancer can be? I'm getting worried and I was just wondering how curable it is.

    • ANSWER:
      Early stage colon cancer is usually cured on colonoscopy. Either way, he should not be in the hospital for a week. Average time for a colon resection is 4 days.
      Those cured on colonoscopy have a 5 year survival rate of 100% stage 4 colon cancer has a 5 year survival rate of 5%.

    Stage 4 Colon Cancer and long term survival?
    I know that stage 4 colon cancer tends to be the most severe, but was is the average survival rate for, say, an otherwise previously healthy 62-year-old female after colon surgery removed all of the cancer cells from the colon and lymph nodes, but with cancer cells still remaining only on the liver? And after the chemo treatments? Is stage 4 colon cancer the least severe of the cancers compared to other types of stage 4 cancers such as stage 4 lung cancer, etc?

    • ANSWER:
      I think in stage 4 of colon cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Common destinations include the liver and the lungs.The five-year survival rate for stage III colon cancer is about 64%. Patients with one to four positive lymph nodes have a higher survival rate than people with more than five positive lymph nodes.

    Average number of years before colon cancer kills you?
    I've been searching for an answer to this for the past hour and can't find anything. How many years, if untreated, does it take for colon cancer to kill you? My dad just got it and they said he's had it for a year.

    • ANSWER:
      You’re not going to find that information as there is no way to determine when the cancer first occurred making the information inaccurate and not useful. People usually have colon cancer for 5-8 years before they start having symptoms. Survival rates are based on stage.

    What is the survival rate for stage 4 lymphoma?
    I have stage 4 lymphoma follicular in the bone marrow and would like to know is it possible to get out of the bone marrow and the survival rate. Scared in Oklahoma . I have had 3 treatments so far and I;m wondering if I should stay away from sugar is there any truth in that

    • ANSWER:
      Sherry, I want you to know I will be praying for you.  First of all I am not a doctor but I have studied Iridology and Herbs and have been using this knowledge for about 30 years.  I apply it in my own health.  I know of a few people who turned to natural medicine back when I was in my late 20's and I am 65 today.  I had a friend who;s father was in his late 60's who had prostate cancer and it went throughout his body.  The doctor told him to go home and die they could do no more for him.  My friend, his son, went to stay with him and everyday he juiced fresh carrots and made him drink a quart in the morning and a quart at night, he also took barley green and vitamins, plus alot of vitamin C.  Six weeks later he went back to the doctor and the doctor did not even recognize him.  The doctor ran a test and he was clear of any cancer!  He was off all meats and onto a vegetarian diet with nuts and fruits and vegetables.  I hope that helps you.  Also there is something else you can do for yourself.  Start taking colonics to get the plaque out of the wall of the colon. Make sure your colon is moving every time you eat. Go to the yellow pages and look up a colonist.  Doing that will help to get the toxins out of the body.  Lymph has 45 pints of fluid in the body.  It carry's alot of toxin's.  Blood is alot less.  Cleaning the colon out is like pulling the cork out of a dirty bathtub. THe name of the game is raise your ammune system and clean up the body. You also need to get on alot of green drinks to help keep your strength up.  You can find liquid chlorophyl being sold in bottles or pills.  Spirulina is good.  Chlorella is another.  Also acidophillus is also something that you should consider taking, it puts the good bacteria back in your body and fights the bad bacteria. Germanium has been effective in curing cancer, it enables the blood's malignant cells to attract oxygen and so normalizes themselves. Some authorities have claimed that figs have helped cure lymphatic cancer. Purchase these books for alot of information on cancer. God Bless you.

    I had stage 3 colon cancer and stage 1 breast cancer within a few years, what is my long term survival?
    I am only 40 y/o, considered cancer free. Otherwise healthy, never smoked, no alcohol ever.
    Just want to be around for my children.

    • ANSWER:
      You are only 40 years old and have been diagnosed with breast cancer and colon cancer?!?!
      Oh you poor thing. Maybe you should invest a few bucks in lottery tickets are you are very overdue for some very good luck.
      We only know 5 year survival rates and your doctor would have gone over those with. Unfortunately someone as young as you are tend to have the most aggressive cancers, but overall the 5 year survival rate for stage 1 breast cancer is 95-100%.
      For stage 3 colon cancer it is 50-80% depending on which stage 3 you have.

    Has anyone had any experiences with colon cancer? my mom has been bleeding a lot from her rectum and we dont?
    know what stage its in yet. but I wanted to know the survival rate for it? my mom has a large tumor in her colon.
    We just found out today that she has colon cancer, tommorow they are going to do a cat scan to make sure it didnt spread and probably thursday they are going to remove the cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      First let me start by saying how sorry I am about your mom. I know exactly what you are going through. My mom was diagnosed last Thanksgiving with stage 4 colon cancer. It has spread to her liver & lungs. The survival rate will really depend on what stage your moms cancer is and whether it has spread to other organs. From what I've read about it, colon cancer tends to spread to the liver & the lungs, which is what has happened with my mom. I hope that your mom's cancer has been caught at an early treatable stage. Colon cancer is one of the most preventable/treatable cancers. My mom ignored alot of the warning signs and ignored her doctors when they wanted her to have a colonoscopy several years ago, if she had her cancer would have been caught at a much earlier stage. I wish you and your family strength and that your moms treatment is successful. I'm still scared of losing my mom, but they are coming up with new and better treatments all the time.

    I was just wondering how long the life expectancy of liver cancer at the fourth stage was?
    My dad was just diagnosed with liver and colon cancer, he just got an operation and removed the colon cancer and he has liver cancer at the fourth stage. He is going through chemotherapy right now and i was wondering what his life expectancy was going to be and what is the worst possible thing that could happen with the chemo, we are figuring he will be on it for roughly 4 months and then a major surgery and then chemo again for another 6months to make sure everything is gone... if all goes well.

    • ANSWER:
      I don’t think your dad has liver cancer, as it is far more likely that he only has colon cancer with mets to the liver. I am sorry, but in this situation the 5year survival rate is only about 5%. He is being treated with chemo to buy him more time not to cure him. At this point the worst thing that can happen with the chemo is that it does not slow the progression of his disease. I have the feeling this is not what you expected to hear and I am so very sorry.

    what can i expect with my father's stage 4 colon cancer?
    My father was diagnosed with stage 4 colon cancer last summer. He has been on chemo and they tried to remove spots on his liver but they returned and chemo started again. You look online at the survial rates and its less than 5% for 5 years and its already been one year!

    • ANSWER:
      I am not sure what you mean by what you can expect? Are you asking for an explanation of how the disease progresses or are you asking about the possibility of a cure? I do mean to be cruel I know this is a difficult time for you, but you should know that he cannot be cured. His doctors are doing their best to give him more time; they are not trying to cure him. When the disease no longer responds to chemo they will recommend stopping it. They 5 year survival rate you found is correct. This means about 5% of patients diagnosed with stage 4 colon cancer are alive 5 years later. I am so sorry.

      When you feel you are ready I suggest you look into hospice. These are wonderful, caring and special people who help patients and their families with the physical and emotional process of dieing. They will work with your father’s doctor to keep him as comfortable as possible and it allows him to remain at home. Best wishes to you both.

    Are there some cancers that are from an unknown kind of cancer, just cancer?
    I know cancer is usually in a location in the body, Colon Cancer, Breast Cancer, Testicular Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Brain Cancer, Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, etc.....
    But, are there some of an unknown origin where cancer is just in th body though not in any place or just spreading all over the body?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes. These are called "cancer of unknown primary".

      These cancers start out like ordinary cancers, but by the time the cancer is detected, it's not possible to identify where they started from. This is usually because the cancer has spread too much to identify the starting point.

      These cancers can be difficult to treat, as most cancer treatment is specifically designed for a given cancer type, which in this case is unknown. As such, the survival rate for unknown primary cancer is fairly low.

    How do chemotherapy drugs interact chemically with cancer cells to get rid of the cancerous cells?
    I have to give a chemistry project tomorrow in class and I need to have a basic understanding of what goes on chemically between chemotherapy drugs and the cancerous cells. Like what element interacts with what and how the chemo drugs stop the cancer cells from replicating. If anyone even has a most basic chemical explanation as to what occurs I would really appreciate it.

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotherapy works by destroying cancer cells; unfortunately, it cannot tell the difference between a cancer cell and some healthy cells. So chemotherapy eliminates not only the fast-growing cancer cells but also other fast-growing cells in your body, including, hair and blood cells.

      Some cancer cells grow slowly while others grow rapidly. As a result, different types of chemotherapy drugs target the growth patterns of specific types of cancer cells. Each drug has a different way of working and is effective at a specific time in the life cycle of the cell it targets.

      So, the chemicals are designed to go after specific cells that have a particular metabolic rate.

      Chemotherapy has NOT been very effective and the 5 year survival rate is very poor. It is expensive; a cancer patient is worth about 0,000 to the medical community.

      In 1972, according to the American Cancer Societies own figures, 33% of cancers had a five year survival rate. We should also point out that at that same time 33% of cancers went away on their own. Today, according to the ACS, the five year survival rate for cancer has risen to 40%. However, what they do not tell you is that:

      1.The statistics are invalid because they combine data of both local and metastasized cancers; and that the comparisons are not randomized [Ulrich Abel, Advanced Epithelial Cancer", 1990 (no longer in print) ]
      2.Cancers not factored into the original statistics are now factored in, such as skin cancers, many of which are not fatal and that the statistics are purposely inflated by including people with benign cancers.
      3.Technology has helped us to find cancers earlier, thus the survival time from diagnosis to eventual death has lengthened.
      4.They are now including in their stats non deadly skin cancers.

      By shrinking tumors, chemotherapy encourages stronger cancer cells to grow and multiply and become chemo resistant. Then there are the new cancers caused by chemotherapy, or secondary cancers. This quaint side effect is often overlooked in the lists of side effects in a drug's accompanying literature, though you can find this information quite easily at the National Cancer Institute. We pride ourselves in America for being technologically advanced and that our technology is rooted in a foundation of good science.


      When it comes to medicine, little at all is based upon science. Again we shall point to the Office of Technological Assessment’s paper: Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Medical Technologies in which we are told that fewer than 20% of all medical procedures have been tested, and that of those tested, half were tested badly.

      Medicine in America is not about healing.

      Most telling, according to Ralph Moss in his book Questioning Chemotherapy, is that in a good number of surveys, chemotherapists have responded that they would neither recommend chemotherapy for their families nor would they use it themselves. In an unpublished cohort study in which it was revealed that only 9% of oncologists took chemotherapy for their cancers.

      "Most cancer patients in this country die of chemotherapy.

      Chemotherapy does not eliminate breast, colon, or lung cancers. This fact has been documented for over a decade, yet doctors still use chemotherapy for these tumors,” Allen Levin, MD UCSF The Healing of Cancer.

      Additionally, Irwin Bross, a biostatistician for the National Cancer Institute, discovered that many cancers that are benign (though thought to be malignant) and will not metastasize until they are hit with chemotherapy. In other words, he's found that many people who've been diagnosed with metastatic cancer did not have metastatic cancer until they got their chemotherapy.

      For many cancers, chemotherapy just does not improve your survival rate. Some of these are colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, bladder, breast, ovarian, cervical and corpus uteri, head and neck. Knowing this, oncologists still recommend a regimen of chemotherapy, why?

      The answer you will get from oncologists that are honest is this: “We give it to patients so they won't give up hope and fall into the hands of quacks.” Quacks? Implicit in the definition of quackery is the sale of worthless or dangerous nostrums for profit. Who exactly are the quacks? Just because someone is wearing a white smock, has a title, and works in a nice air conditioned office, does NOT take away what he is. Con men don't look like crooks or they would never get anyone to buy into what they are selling. Looking credible does NOT mean they are.

      Dr Ulrich Abel, who poured over thousands and thousands of cancer studies, published his shocking report in 1990 stating quite succinctly that chemotherapy has done nothing for 80% of all cancers; that 80% of chemotherapy administered was absolutely worthless.

      To give a fair and accurate assessment of chemotherapy in your report, you should also tell people how it is NOT very effective and only a smal

    what are the Survival chances of colon caner?
    My grandfather has colon and prostate cancer and he said he is not going to be treated for it. He doesnt want to be sick from the chemo and all of those excuses. I have been preparing myself for sometime on how I will deal with this but what are his chances?

    • ANSWER:
      It depends on the stage early stage disease has high survival rates, at stage 4 the 5-year survival rate is 5%.

    What should I expect from this cancer?
    My pop has Colon cancer and they found 9 pollups I think that's what my dad said. They said they needed to start radiation and chemo but my pop is refusing to do any treatment. What should i expect from this?

    • ANSWER:
      This depends on the stage of the colon adenocarcinoma.
      Your information of 9 polyps does not tell us the stage of his disease.

      Stage I cancer - the tumor is confined to the bowel wall
      Stage II cancer - the cancer has grown beyond the muscular layer of the bowel wall.
      Stage III colon cancer - there has been spread to lymph nodes.
      Stage IV colon cancer - there is spread to distant organs - usually liver or lungs.

      Stage I cancers have a survival rate of 80-95 percent.
      Stage II cancers have survival rates ranging from 55 to 80 percent.
      Stage III colon cancers have about a 40 percent chance of cure
      Stage IV colon cancers have less than a 10 percent chance of a cure.

      Chemotherapy is used after surgery in many colon cancers which are stage II, III, and IV. It has been shown to increase the survival rates. This is not the case in stage I cancers, so chemotherapy is rarely used in this setting. The vast majority of stage I cancers are cured with surgery alone.

      Scientifically proven chemotherapy in 2009 may seem like medieval torture - especially fifty years from now when we look back at our present treatments - but it makes more sense than homeopathic remedies which have no scientific data supporting any benefit whatsoever. Most types of chemotherapy do not work very well for colon carcinomas. The rate of response is actually fairly low relative to other types of cancer which respond better to the many types of chemotherapy currently available. Some people may do just as well without chemotherapy. But it is a mistake to waste money on alternative treatments which have no scientific basis and no documented evidence of benefit. Alternative treatments with ground up "owl's toe" or "eye of newt" - shark cartilage or apricot pits - may provide the illusion that you are doing something positive. These treatments are often worse than medieval - they are the ancient medicine of quacks like Galen in 180 AD. It's amazing how many people subscribe to this foolishness.

      Radiation therapy makes little sense unless this is a rectal cancer.
      It would sure help if you had more information about his malignant disease. ' Strongly advise that you go with your dad when he sees his doctors. Then you can find out what his true situation may be.

    what else can i say about colon cancer?
    i have a group presentation on colon cancer. my part is the symptoms of colon cancer. The symptoms are Blood in stool, Thin stool, Abdonminal pain, and Fatigue. i have a breif describtion of each but that doesnt even give a one page summary. What else can i say to elborate more about the symptons of colon cancer.

    i dont want my group thinking im not doing my part its just there is little information on colon cancer symptoms its pretty straight forward.

    • ANSWER:
      Stage 3C 6 month survivor.

      The only symptom I had prior to diagnosis was acute abdominal pain/cramping, which was originally thought to be colitis. Colon cancer is one of the "sneaky" cancers that sometimes shows no symptoms at all.

      Blood in stool is an indicator, but amount of blood varies widely from survivor to survivor. An elevated CEA (Carcinoembryonic antigen) marker level is also a indicator, not not overtly accurate.

      Colon cancer is among the 3 most fatal cancers around. African Americans seen to have a higher likelihood of developing it. If caught early, survival rates are near 80% after 7 years.

      Best preventative is high fiber - high protein diet and colonoscopies at regular intervals after age 50, unless CC is in your family history, then screening should begin earlier.

    What is the average five-year cancer survival rate in the US vs Canada and Europe?
    US vs nations with socialized medicine.

    • ANSWER:
      Fact No. 1: Americans have better survival rates than Europeans for common cancers.[1] Breast cancer mortality is 52 percent higher in Germany than in the United States, and 88 percent higher in the United Kingdom. Prostate cancer mortality is 604 percent higher in the U.K. and 457 percent higher in Norway. The mortality rate for colorectal cancer among British men and women is about 40 percent higher.

      Fact No. 2: Americans have lower cancer mortality rates than Canadians.[2] Breast cancer mortality is 9 percent higher, prostate cancer is 184 percent higher and colon cancer mortality among men is about 10 percent higher than in the United States.

    What is the prognosis for stage 4b cervical cancer?
    I wanted to know the average life expectancy for stage 4b cervical cancer which has spread to bones, colon, spine and brain.

    • ANSWER:
      I don’t know why stage 4 cervical cancer would be different in the UK than it is in US, but the 5 year survival rate is 5% for stage 4B it is 2%. This person will not be in tat 2%.

    If a person has had colorectal cancer that has spread to the stomach what is the survival rate?
    My mom is 58 years old, she had colon cancer 8 years ago, she was clear for 7 years and in the last year has had a tumor form in her pelvis and spots on her lungs, both biopsied and results showed the same as her colon cancer. Yesterday she was diagnosed by x-ray of having stomache cancer, no biopsy yet to see if it is the same cancer, but assuming it is what is her chances of survival? She has lost 75 pounds in a year, 25 or more in the last 2 weeks while hospitalized. She has needed a blood transfusion, and went into renal failure 2 weeks ago. (she only has one kidney) She cannot eat solid foods, she will vomit, she has no appetite and is nautious all the time even with anti nausea meds. She is in extreme pain some days. The other night they maxed her out on narcotics, couldnt give her anymore without it being unsafe.
    also she has had a colostomy bag for the past year because of the pelvic tumor.
    so how bad does this sound and what is her treatment options and chances?

    • ANSWER:
      My heart goes out to you. Have you talked to Cancer Treatment Centers of America? They say that they treat the whole person. I am including a link for their website, since it couldn't hurt for you to talk to someone with experience, especially since they specialize in treating cancer. Their website says that they do treat colon cancer, along with many others. I hope so much that you can find the answers that you seek.

    I have had cancer twice, one was ovarian stage 3 what are the odds of returning?
    I went into remission with ovarian stage 3 after surgery and 6 chemo treatments after 14 months scar tissue from ovarian surgery wrapped around my small intestines and after removing 18 inches they discovered it had returned in lymph nodes and was treated 6 more times. My last treatment was dec 2010. What are the odds of it returning? And if stage 3 what is the survival rate?

    • ANSWER:
      No one will be able to tell you the odds. If your ovarian cancer metastasized to your lymph nodes, there is no guarantee it won't spread anywhere else. My mom was diagnosed in 1998 with stage 3 breast cancer. Since then, it has spread to her lungs, bone, liver and colon with a second diagnoses of breast cancer in between. She's been on chemo every week for the past 6 years and is still going strong, working full time. I can only imagine how scary going through cancer can be, I know it has been hard on me as a daughter. But keep positive and God bless.

    When was the first appearance of Cancer?
    When was the first appearance of Cancer?

    Year or whenever.

    • ANSWER:
      Colon Cancer Treatments For Ages 50 and Under by Ric Bai

      If you think colon cancer only starts at 50, think again. Even though detection methods have improved and there has been a decline in this type of cancer in people over 50, recent studies have revealed that this type of cancer has risen in people between the ages of 20 to 29 by 5.9%.

      Bowel Cancer and a Positive Attitude by Roger Cuff

      We all know that a positive attitude is a good thing, but how does that apply to bowel cancer? We've all heard about the power of positive thinking. Having a positive attitude and so on.

      Drugs That Are Utilized to Treat Colon Cancer by Naomi West

      Colon cancer is one of the worst and most irritating cancers that you may hurt from. This is because it can be tough to discover it in its early level and even harder to keep it from gravely wounding someone's body. However, there are distinct treatments that are used to help keep it from distributing to essential organs in the body.

      Colon Cleansing - Cancer Prevention by G. A Allen

      Colon cleansing, can play an important role in a preventative programme for good colonic and general health. Individuals who are pro-active in seeking information, adopting a healthy diet and lifestyle, using screening facilities and practising prevention considerably reduce the risk of becoming a victim of bowel cancer.

      What Kind of Fat Does Colon Cancer Like? by Yanick Bertrand Ph.D.

      All fat are not equal, some are good, some are bad and some are straight ugly for colon cancer. Do you know the difference?

      Risk Factors in Bowel Cancer by Roger Cuff

      Eighty three percent of bowel cancers diagnosed are in people 60 years and over. What about the other seventeen percent? Are you aware of the risk factors? Read on and I'll try and help you stay out of that seventeen percent group.

      Colon Cancer Treatment Options by George Edmondson

      There are various forms of treatment available for colon cancer with high success rates. The earlier cancer is detected, the higher the survival rates are.

      Bowel Cancer - Early Detection by Roger Cuff

      Bowel cancer or colorectal cancer survival depends on a number of factors. Your best chance and the number one priority is early detection.

      Colon Cancer Signs, Symptoms and Methods of Treatment by Darrell D Price

      According to the latest facts, over 145,000 people are diagnosed with colon cancer symptoms each year. Colorectal is a cancerous condition that affects the organs of the digestive system and rectum. The body's primary digestive systems is made up of a large intestinal tract and colon.

      Colon Cancer by Mercy Maranga

      Colon cancer, also called colorectal cancer involves cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and the appendix. It is the third most common cancer in the world.

      Colon Cancer Survival Statistics - What You Didn't Know About Cancer! by Henri Junttila

      Colon cancer was one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the U.S in 2005. 72,000 men and 69,000 women were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. About 26,700 and 26,200 died from colorectal cancer. It is a disease that is very common in today's world, but the good news is that the survival rate has been going up for the last 20 years.

      Take care...

    Lynn Redgrave died, but she was cured of breast cancer. How can that be?
    The paper said the actress died after 7 years of fighting breast cancer. But she was a cancer surviver and cured after 5 years she was still living. If she was cured, why did she die of the cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      The medical community has decided to create an illusion that we are making progress using the 3 methods of "curing" cancer that has been legally accepted in the United States for the last approximately 100 years. Billions of dollars have been poured into this feeble attempt and it is failing miserably, but that is not something the medical community can tolerate. So they have done some things with the statistics that borders on shameful.

      Cancer is the ONLY disease that uses a 5 year survival rate as the criteria to say a person is "CURED." The time starts when you are diagnosed. So now they are pushing everyone to get diagnosed early on the idea that you have a better chance of being cured. Well that's clever. Since it takes about 8 to 10 years for cancer to be growing before it is typically able to be diagnosed and another 10 years to die from it if you get NO treatments, the earlier you are diagnosed, the better statistic you will be.

      Redgrave died 7 years after she was diagnosed, so she was CURED according to the way she will be listed. If they had diagnosed her a few years later, she would not be a good statistic and have to be labeled as NOT CURED.

      She had breast cancer and the typical chemotherapy and radiation treatments statistically only cure 1.4% of those people. Living 7 years from diagnosis, she gets the distinction of her relatives of saying she beat the odds and was part of the 1.4% cured.

      I challenge any person here on this forum or anywhere to show us all credible evidence that ADVANCED BREAST CANCER TUMOR PATIENTS BEING TREATED WITH CONVENTIONAL MEDICINE DO BETTER OR LIVE LONGER THAN UNTREATED. Where is the study that shows that? In fact, you will NOT see the real data, but only carefully massaged data that gives the results that promotes huge donations of money that is being poured down a rat hole and wasted on research that is just NOT WORKING.

      Even the "cancer studies" are being manipulated to present a favorable impression that Cancer cures are making lots of progress, when in real life, it is just the opposite. It's now very common for these guys to make insults on our intelligence by using some ridiculous "Relative Benefit" study, and not the true data by using ONLY an "Absolute Benefit" study, like the major trickery used for Tamoxifen where the Absolute Benefit was 1.5% and the Relative Benefit was 49%. These guys are using the Relative Benefit and this is simply deceptive and wrong. When looking at data being presented, it is important to make sure honesty and true numbers are what you are looking at.

      There are several cancers to consider when establishing the percentage of cases that are lumped into the 2 - 3% cure rate that chemotherapy & radiation are showing. Here is that data showing the % cured (defined using the word cured to mean that ridiculous 5 year survival rate) for a specific cancer using the conventional chemotherapy & radiation or surgery. The study that was done was called "The Contribution of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy to 5-year Survival in Adult Malignancies. This study took every randomized controlled clinical trial performed in the U.S. from 1990 to 2004 and the results showed the above Cancer cure statistics:

      Uterus: 00.0%; Stomach 00.7%; Colon 01.0%; Breast 01.4%; Head & Neck: 01.9%; Lung 2.0%; Rectal 3.4%; Brain 3.7%; Esophagus 04.9%; Ovary 08.9%; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma 10.5%; Cervix 12%; Testes 37.7%; Hodgkin's 40.3%.

      Now realize that Testes and Hodgkin's only represents 2% of the total cancers.

      To put an even better perspective on this understand that ANY drug evaluated by the medical community that shows less than 30% effectiveness is considered to be LESS THAN A PLACEBO. So, a sugar pill is just as effective as about 98% or more cancer treatments used today! ! !

      You will be interested to know that the AMERICAN CANCER SOCIETY in 2007 said "Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy... seldom produce a cure." That was a quote from the "CANCER FACTS & FIGURES 2007."

      I do wish the medical people would STOP using the word CURE for cancer at the 5 year survival rate. This is deceptive and degrading to real credible science. CURE in all other diseases, except Cancer, is defined as "ELIMINATION OF DISEASE." Why NOT be honest for a change about what is really going on? Instead of trying to hide the real facts, let's examine what is really working and what isn't. Drug companies love the fact that the typical cancer patient will waste 0,000 to fight cancer with these concoctions that are worse than sugar pills.

      The most effective ways to treat cancer is what is being done outside the U.S. It is illegal for anyone to use any cancer treatment that does not involve chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery! All other treatments are considered illegal and a person can be put in jail for using, promoting, or experimenting, yet many of these treatments are getting tremendous successes. The average person fights off about 6 events of cancer in their lifetime. The body eliminates cancer cells each day as part of the immune system defenses. Our bodies are designed to do that.

      Giving people poisons to fight cancer and destroying the immune system is as ridiculous today as it was when the top allopathic doctors decided to drain 1/2 of the blood out of the body of George Washington to cure a sore throat. That didn't work, so the next day they gave him 650 mg. of mercury thinking that would do it. It did, HE DIED. That was chemotherapy, or more aptly put, chemical poisoning.

      To get far better answers to a "cancer cure," you should investigate the GERSON CLINIC in San Diego that has a facility across the border in Mexico where they can treat people by supporting a good immunity and detoxification that really works.

      good luck to you

    how much chances of survival of Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix?
    Hi, my mother have Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix and cervical cancer...
    How much chances she have for survival...

    Pls be honest in reply.
    Its 1st stage .

    • ANSWER:
      Jack Mihai,
      Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is a rare form of cervical cancer which tends to be quite aggressive. The “prognosis” of Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix usually refers to the likely outcome of Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix and may include the duration of Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix, chances of complications of Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix, probable outcomes, prospects for recovery, recovery period for Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix, survival rates, death rates, and other outcome possibilities in the overall prognosis of Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix. Naturally, such forecast issues are by their nature unpredictable and there is no way to make a generalised prediction. You would be advised to discuss your mothers daily condition with her oncologist/doctor. You state she has stage 1. That is rather meaningless as it depends what staging system is being used. The TNM system is one of the most widely used staging systems. The TNM system is based on the extent of the tumour (T), the extent of spread to the lymph nodes (N), and the presence of distant metastasis (M). A number is added to each letter to indicate the size or extent of the primary tumour and the extent of cancer spread. For many cancers, TNM combinations correspond to one of five stages. Criteria for stages differ for different types of cancer. For example, bladder cancer T3 N0 M0 is stage III, whereas colon cancer T3 N0 M0 is stage II. I regret that I am not able to be more exact. I wish your mother well.


      It is extremely important to obtain an accurate diagnosis before trying to find a cure. Many diseases and conditions share common symptoms.

      The information provided here should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions.

      Hope this helps
      matador 89

    What are the different stages of colon cancer?
    My dad had a portion of his colon removed. The doctor said he's 98% sure it's cancer and they're going to see whether it's reached stage 3 or not. Do you think if it's reached stage 4 they would have known already? He's had a CT scan before his surgery...would it have been detected from that??

    • ANSWER:
      YES. If it is stage 3 or 4 cancer he would definetely known about it early. Even in the CT also it will be shown clearly. Anyway, you doctor is the best judge and he will do the needful. I am giving below the details of different stages of Colon cancer just for your information -

      People who have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of developing colon cancer. While colon cancer is among the most preventable of cancers, it is often not diagnosed until symptoms become apparent or bothersome. By that time, the colon cancer may be in a more advanced stage.

      Colorectal cancer has four distinct stages, along with a fifth stage that is called 'recurring'. Each stage has different treatment options and five-year survival rate.

      Stage 0
      This is the earliest stage of colorectal cancer. The cancer only involves the lining, or mucosa, of the colon or rectum and is confined to polyp(s) (tissue bulging from the surface of an organ). When the polyps are removed during a colonoscopy (a procedure known as a polypectomy), the chance of them progressing to later stages of cancer is eliminated.

      Stage I
      Stage I colon cancer involves more than just the inner lining of the colon. The polyp has progressed to a tumor, and extends into the wall of the colon or rectum. Treatment can include surgery to remove the section of the colon that is cancerous. This type of surgery is called a resection. The healthy, non-cancerous sections of the colon are reconnected again. The five-year survival rate is 95 percent.

      Stage II
      Stage II colorectal cancer is when the cancer has spread beyond the colon to the tissue that surrounds the colon but has not spread to lymph nodes. Cancer spreading in this manner from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. A resection surgery may also be used to treat this stage of cancer. The five-year survival rate drops dramatically to 60 percent.

      Stage III
      Cancer that has spread outside the colon and on to the lymph nodes in the area surrounding the colon is known as Stage III. In this stage, the cancer has not spread to other organs in the body, and treatment is more aggressive. Surgical resection of the colon, chemotherapy, and other medical therapies may be necessary. The five-year survival rate is 35 to 60 percent.

      Stage IV
      In this stage, the cancer had spread to other organs in the body such as the lungs or liver. In addition to a surgical resection and chemotherapy, radiation treatment and surgery to remove other affected parts of the body may be necessary. At this stage, there is only a 3 percent chance of reaching the five-year survival time.

      Recurrent Cancer
      Cancer that comes back again after treatment, either in the colon, or in some other part of the body, is called recurrent. Even after successful treatment of colon cancer, regular check ups are necessary to catch any recurrent cancer early.

      In the early stages, colon cancer is one of the most curable cancers. In the later - it is the second most deadly. Colon cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in America (lung cancer is the first). Contrary to popular belief, only 15 percent of colon cancer patients must have a permanent colostomy.-

    Can Dogs get colon cancer and if so whats the survival rate?
    That's pretty much it the top explain`s it all

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, dogs can get colon cancer. But, until it is diagnosed, many things can scare us that are not, in fact, cancer. Please get this diagnosed by a vet - there may be no reason to be worried. I hope that is true.

      If not... then sadly, there is really no way to answer your question in a helpful manner. So much depends on the age of your dog, breed/mix, how far along the cancer is and more.

      It is an important question because "success" in canine cancers is sometimes measured in months, not years. Getting the information from a vet on what is likely for your dog with a specific cancer at a specific stage can help anyone figure out next steps.

      Here are a few links to help you sort out things out:

      Again, I hope that these is nothing here to worry about.


      Sarah Wilson

    Are there any blood tests that check for the reocurance of stage 1 colon cancer?
    If there are any could tell me what they are and how acurate they are. Some level came back high and the doctor wants him to have a ct scan. He had surgery to remove the stage 1 cancer in December. Just want to know if this is something to be worried about. Please help

    • ANSWER:
      I think you asked a similar question yesterday. There is no diagnostic blood test for any cancer. Stage 1 colon cancer has a 5 year survival rate of 90-95% and recurrence is unlikely and certainly not 7 months after surgery. These are usually slow growing cancers and recurrence is checked by colonoscopy.

    What is the survival rate for colon cancer?
    Specifically that of someone who was at stage 4 when dr's caught it and treated it. Thanks!
    It is for a family member who was diagnosed this time last year, had surgery, and under went both chemotherapy / radiation. Got a sign of clear from the doctors last month.. thanks

    • ANSWER:
      The statistics point to 20-30% of people who have been diagnosed with stage 4 colon cancer to live 5 years. In stage 4 colon cancer the cancer has moved on to other parts of the body, such as the liver or lungs. It is this point when surgery is done (segmental resection or colostomy) the problems caused by blockage can be relieved. At stage 4, curing the cancer is nearly impossible unless the tumors that have spread are able to be removed as well as removal from resection of the colon.

      People may only survive for a few months after diagnosis, some up to 5 years. A small percentage of people live more than 5 years. In the end, it's individual.

      Edit: I hope your family member beats the odds and is with you for a long time.

    how fast the colon cancer adenocarcinoma will spread?
    Is it advisable to conduct a major surgery if the patient has a colon cancer adenocarcinoma? what is the recovery time?

    • ANSWER:
      Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of colon cancer and typically it is slow growing. However, from your question it sounds like you or someone else had a colonoscopy and polypectomy with a positive margin. If this is the case surgery is usually recommended as it only takes a single cancer cell left behind for the cancer to grow and spread. You do have plenty of time for a second or third opinion if that will make you more comfortable.

      Keep in mind colon cancer is very treatable when caught early, but deadly when it is not. In it’s early stages the 5 year survival rate is 95-85%, but if 3 or more lymph nodes are involved it drops to 50% and if it metastasizes it plummets to 5%.

      The hospital stay for a colon resection is about 4 days, by that time you should tolerate a normal diet. Full recovery will take several weeks as they have to cut the abdominal wall, sort of like a C-section if any of your children were born that way. Hope this helps. Good luck.

    What do you mean in pathology of colon cancer findings, "all line of resection are free of tumor?"?
    Is it good prognosis? even if only 2 of 5 lymph nodes are invaded by cancer cells and pericolic fat are invaded.

    • ANSWER:
      Your doctor should have gone over these results with you so you would know what it means and they should have also discussed prognosis as it pertains to your case specifically. I have never seen a pathology report written this way, but it means the margins are clear and if they were not it would not mean there would be leaking. Although having clear margins is good you cannot determine prognosis by it. A minimum of 12 nodes should have been sampled, but based on what you are stating this is a stage 3B with a 5 year survival rate of 56%.

    Is it strange I would refuse cancer treatment?
    I was a having a discussion with friends the other day and they were surprised when I said I would refuse treatment in case I found out cancer.

    I have a family history of colon and prostate cancer and I've never been to a doctor in my life. I've had several family members dying of cancer and according to the doctors they all had 'great chances'. None of them lived another year, you know how doctors are chronic liars.

    I'm not married and I don't have children and I wouldn't want to be a burden to others. So it's best to let nature run its course.

    • ANSWER:
      If you ever do get cancer, you are very likely to find that what you think you would do if you get cancer and what you actually do are two very different things.

      When I, like you now, knew very little (next to nothing) about cancer or its treatments I felt the same. Even when I was diagnosed with aggressive, advanced cancer I was determined to refuse chemotherapy.

      But I didn't - because I educated myself. And I found out - both by asking my oncologist and by my own research - the percentage by which chemo would increase my survival chances. It wasn't insignificant, so I agreed to go ahead.

      That was eight and a half years ago. I'm in complete remission, fit and healthy, working full-time (very full-time!), dependent on and a burden to nobody.

      Many, many other people can tell similar stories - because, contrary to what your first answerer (another person who clearly knows zip about cancer) claims, cancer survival rates have never been higher and more people survive cancer than die from it.

      I suspect you're trying to be provocative with this question, and with your description of doctors as 'chronic liars'. Didn't you ask almost the exact same question and a series of others with another account a few weeks ago?

    liver cancer - has anyone successfully used a treatment called enhanced zeolite?
    I have read so much about alternative treatments and really need to know if anyone has tried successfully to reduce large tumours?
    What a poor first answer, no need for the thick sarcasm or 'smart' remarks,..I don't need a biology lesson, I simply asked for anyone who had used this treatment, fortunately you don't need to ask such questions.

    • ANSWER:
      RF ablation has been known to reduce tumor mass in the liver. Read up on S. Nahum Goldberg, BIDMC, he is the most published on the technique.

      Radiofrequency, Chemotherapy Prove Effective Duo in Destroying Tumors
      Released: June 19, 2003

      At A Glance

      Rats survived three times longer when their cancer tumors were treated with combined chemotherapy and radio-frequency ablation (RFA).
      Doctors have seen a 25 percent increase in liver tumor destruction among 25 patients treated with combined RFA/chemotherapy at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

      Media Contacts:
      Maureen Morley
      (630) 590-7754 Heather Babiar
      (630) 590-7738

      NEW YORK - Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with chemotherapy is currently being used to treat malignant liver tumors at a Boston hospital on the basis of results from a new study appearing in the July issue of the journal Radiology.

      The minimally invasive, outpatient procedure is performed on primary liver cancer or colon cancer tumors that have spread to the liver of patients at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

      "It's exciting that a simple, image-guided technique, along with chemotherapy, can enhance the area of tumor killed," said Jonathan B. Kruskal, M.D., Ph.D., section chief of abdominal imaging at Beth Israel Deaconess and associate professor of radiology at Harvard Medical School in Boston. "Our research shows that we are now able to treat larger tumors with this combined therapy."

      RFA uses heat to destroy malignant tumors. After sedating the patient, radiologists locate the tumor with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A four- to 10-inch-long electrode, similar to a biopsy needle, is guided into the center of a tumor via imaging. The electrode delivers radiofrequency current to heat and destroy the tumor tissue.

      Dr. Kruskal co-authored the Radiology study, which indicated that with the addition of chemotherapy, tumors larger than five centimeters can be treated with RFA and that partially destroying tumors with RFA slows tumor growth and improves survival.

      "Large tumors are typically not considered amenable to RFA treatment. Our results suggest that they may well be," he said.

      The research, performed by Guiseppe D'Ippolito, M.D., and colleagues under the direction of S. Nahum Goldberg, M.D., the senior author of the study, was the first randomized controlled study on combined RFA and chemotherapy treatments in animals. Dr. Kruskal presented it today during a Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) media briefing on image-guided therapies.

      Liposomal doxorubicin (a chemotherapeutic agent) and RFA were used to treat breast tumors implanted into 49 rats and grown from 10 days to two weeks. The animals were divided into four treatment groups: RFA only, doxorubicin only, RFA combined with doxorubicin, and a control group receiving no treatment.

      Doxorubicin is dispensed in fat droplets, which circulate through the body and find the tumor, helping to destroy it. When doxorubicin was combined with RFA, results showed a reduction in tumor growth rates and a tripling in the average survival rate compared with the group receiving no treatment.

      "The survival of animals increased from nine days in the control group to 27 days with the combined therapy," Dr. Kruskal said. "This study opens up the possibilities of using other drug cocktails with RFA to kill tumors and to treat tumors outside of the liver."

      RFA is a good option for treating liver tumors. Many people with liver tumors are not appropriate candidates for surgery because their tumors are too widespread or inaccessible or because of their poor physical health. They also may not be candidates for a liver transplant.

      A liver tumor can be ablated with radiofrequency in about 30 to 60 minutes, without affecting the liver's normal tissue. RFA is a one- to three-hour outpatient procedure that can be used to treat recurrent liver tumors. It is less risky than surgery, can be performed without general anesthesia and causes minimal discomfort. Patients can most often go home the same day.

      Risks associated with RFA include bleeding and injury to other organs and "post-ablation" syndrome, which includes flu-like symptoms.

      Beth Israel Deaconess is currently the only hospital providing combined RFA and liposomal chemotherapy, according to Dr. Kruskal. Approximately 25 patients have been treated with the combined therapy by Dr. Goldberg, director of the tumor ablation program at Beth Israel Deaconess, and they are seeing a 25 percent increase in the volume of tumor destruction. Based on these results, Drs. Goldberg and Kruskal are planning further studies, including a large clinical study comparing RFA alone to RFA combined with liposomal chemotherapy.

      "RFA has been used worldwide for the last five or six years to treat tumors up to five centimeters," Dr. Kruskal said. "With the new combined therapy, where patients are given doxorubicin intravenously prior to the start of RFA, physicians will be able to treat larger tumors, up to eight centimeters."

      The purpose of this study, partly funded by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institutes of Health, was to determine whether combined intravenous liposomal doxorubicin and RFA decreased tumor growth and increased endpoint survival - that is, from the start of treatment until the tumor reached three centimeters. Following treatment, tumors were measured every two to three days until they reached three centimeters.

      The rats that received RFA and doxorubicin had a mean endpoint survival of 27 days. Rats receiving either RFA or injections of doxorubicin had an endpoint survival of 16 days. The control group, with no treatment, reached endpoint survival at 10 days.

      Radiology is a monthly scientific journal devoted to clinical radiology and allied sciences. The journal is edited by Anthony V. Proto, M.D., School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Va. Radiology is owned and published by the Radiological Society of North America Inc. (

      The RSNA is an association of more than 33,000 radiologists, radiation oncologists and related scientists committed to promoting excellence through education and by fostering research, with the ultimate goal of improving patient care. The Society's headquarters are located at 820 Jorie Blvd., Oak Brook, Ill. 60523-2251. (

      For information on radiology procedures and therapies, visit

      # # #

      "Percutaneous Tumor Ablation: Reduced Tumor Growth with Combined Radio-Frequency Ablation and Liposomal Doxorubicin in a Rat Breast Tumor Model." Collaborating with Dr. Kruskal on this study were Nahum Goldberg, M.D.; Giuseppe D'Ippolito, M.D.; Muneeb Ahmed, M.D.; Geoffrey D. Girnun, Ph.D.; Keith E. Stuart, M.D.; and Elkan F. Halpern, Ph.D.

    What is the life expectancy of a 62 year old male with lung cancer spread from bowel. ?
    He had removed from bowel in January and recently got a lot better after initial chemotherapy. Second round about to start. In January he also had pneumonia which has since cleared. However cough now returned and bringing up material. Growth on neck and something breaking out on face. Also pains in legs. He is optimistic and a figher.He expects to live for years but I need to know what is realistic.

    • ANSWER:
      If he has colon cancer that spread to his lungs it is still colon cancer not lung cancer. If this happened while he was on chemo it means he is not responding well. The 5 year survival rate for a stage 4 colon cancer is 5%.

colon cancer survival rate

Arm Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions

    Is squamous cell cancer a disability for social security?
    I want to know if facial and arm cancer qualified under social security guidelines?

    • ANSWER:
      If you are talking about squamous cell skin cancer confined to the skin then the answer is no. If you have squamous cell skin cancer that has metastasized to your lymph nodes or another organ like your lungs or liver then you have a good case for getting SSDI.

      According to SS rule number 13.03 to qualify for benefits (besides needing to have the requisite number of work credits that would entitle you to SSDI benefits) you must have:

      13.03 Skin.
      A. Sarcoma or carcinoma with metastases to or beyond the regional lymph nodes

      If you are unsure whether or not you are qualified your Dr could tell you whether or not your disease met these specifications.

      If trying to qualify for SSDI I suggest you join the Yahoo DisInIssues group at: This group is moderated by several disability experts that can help guide you through the complicated process of getting approved for SSDI. The group also covers private disability issues but at least half the info is about getting approved for SSDI. The Files section alone could save you from having to hire a disability lawyer.
      Good luck with both the SSDI and the SCC

    Why is cancer most predominant in the organs?
    Lungs, brain, liver, colon, i.e. soft tissues, is where the vast majority of cancers hit. Even skin(which gets hit too) is an organ. Why not muscle tissue? I've never heard of arm cancer or knee cancer, or heart cancer. Why is muscle tissue (seemingly) immune?

    • ANSWER:
      This is an extremely good question. Primary tumors of the heart are very rare. In 20 years as a cancer specialist MD, I never saw one - - but these would be handled by a thoracic surgeon rather than a medical oncologist which was my specialty.
      The only cancer that seems to spread to the actual heart muscle is malignant melanoma, and by then the cancer is usually many other places as well.
      Skeletal muscle does develop cancer - sarcomas, but these are not common - no where near as common as breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, or prostate cancer.

      Some cancers are related to hormonal influences such as breast, prostate, ovarian, uterine. Some cancers are related to exposures to carcinogenic chemicals such as lung and colon cancers. This is not an adequate answer to your question - - but I think you have hit on an interesting observation.

    In theory how would one mutate genes to become super human?
    I was curious because i know mutation is horrible and never ends up like spider man or the hulk but instead a 3rd arm or cancer. But in theory wouldnt it be possible to grow wings or increase muscle capabilities, if so how?

    • ANSWER:
      Mutation is not always horrible. Sometimes it's beneficial, sometimes it's neutral. Intentional mutations are theoretically possible, but you would have to know what gene to target, and in what way, as in, which nucleotide do you replace, where, and with what? It's probably safe to say that something like growing wings is impossible. Large, complex structures controlled by multiple genes and involving radical body plan changes would be difficult if not completely impossible to accomplish all at once. But increasing strength or stamina or aerobic efficiency seems plausible, at least.

      The human genome and that of several other species (which can give us clues to our own evolution) have been sequenced so we are learning more and more about how individual genes and groups of genes influence physical and behavioral traits. So many traits are polygenic—controlled by more than one gene—and many genes control more than one, not obviously liked, trait. There are also "junk DNA" and RNA that does not code for proteins but control the genome in other ways.

      So... It would be so complex and studying the effect of mutating or turning on or off specific genes would raise serious ethical concerns so, at least based on my knowledge, it's extremely difficult to predict what we might be able to do.

    If you have ever found a lump in your armpit, what did it turn out to be when you got it check out?
    I recently found a lump in my right armpit. It is hard and and about the size of a pea and hurts when i touch it. I can feel it when i stretch my arm out or raise my arm up. Cancer does not run in my family, but I realize that it doesn't have to to end up with it. I'm calling a doctor tomorrow to schedule an appointment. I was just wondering if this happened to anyone else and what the outcome was. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      I went in and the doctor said it was b/c I cut myself shaving and an ingrown hair was there. I pop some of mine.

    Help. Is a red little lump under my arm pit the start of Molluscum Contagiosum?
    I have noticed a little red lumpy bit of shin under my arm pit. It like a small round tiny lump. It has become sore to touch and has got a little bigger and redder? I'm wooried that I've caught Molluscum Contagiosum from my little cousin. How do I stop it from spreading if it is the start of Molluscum Contagiosum? Very worried.

    • ANSWER:
      Go to a doctor who can see and test the red lump. I have no idea how many physicians spend time on YA, but even the best can't diagnose your problem sight unseen. Do I mean to scare you more? Yes! A lump that increases in size might be cancer. Get it looked at today if possible.

    What is the risk to cancer (oncology) nurses from working with dangerous chemotherapy drugs?
    What is the risk to nurses working in the cancer field (oncology) due to their proximity to cancer causing drugs and radiation and chemotherapy? I am hearing stories of many oncology nurses loosing their hair?

    • ANSWER:
      Oncology nurses are no more exposed to cancer causing agents than anyone else. If they work with radiation, they are generally far away from where the radiation is being applied and if they are in close proximity, they will wear dosimeters.that measure your exposure to radiation.

      Chemo drugs are bagged and generally given through IVs, so unless they are sticking the needle into their own arms, they are not getting exposed to chemo drugs. None of the nurses I see have lost hair.

    How conscious is a person about to die from cancer?
    My mother is in the final stage of pancreatic cancer. We have hospice care at our home and they always have a nurse with her in her room. Shes on a lot of pain medication and they say her liver and kidney's are failing. How conscious is she? Shes not responsive but what is going on in her mind?
    I've been too afraid to go up to her room because i'm disturbed by how skinny and jaundiced she is.
    Essentially i'm asking even though shes sleeping all but 25 minutes a day is she suffering?

    • ANSWER:
      When I was a nursing student, we were told that the last thing to go is hearing. In fact, hearing is keener near death. She's not responsive because she's on so many pain meds, I'm sure she's on a high dose of morphine. In all honesty, I don't think she is suffering because of her medications. I want you to know this and it's very important. Go to your mother and talk to her. I was in a coma after my fourth child was born. I couldn't respond or react to anything but I heard everything that was being said. I even heard the Dr tell my husband that he didn't expect me to survive. Inside, I was screaming. Your mother may not respond to what you say but please, let her know you're there. It's so important for dying patient to know that someone they love is with them. Don't deprive her of the love that she gave to you. She's not sleeping all but 25 min. It may seem that way. but she is most likely alert in her mind and she's screaming too. She will hear you. I know she will. I know what it's like to watch your mother fade away. We stayed by my mother's side constantly for the last week of her life. She was in a coma but we sang to her, talked to her, even laid in the bed with her. When my mom died 3 yrs ago, she knew her children were there. I'm not saying for you to do all those things. My mom was cut-up and always joking around which is why we sang etc. So go see her. You have to look beyond the weight issue and jaundice. Picture her the way she was. It's hard, believe me I know, but you will have no doubts when her time comes. You can hold your head up and people will know you were with her to the end. Gosh, I wish I could put my arms around you right now. I am so sorry you have to see this, go through it too. but she is your mom and she was always with you when you young and sick. Now it's your turn to return that love. Talk to her like you always did. She won't respond, but she'll hear you. God bless both of you.

    How do you know when a cancer patient's body is shutting down?
    I know a cancer patient who's kindey's have started producing creamy fluid, is this a sign of her body shutting down?

    • ANSWER:
      Signs to watch for when death is closing in are:

      several signs can indicate that your loved one is at the end of life
      and is beginning the dying process. This is called the pre-active
      phase of dying, and it generally begins about two weeks before death,
      but this can vary. Signs that your loved one has entered this phase of
      the end of life include:

      Difficulty getting out of bed. Many formerly active people may find
      they no longer have the strength or energy to get out of bed at the
      end of life.

      Restlessness. This may manifest as agitation or the need to be moved
      or repositioned often.

      Withdrawal from activities. Your loved one may no longer want to
      participate in social activities he or she used to enjoy.
      Increased need for sleep. Your loved one may spend most of the day
      asleep as the end of life nears.

      Loss of appetite. It's natural for people who are dying to gradually
      reduce the amount they eat and drink. Don't force your loved one to
      eat and try not to take it personally if he or she refuses a meal
      you've spent time preparing. Provide only the foods that your loved
      one wants. Eating or not eating won't slow down or speed up the dying

      Pauses in breathing. This can happen when the person is asleep or awake.

      Difficulty healing. Wounds and infections may not heal.

      Swelling in the arms and legs. Swelling may occur in other areas of
      the body, as well.

      Seeing people who have already died. Your loved one may speak about
      seeing or feeling the presence of loved ones who have died.

      Settling unfinished business. This might include calling for people he
      or she hasn't seen in many years or expressing a need to tie up loose

      I have also heard of people fidgeting with the bed covers, as if in
      trying to pick things off the linen.

      What to expect in the last days of life
      Your loved one may begin to show other signs when death is imminent.
      This is called the active phase of dying and usually begins about
      three days before death. How people die varies greatly, but you can
      expect some of the common signs, including:

      Cool arms and legs. While the hands, arms, feet and legs will feel
      cool to the touch, your loved one's trunk will feel warm.

      Bluish coloration. Fingers, earlobes, lips and nail beds may turn blue.
      Purple coloration on the legs. Also called mottling, this blotchy
      coloring is one of the clearest signs that death is approaching.

      No longer eating or drinking. Your loved one may not feel like eating,
      or he or she may no longer be able to swallow.

      Congested breathing. Noisy breathing is sometimes called the "death
      rattle." As secretions from the lungs build up, your loved one may no
      longer be able to cough up these secretions. Eventually the secretions
      will dry up because your loved one's body may become dehydrated after
      he or she stops eating and drinking.

      Medications can control congestion if your loved one feels uncomfortable.

      Irregular breathing. Breathing patterns may change in depth and rate.
      Your loved one may also stop breathing for several seconds at a time.
      Keep in mind that your loved one generally isn't aware of these

      Discolored urine. If your loved one stops taking in liquids, there
      will be less urine and it will be darker in color.

      Incontinence. As muscles that control bowel movements and urination
      relax, your loved one may experience incontinence.

      Blurred vision. His or her eyes may appear glassy and unfocused.

      Limited ability to communicate. Your loved one may lose the ability to
      speak. He or she most likely can still hear you.

      Confusion and agitation. This can be subtle or pronounced, involving
      jerking motions, hallucinations or delirium.

    What is currently the most under-funded form of cancer in terms of occurrence?
    I'm interested in donating money to cancer research and would like it to go to a cancer that has a low ratio of funding to its occurrence. There doesn't seem to be a great deal of easily accessible information on the internet.

    • ANSWER:
      I don't know if it's possible to easily determine what kind of cancer is the most underfunded, but you can easily get the stats on government funding. Much of the government funding for cancer research goes through the National Cancer Institute (NCI.) NCI divides up the money allocated by the federal government into the various forms of cancer research. Many kinds of cancer research also gets more government money through other arms of the NIH, Department of Defense, and other government organizations. Each kind of cancer research gets money from other sources, as well, but for that info, you'd have to find out about each and every organization that contributes money.

      This link includes a table demonstrating the funding by NCI for the most common types of cancer in the US. This link gives dollar amounts for every kind of cancer that NCI provides research funding for.

      The most underfunded cancers are the more uncommon- larynx, vaginal, salivary glands, pituitary, parathyroid, etc. The most underfunded more common types of cancer would be thyroid, uterine, bladder, and kidney. And, as a whole, childhood cancer research is very underfunded compared to adult cancers. While other kinds of cancer get funding through multiple government groups (aside from NIH), childhood cancer gets government funding ONLY through NIH, and gets very little of the NIH funding.

      When donating, you also need to figure out what organziation to donate to. I highly recommend finding several organizations and doing research on them. Find out how they are using the money. You can use something like Charity Navigator to learn this information.

    How long does it take to recover from Cervical Cancer surgery?
    If a woman has surgery to rid herself of Cervical Cancer, I'd like to know what would be the treatment process and the time it'd take to recover from this type of procedure. A friend of mine has it, and I'd like to learn more about it. I don't want to touch the topic with her because she's quite sensitive about it, but I'd like to be knowledgeable about it.

    • ANSWER:
      When she wakes up after a hysterectomy or other major operation for cervical cancer she will have a drip inserted into her arm to give her fluids. She will have a tube (catheter) to drain her urine, and a tube to drain her wound. Because she will not be able to move around freely, she will have injections to thin her blood and help prevent clots. She will also have elastic stockings to wear to help the blood flow in her legs.

      She may well have pain for the first week or so.

      Her wound will be covered up for a couple of days. Any wound drains will stay in until they stop draining fluid. They usually come out about 2 to 7 days after the operation. And any stitches or clips will stay in for at least 7 to 10 days.

      After major abdominal surgery, she will need to rest at home for at least a month after she comes out of hospital.

    What are some medicine's to take to stop under arm sweating?
    I have terriable under arm sweating and i was wondering what medcine to take or what are some good home remedies i am a teen girl the sweating is so bad it ruins my light colored shirts i sweat under my arms when its not even hot or i am not even nervous!

    • ANSWER:
      Your skin is your 3rd kidney - it filters out wastes from your body. To sweat is a good thing. However, if your sweat is odorous and/or staining your clothes, it is directly associated with the types of foods you eat. I would suggest to try to eat more raw fruits. Fruits that have astringent properties will get your lymph fluids flowing and your kidneys filtering, then your body will begin to balance out. Very important tip: Never use an antiperspirant - they are linking the aluminum in those to breast cancer. Only use a natural deodorant until you won't even need one anymore if you live a raw food lifestyle like humans are meant to do! Medicine will cause more acid ash that will in turn make matters worse, by far.

    I miss a dog. I worry about caring for one now. What kind would be good for me at 63, poor health, no yard?
    I've had 3 fine dogs but when my last one died practically in my arms from cancer I decided to wait to get another. Now I find that my condition, fibromyalgia, limits me at times. A new home with little place for a dog to go outside, plus a busy street to traverse for a block-and-a-half before reaching a good neighborhood to walk inhibits me from getting the dog I want. My dogs have been medium-sized with the last being an Australian shepherd. I'd like to get another, but realize that another breed might be best. I don't like little yippy dogs. Thank you for your advice.

    • ANSWER:
      I strongly suggest getting a pug. They aren't "yippy" at all. However, they are little balls of personality! They are very bright, playful, and quite sturdy. They are small, and eager to please. I love my pug. :) I've always had pugs and wouldn't trade them for anything.

    What should you be acting like with the frist stage on cancer?
    my friends just found out she had cancer, but she acts the same as before, she still runs around and acts crazy. i always thought cancer made you sick? is this normal for her to do? i was just wondering it seemed weird to me.

    • ANSWER:
      There are many kinds of cancer.
      And remember most of all that Cancer is not a death sentence.
      We have Technologies today that did not exist a few short years ago to help save lives.
      I was diagnosed last October with CLL Leukemia.
      At first I was floored, but after I became armed with good information,
      I decided cancer was not going to control me, but that I would control it.
      Chemo to treat cancer, which is a cure, can make you temporally sick.
      But to help combat this, as I have, you can seek out help.
      Acupuncture, which sounded crazy to me, has helped me from getting sick during chemo.
      Google your friends particular cancer and you find a lot of helpful web sites for further research.
      Best of luck to your friend.

    What would be a cool tattoo to get showing you beat cancer?
    I had cancer when i was three years old, and I survived it. Me and my mom were both talking about mw getting a tattoo, and I would really like to get something representing my battle with cancer, because it would not only mean a lot to myself, but also my family.

    • ANSWER:
      you could get the ribbon of course.

      Ivs coming out of you veins,
      A sleeve of memories.

      or just something simple like sentences tattooed on you wrist, arm, back, chest, whatever area your thinking.

      (ex: I am a surrvivor, my family saved my life, ..) .i suck at this sorry:/

      get something with meaning to you, dont ask strangers for opinions. Its your skin, your were the one who had cancer, not all these people answering. I didnt have cancer. What means thr most to you and your family? What was the most important thing going on during that time of your life? What did everyone eant thr most? What do you want?

      Another tat Im suggesting which I still think you should desgn something on you own is I think you should get a cage with ivs, meds, needles, etc... And a bird flying out and getting bigger (ymore then one bird) and have something written like "i survive blank cancer" or "blank cancer didnt stop me".

    Why is it considered a miracle if God heals cancer that he himself designed to inflict a patient?
    Seems kind of circular, no? That's like me breaking your arm and then giving you a cast and asking to be thanked for the services.

    • ANSWER:
      @Jeancommunicates: I hope you are just trolling and don't really believe that "sin causes cancer". If you really believe that you should get out and meet more people. There are probably people who are better than you that have had cancer. People who volunteer their free time, money, etc to their church and its cause. People who always try to do the right thing... and they still get cancer. And some of those same people don't get cured.

      Oh, that's right... you'll say "the lord works in mysterious ways" or that their faith was being tested before he allowed them into Heaven. All that means is that all the good stuff they did before was either unnoticed by your god or meant nothing to him!

    How did early medicine view breast cancer?
    I have to compare historical beliefs about breast cancer with current ones as part of a project, but I'm having trouble finding what people believed about it many years ago.
    Any information is helpful and names of early researchers is fantastic, thank you in advance!

    • ANSWER:
      Old breast cancers for lumps they would remove the entire breast including the pectoral muscles and every lymph node in the area. These are known as radical massectomies and done much less often today. They were disfiguring, arms would swell from lack of lymph nodes and need to be removed. Today they have many options including drugs that fight breast cancers with specific characteristics. Procedure wise they may remove just a mass or they may do a simple massectomy removing most of the breast only the pectoralis minor and the sentinal lymph node. The old belief was remove the entire breast or both and people would die during the procedure. Today they use Chemo, Radiation, and less invasive surgeries along with better screening protocols.

    How to describe a cancer patient after treatment/surgery on the hospital bed?
    am working on a story and there's a part I want to describe my character as a weak cancer patient after treatment or surgery on the hospital bed, but I've never seen or have contact with a cancer patient before. Therefore I do not know how to write about it. Can you guys help me? :D Thank youu!

    • ANSWER:
      If the prospects look bad for your character.....Lying in a bundle of white sheets, pale yellowish/greenish tinged skin, Blueish lines running up and down their skin on their arms, tired eyes,limp body. Could still have a smile on their face cause theyre strong. surrounded by loved ones. Tubes running into iv on arm and other tubes going into nose- after surgery....

    How do you check yourself for breast cancer?
    I know your supposed to lift up your arm and check under your armpit, right? Idk, I don't think I have it I just want to be on the safe side. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Checking for breast cancer is not as complicated as described and it is not as simple as lifting up your arm and check your armpit.

      The primary factor you should consider is your family history. You can check this by asking your parents or relatives to see if there are anyone in your family who developed breast or ovarian cancer under 30; if they did, then you have a significantly higher chance of developing it as well.

      Your diet and physical exercise are also a crucial criterion to consider. If you are eating lots of high sugar/ trans-fat products along with lots of red meat, you have a higher chance of developing breast cancer. In addition, if you lack exercise of at least 30 minutes per day, you also escalate your chances or breast cancer (this means that obesity will also be a contributing factor).

      If you are smoking, taking drugs, or is drinking alcohol, you are also exposing yourself to not just breast cancer, but a plethora of other diseases and cancer as well.

      Before I forget, your age is perhaps the first thing you should notice. If you are under the age of 30, you have a smaller chance of developing cancer that someone who is over that age.

      I have not mentioned any physical procedures that you can use to check whether you have breast cancer, because sometimes indications like lumps and swelling of the breast may be caused by puberty or other changes that are normal to the body. This does not mean however, that you should not go to a trained medical professional if you notice anything abnormal with your body.

      Remember people of all race, sex, and age develop breast cancer; just because it is not mentioned often it does mean that it does not happen. Furthermore, it does not matter what diseases, cancers, or whatever you have, you should always know your body and understand its behaviors (its never incorrect or dangerous to check if your body has some diseases or not).

    What can I expect on my 6 month breast cancer check up and what questions should i ask?
    First I see my medical oncologist and then my breast cancer surgeon. I had a bi-lateral mastecomy.

    • ANSWER:
      They will examine you, probably thump on your back a bit, listen to your heart, maybe have you move your arms around to check your range of motion and ask if you are having any problems.

      You should ask anything you are wondering about, you might ask your surgeon if he/she will still follow you I don't see mine anymore, just the oncologist yearly. You can ask if there is anything you should be on the lookout for but usually they don't do tests or scans unless there is some reason to do them.

    How to relieve pain of cervical cancer jab?
    How to relieve pain of cervical cancer jab?
    It's not too bad just really achy like i have a big bruise or i strained a muscle
    Can i relive it in any way by putting a hot water bottle on it or something???

    • ANSWER:
      The pain goes away within a day or two. In the mean time maybe take some paracetamol or ibuprofen. Basic pain medication, if that has no affect then you may just have to rest your arm, and sit tight until it goes.

    How likely is it that truckers will get skin cancer?
    I want to be a trucker but I heard they get skin cancer easier than other people, is this true?

    • ANSWER:
      Not necessarily.
      Skin cancer is related to sun exposure. Truckers often get sunburn on their arms (due to lengthy exposure of forearms to sun whilst driving) which would increase the chances of skin cancer on their arms.

      There are three basic kinds of skin cancer - Melanoma (the really bad kind that spreads throughout the body), SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) and BCC (Basal cell carcinoma).

      I have treated a trucker for multiple SCCs on his forarms. He never wore sunscreen, and always wore short sleeves or sleeveless. His forearms were always sunburnt and were heavily suntanned.

      By all means become a trucker if that is what you want to do - and to avoid skin cancer, wear long sleeves and use sunscreen to avoid getting burnt.

      The cancer council even provides "Driving Sleeves" which you can slip on over your arm closest to the window - right arm in Australia, left arm in America - all depends what side of the road you drive on :) - which protects your arm from the sun. Can make your own by cutting a sleeve off an old shirt and sewing elastic in one end. then just slip the sleeve on (elastic at top to keep it up).

      Gloves would be another thing. Having your hands on the steering wheel all the time means they will be exposed to the sun a lot. light weight material gloves are one option, sunscreen another. Some people use a UV blocking filter on their car windscreen (like window tinting) to help prevent sunburning. There are many different options.

    What is a good quote or poem for the loss of a child caused by cancer?
    Yesterday, a two-year old girl died from cancer. I would really like to post a inspiring quote, poem, or bible verse for the family. But can't seem to find one that I like. Any suggestions?

    • ANSWER:
      Death leaves a heartache no one can heal, love leaves a memory no one can steal. ~From a headstone in Ireland

      When you are sorrowful look again in your heart, and you shall see that in truth you are weeping for that which has been your delight. ~Kahlil Gibran

      Memory is a way of holding onto the things you love, the things you are, the things you never want to lose. ~From the television show The Wonder Years

      Time is a physician that heals every grief. ~Diphilus

      You can clutch the past so tightly to your chest that it leaves your arms too full to embrace the present. ~Jan Glidewell

      Earth has no sorrow that Heaven cannot heal. ~Author Unknown

      I think only through suffering all our wonderful human qualities
      come out in us.
      Unless and until you suffer, how will
      you understand other's suffering?"
      -Sree Chakravarti

      They that sow in tears, shall reap in joy.
      -Psalm 126:6

      The Lord God will wipe all tears from all their faces.
      -Isaiah 25:8

      "Life is eternal and love is immortal;
      And death is only a horizon,
      And a horizon is nothing
      Save the limit of our sight." - Rossiter W. Raymond

      To live in hearts we leave behind
      Is not to die.
      ~Thomas Campbell, "Hallowed Ground"

      There are things that we don't want to happen but have to accept, things we don't want to know but have to learn, and people we can't live without but have to let go. ~Author Unknown

      Even if happiness forgets you a little bit, never completely forget about it. ~Jacques Prévert

      I didn't Really find any about a child dying of cancer but just general grief and death quotes work...There are many beautiful ones. Give my warmest regards to the family. Be sure to give them your own!

    Can a cat which was never exposed to cigarette smoke or smokers contract lung cancer?
    Our 12 year old female cat which lives with us in a top floor apartment has been diagnosed (via x-rays) as having lung cancer. She has never been exposed to cigarette smoke or smokers. Is this possible and is there a cure?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, it is possible and I'm afraid there is no cure. I lost my cat Sierra to lung cancer a couple of years ago.

      It started as what is known as "feline lung-digit syndrome": I took him to the vet because he had pain in his front right paw and was limping. It turned out he had lung cancer which had spread throughout his body. One tumor was in his right front paw.

      The tumors cause a lot of pain. There is no treatment available, although I kept him loaded up with pain meds. After only about a month I was forced to euthanize him on his 12th birthday. I had it done at home by a mobile vet. He died in my arms.

      I'm sorry to tell you that you'll need to think about final arrangements for your kitty. I'm very, very sorry.

    How likely is it to get the bad side effects from the cervical cancer jag?
    my school is offering the cervical cancer jag but i've read in newspapers that one girls was paralyzed from it. is it safe? should i leave it til s5? helphelphelp. i don't want cancer!!!!!!!!!

    • ANSWER:
      It's as safe as any other vaccine. Get it. Serious side effects are extremely rare. Your arm might be a little sore.

    Where do you get the Cervical Cancer shot in the body ?
    I've been asking my mother to set up an oppointment for me to get a Cervical Cancer shot for awhile . So tomorrow , im finally getting my shot ! But now im worried because i don't know where the shot will be !

    • ANSWER:
      In the arm like any other shot. My daughter has had the first 2 and she did not say anything about it being more painful than any other shot.

    Why do I have little bumps on my arm, between my elbow and my shoulder and how do I get rid of them?
    They are small un-noticeable (except to touch) bumps on my arm where the biceps are. They usually feel softer when I put moisturiser on them, except this does not get rid of them. How do I get rid of them completely?

    • ANSWER:
      I believe that you are talking about Keratosis pilaris and as far as I know its genetic. Here's what I found on the internet. Hope it answers your question:

      Keratosis pilaris (KP) is a very common genetic follicular condition that is manifested by the appearance of rough bumps on the skin and hence colloquially referred to as "chicken skin". It most often appears on the back and outer sides of the upper arms (though the lower arms can also be affected), and can also occur on the thighs and tops of legs, flanks, buttocks or any body part except glabrous skin (like the palms or soles of feet). Less commonly, lesions appear on the face and may be mistaken for acne.

      Worldwide, KP affects an estimated 40 to 50% of the adult population and approximately 50 to 80% of all adolescents. It is more common in women than in men. Varying in degree, cases of KP can range from minimal to severe.[citation needed]

      There are several different types of keratosis pilaris, including keratosis pilaris rubra (red, inflamed bumps), alba (rough, bumpy skin with no irritation), rubra faceii (reddish rash on the cheeks) and related disorders.

      Many people with keratosis pilaris do not know they have it (if the condition is mild). While KP resembles goose bumps, it is characterized by the appearance of small rough bumps on the skin. As a result, it is often confused with acne.

      Keratosis pilaris occurs as excess keratin, a natural protein in the skin, accumulates within the hair follicles forming hard plugs (process known as hyperkeratinization). Bearing only cosmetic consequence, the condition most often appears as a proliferation of tiny hard bumps that are seldom sore or itchy. Though people with keratosis pilaris experience this condition year round, it’s during the colder months when moisture levels in the air are lower that the problem can become exacerbated and the “goose bumps” are apt to look and feel more pronounced in color and texture.

      [edit] Treatment

      There is currently no known cure for keratosis pilaris, however, there are effective treatments available which make its symptoms less apparent. The condition often improves with age and can even disappear completely in adulthood, though some will show signs of keratosis pilaris for life. Treatments are largely symptomatic and must be repeated. Regardless, exfoliation, intensive moisturizing cremes, lac-hydrin, Retin A and medicated lotions containing alpha hydroxy acids or urea may be used to temporarily improve the appearance and texture of affected skin. Milk baths may provide some cosmetic improvement due to the lactic acid — a natural alpha hydroxy acid in milk. Sunlight may also be helpful but increases risk of skin cancer. Small amounts of vitamin A can be used orally but only with exteme caution due to potential for liver damage. Check with a Dermatologist or Family Doctor before taking extra vitamin A due to the vitamins' potential toxic effects.

      Scratching and picking at KP bumps causes them to redden (if they do not already appear red), and in many cases will cause bleeding. Excessive picking can lead to scarring. Wearing clothing that is looser around the affected areas can also help reduce the marks, as constant chafing from clothing (such as tight fitting jeans) is similar to repeatedly scratching the bumps.

      Many KP bumps contain an ingrown hair that has coiled. This is a result of the keratinized skin "capping off" the hair follicle, preventing the hair from exiting. Instead, the hair grows inside the follicle, often encapsulated, and can be removed, much like an ingrown hair, though can lead to scarring.

      Food allergies may also exacerbate the condition, causing hyper-keratosis pilaris, gluten being a common culprit (source: physician's (MD) oral presentation).

    What are the symptoms of the late stages of breast cancer?
    I am having chest pain, breathing problems, arm and leg pain and my nipple is inverted somewhat.I'm worried, but my doc won't prescribe me an ultrasound for my breasts. (I am only 21.) He says I have nothing to worry about, but I am worried to death. Please help me.

    • ANSWER:
      You sound scared and very worried..First don't start thinking the need to see a physician who will sit down with you and give you a good physical and address all of your worries and pains. Fear can cause worsening or other physical complaints. Please call tomorrow and get a second opinion..

    What does it look like nonmelanoma cancer look like?
    I have had these to spots on my arm for 3 years they look like they are scars, but they are not. About a week and a half ago one of them starting growing really quickly into a pink bump. Right now it's bigger then a pencil earser. It is getting bigger by the day. And a few days ago it started to hurt. I have pre cancerous melanoma for the last eight years so I know what to look for with that but this is not mole. Thank you for your help

    • ANSWER:
      Well, you are obviously at high risk for skin cancer, so it's good that you are concerned. Basal cell carcinoma presents as a single, firm, skin colored, smooth, pearly nodule with a raised perimeter. Squamous cell carcinoma presents as scaley, slighly elevated lesions that develop into ulcers with irregular borders. It very well could be squamous cell... definately go have it checked!

    What does it look like nonmelanoma cancer look like?
    I have had these to spots on my arm for 3 years they look like they are scars, but they are not. About a week and a half ago one of them starting growing really quickly into a pink bump. Right now it's bigger then a pencil earser. It is getting bigger by the day. And a few days ago it started to hurt. I have pre cancerous melanoma for the last eight years so I know what to look for with that but this is not mole. Thank you for your help

    • ANSWER:
      Anytime any lesion begins to grow and change shape, is an indication that it is time to go to a doctor.

      No one can diagnose a lesion/mole/whateve without actually seeing it. And if you have a hx of melanoma (there is no such thing as pre-cancerous melanoma - melanoma by defination is cancer - do you mean actinic keratosis - that is pre-cancerous changes) then you are at increased risk for more - you really need to see a doctor.

      Although it sounds more like you have an infection or an abcess (growing fast is not good for anything)

    What is this very long grey hair on my upper arm?
    I have this one long grey hair that is about 3.5 inches long on right arm. I am only 15 years old, and I keep removing it by plucking it out put it keep growing back fast. What is this hair, also I do have grey hairs on my head, if that helps.

    • ANSWER:
      Have a doctor to take a look at it... just in case it is skin cancer. My friend had the same problem and he suffered from skin cancer

    What does it mean when breast cancer has spread to the lymph node?
    My friend was recently diagnosed with breast cancer and had surgery today to remove the tumor. The surgeon removed part of a lymph node and it tested positive for cancer. What does this really mean? Does it mean that most likely the cancer has spread to other organs in her body? I'm really confused and need some answers. Thanks so much

    • ANSWER:
      For breast cancer to spread to the rest of the body it needs to first go through the lymph nodes under the arm. If her lymph nodes have shown positive for cancer it means that the chances of a recurrence are higher. It depends greatly on how many lymph nodes have been affected. I only had 1 out of 13 lymph nodes showing cancer and scans didn't pick up cancer anywhere else in my body. I am two years on from diagnosis and still have not had a recurrence. I know many women who have had cancer in their lymph nodes and they are still here years later. It does mean however that she will probably have to have chemotherapy to try and kill any cancer that may have moved on.

    How can I get my Boyfriend to go to the Dermatologist to get screened for skin cancer?
    I just read a whole article on skin cancer and they showed what some types of skin cancer may look like. My boyfriend has many moles on his body (over 50) and I am concerned that some may be cancerous.
    Some of his moles did look funny to me. He says that he has no health insurance and just brushes me off when I bring the topic up. I even offered to pay for the dr. appointment and he just responded "whatever"

    Also, how long would it take for skin cancer to progress till he realizes he feel crappy enough that he needs to see a doctor? He thinks skin cancer is a joke and he is invincible to it. I am even thinking about telling his dad. Even though he's 26. At least his dad will care.

    Just so you guys know I am checking his moles periodically for changes in shape and color.

    • ANSWER:
      we have one person in the Pool with us and her back is covered with black moles some very large. She is fine, and mostly keeps covered with a T shirt. I have also seen one woman while shopping her skin is covered with light brown moles,on arms legs neck and face, all that could be seen. These moles even look benign. However I am sure that they have also had to have them checked out. Especially now that you have a Free screening, do talk with him and see if he will go. He has no legitimate excuse, since it is free. And not much to be afraid of. Surprisingly often the men are very hesitant to see a Doctor. I think you should give an ultimatum you see the dermatologist, or I will not be your friend any more !!!

    Could the lump under my arm be something to worry about?
    I am 31 yrs old. I have had this lump under my arm for the past 6 months or so. It doesn't seem to be getting any bigger, but it won't go away. Sometimes it hurts so bad I can't put my arm all the way down, but it doesn't hurt all the time. Could this lump under my arm be something to worry about or am I just overreacting?

    • ANSWER:
      if this is under your arm as in need to go to the doctor immediately as this could be a sign of breast cancer...please go to the doctor...not next month or whatever...go now!!!

    i am planning on getting a memorail tattoo on my fore arm will a memorial tattoo affect my job?
    i have planning on getting a tattoo for my ngrandpaernts that i lost to cancer. its been planned for about a year and i really want to get it on my forearm. its going to be two cancer ribbons on for breast and one for colon cancer. do you think that a memorial tattoo of this type willl affect my chances at getting a job?

    • ANSWER:
      It doesn't matter what the tattoo is, it still affects your job.
      Some people find them offensive no matter what they show
      or represent. So unless you have a lenient boss you'll have
      to cover them up.

    How can you tell if you have skin cancer or not?
    I was just wondering how you know if you have skin cancer...I don't think i have it or anything..I am just curious.

    • ANSWER:
      Some symptoms of skin cancer may include the following :

      Enlargement of an existing skin lesion.
      Reddish patch or irritated area, frequently occurring on the chest, shoulders, arms, or legs.
      Poorly defined borders of a skin lesion.
      Ulceration or bleeding of an existing mole.

    What age should a woman get tested for Breast Cancer?
    Breast Cancer concerns me and I am only 17. I have known so many woman who have died from this!

    • ANSWER:
      Beginning at the age of 20 you should most definitely start performing breast self-exams and looking for any signs of change. From 20-39 you should schedule a clinical breast exam every 3 years. Taking a few minutes to do a breast self-exam a minimum of once a month can make a lifetime of difference. Nearly 70% of all breast cancers are found through self-exams and with early detection the 5-year survival rate is 98%. If you find a lump, schedule an appointment with your doctor, but don't panic—8 out of 10 lumps are not cancerous. For additional peace of mind, call your doctor whenever you have concerns.

      There are a few different ways you can perform a self exam:
      The national breast cancer institute explains a few different ways to check.
      In the Shower: Fingers flat, move gently over every part of each breast. Use your right hand to examine the left breast, left hand for the right breast. Check for any lump, hard knot, or thickening. Carefully observe any changes in your breasts.

      Before a Mirror: Inspect your breasts with your arms at your sides. Next, raise your arms high overhead. Look for any changes in the contour of each breast, a swelling, a dimpling of the skin, or changes in the nipples. Then rest your palms on your hips and press firmly to flex your chest muscles. Left and right breasts will not exactly match—few women's breasts do.

      Lying Down: Place a pillow under your right shoulder and put your right arm behind your head. With the fingers of your left hand flat, press your right breast gently in small circular motions, moving vertically or in a circular pattern covering the entire breast.
      Use light, medium, and firm pressure. Squeeze the nipple; check for discharge and lumps. Repeat these steps for your left breast.

      Risk factors for breast cancer include women over the age of 65, being overweight, lack of physical activity, early menstruation or late menopause, and a family history of breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common site of cancer and it most commonly diagnosed in early stages when it is highly curable. Common signs that you can look out for are a change in how the breast feels, how the nipple looks, and nipple discharge. Breast cancer is very common but performing monthly self exams will allow patients to catch it early on which will allow it to be easier to treat.

      I hope the information I gave you helped!

    Can a breast cancer lump be on the armpit or can it only be on breasts?
    There's this lump on my armpit and it's been there for a while now. Can it have anything to do with breast cancer? I never thought it could until I saw it in a film. In the film the woman felt a lump on her armpit and it turned out that she had breast cancer. By the way, I'm a 19 year old female.

    • ANSWER:
      At 19, your risk of breast cancer is close to zero.

      Breast cancer is a cancer that starts in breast tissue, this tissue can cover part of the underarm area.

      If breast cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, the most likely ones to be affected are those under the arms. If you can feel a lump from this spread to lymph nodes, that would be a fairly advanced breast cancer.

      There are a lot of different glands in the underarm are, and a range of different things that can cause them to swell.

      While cancer is unlikely, it is worth getting this checked to be sure that it is nothing of concern.

    What do labs do with skin samples for skin cancer tests?
    I had a skin sample removed over two weeks ago from my arm (my doctor shaved off a questionable freckle) and still have not received the results. I am afraid they lost the test and will give me a dishonest answer because they don't have anything to answer from. I am wondering if they do come back with results can I request the sample back for further testing from another lab to make sure they do have my sample.
    Doctor has been called three times with no results.

    • ANSWER:

    What happens if you have breast cancer, and you decide not to have therapy?
    i know its quite a sensative topic and all, but i was just wondering, if you get breast cancer and decide to not have therapy, and deside to die from it, do you lose your hair? do you have pains? do you get tired or stressed out? does your eating stop?

    i'm just curious. i hope no-one takes this the wrong way.

    • ANSWER:
      Why would you not want to get therapy if you got breast cancer,I mean does life mean that little to you.If I had a choice of either dieing or taking radiation therapy or even having one or both breasts removed,I think I'd choose life.About seventeen years ago my mother had breast cancer,she had to have one breast removed and all the lymph nodes taken out under her arm and she went through the therapy.She is ,happy to say cancer free for 17 years now and proof that breast cancer can be beaten if you take the therapy and fight it with everything you have.I'm sure that if you decide not to take therapy there will eventually be pain that gets worse as time progresses getting to the point you probably couldn't stand it.The cancer would eventually spread to other parts of your body eating you up from the inside out weakening you to the point you can't go on living.I wouldn't wish this on my worst enemy so why would even think of something like this.

    How can I tell if a Cancer guy is into me?
    More detains in my question 'what do I mean to him'
    But what are the signs that a cancer guy is into me?

    • ANSWER:
      he gets physical, touching your arm or wrist while he talks
      he puts his arm around you, hugs you, or pulls you close
      he hangs on every word you say and gets really involved in the conversation
      he calls you to see how you're doing
      he gets all gentlemanly
      he offers his help with an issue
      he listens to your vent
      he asks your friends about you behind your back
      he asks deliberate questions designed to help him figure you out
      he tells his mother about you
      he asks you to hang with him/date
      offers to bring lunch

      I got this from an astrology book by the way... The Astro Twin's Love Zodiac (the essential astrology guide for women)

    If your limph nodes are swollen do you definately have cancer?
    Well im terrified that i may have cancer! My lymph nodes have been swollen for a while. Two in my armpit. Im so scared because i have been doing research on it and i want to know if its definately cancer?! Im 13 btw!

    No bullshit plz i just want professional help and women.

    • ANSWER:
      Take three deep cleansing breaths (gg).

      Lymph nodes swell in response to inflammation --- that's their job. In a 13-year-old, it would be much more common for the swelling to be normal rather than a cancer.

      If they are in the armpit, it's usually from something going on in that arm or hand; it can occasionally be something in the breast or the skin on your side. For example, if you get an infected hangnail or blister on your hand, you'll get a couple enlarged lymph nodes in the corresponding armpit. They may take a few weeks to go back down to normal.

      You can also get enlarged lymph nodes in the neck with a cold; they may be really prominent with Strep throat or mono.

      If you have rock-hard lymph nodes that are continuing to enlarge after 3 weeks, it's quite a bit more worrisome --- but that's a lot less common in someone your age. If you are systemically sick (fever, weight loss, night sweats) along with enlarged nodes, you may need additional tests; it'll usually turn out that you have something like mono, but every once in a while someone is unlucky enough to have something more serious.

      So don't dust this off as totally unimportant, but be reassured that benign causes of lymph node swelling are a potload more common at your age than are malignant ones.

    I have tingling numbness in my right arm and leg?
    My leg and arm keep falling asleep and going numb. It happens more in my right hand. Im kinda scared of what it could be cuz ive been in and out of the hospital for intestinal problems, like some bleeding. Any ideas on what it could be. My had is falling asleep wile im moving it too. Also im only 21 years old so i dont think im having a stroke or anything like that.

    • ANSWER:
      i would go to the doctor asap that is a common sign of cancer

    How long does it take to diagnois a brain tumor/cancer?
    Hi I am doing a report about brain tumors and brain cancer and I am wondering how long the diagnois proccess takes. I know the symptoms of each and I know the first step they take, which is giving a CT scan to look at the brain, but how long do the symptoms of brain cancer/tumor last, and how long does it take to diagnois?? Thanks for the help!!

    • ANSWER:
      I had it too easy the whole time mine was growing. I never had migraines, or any balance issues. I had a tingly arm that would come and go, for almost 2 yrs. That shoulder had been injured years ago, so I thought it was just a pinched nerve. Then the last few months I had a "funny" feeling in the pit of my stomach. (the aura). I also had a strong sense of deja vu a few times. Then the last week in aug 08, I had a migraine that lasted a couple hours. It went away and I got up and went to work. My boss fussed at me for coming in because I was "out of it." I didn't realize that though. I was off the next day and I was fine. Thought I was coming down with a bug or something. The next day, friday, I went to work and was fine for a few hours, I thought. Then I started feeling odd and got someone to go outside with me. My face was going numb and I had trouble forming my words. By the time I got outside, I couldn't speak. My boss called 911 and they kept asking me what drugs I was taking! I was saying dayquil in my head but it wouldn't come out! My sugar was low, so they tried to give me OJ and when I put the straw in my mouth, I started seizing. I don't remember the ambulance ride, so they must've given me something. First hospital, ct scan. They contacted a teaching hospital 3 hours away and took me there, knocked out. Mri there confirmed tumor and I was operated on 2 days later. That was a monday and I was home on friday. Back to hospital 2 weeks later to get sutures out and that's when I was told it was cancer, oligoastrocytoma grade 3. Went through the standard treatment of chemo/radiation for 6 weeks. Then 6 months of temodar. Mris every 2 months.

    How do the genes on chromosome 17 relate to cancer?
    How do the genes on chromosome 17 (Death Chromosome) relate to cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Changes in chromosome 17 have been identified in several types of human cancer. These genetic changes are somatic, which means they are acquired during a person's lifetime and are present only in certain cells. A particular chromosomal abnormality called an isochromosome 17q occurs frequently in some cancers. This abnormal version of chromosome 17 has two long (q) arms instead of one long arm and one short (p) arm. As a result, the chromosome has an extra copy of some genes and is missing copies of other genes.

      An isochromosome 17q is commonly found in a cancer of blood-forming tissue called chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). It also has been identified in certain solid tumors, including a type of brain tumor called a medulloblastoma and tumors of the brain and spinal cord known as primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Although an isochromosome 17q probably plays a role in both the development and progression of these cancers, the specific genetic changes related to cancer growth are unknown.

    How do I reduce my arm flab ?
    My body is pretty toned except for my arms. My shoulder is broad,which makes me look fat. My arm flab makes me look more fatter. I do not go to the gym but do dance. Please help.

    • ANSWER:
      CLA.. [conjigated lenolic acid] [SP?] You can do a search on "Tonalin CLA" It helped me. It a natural fat burner. It comes from the grass and things, and our food chain is supposed to have it in there, but we feed our cows 'bone meal" and grain.. not real grass... and it's depeted in our food chain.

      I started taking it years ago and went from 180 to 135. I'm toned up and it really really helps. I have a sensitive heart.. it skips if I take things that have effidrine [xp?] in it, THIS IS ALL NATURAL. I promise.

      They did a study w/ New Zelanders. Why were they consuming fatty butter and steaks, and so thin and their body weight so low? Why?? Because they feed their cows and animals on natural grass! We don't.

      It's also a cancer fighter .. it takes the unwanted fat out of your body where the cancer can hide.

      I will say, if you start taking it, BE DILIGENT w/ it. And if you burp, be prepared to taste alfalfa! LOL LOL It's worth it! The worst thing is your bra size will go down a little too! LOL Mine went down 2 sizes.

      Remember, "Tonalin".. CLA.

      Hope that helps! :o)

    How can you tell if you have breast cancer?
    My sister recently found a little lump under her arm pit, and I felt it, and I told her I had the same lump under mine also and that it went away. She's so worried, and has been crying 'all' day about it.
    Any info. Would be great thnx. :)

    • ANSWER:
      Nobody can self-diagnose breast caner.

      In other questions and answers you say you're a teenager. If your sister is too, her chances of having breast cancer are so close to zero that it makes very little difference.

      Breast cancer is almost unheard of in under 25s; fewer than 0.1% of all those diagnosed with it are under 30 and only 5% are under 40. Most (80%) are over 50. I was classed as a 'younger woman' when I was diagnosed with breast cancer; I was 50.

      Most breast and underarm lumps, even in women over 50, aren't cancer.

      Your sister should stop worrying - she's in an age group where breast cancer is just about unknown - and should talk to her mother; if she doesn't feel comfortable about doing that, she should talk to her school nurse, who will be used to girls having worries like this and will be able to reassure her than she doesn't have breast cancer

    Is the swelling of lymph nodes under the arm supposed to be painful?
    If swelling of lymph nodes under the arm is a symptom of breast cancer, are the wollen lymph nodes supposed to be painful or pain-free? Also, are the swollen lymph nodes supposed to be red or colored, or colorless? Anyone know?

    • ANSWER:
      If the swelling is due to infection then there may or may not be any pain present. Mumps are painful. Many infections affecting the throat cause painful lymph node swelling.

      Lymph nodes swollen due to breast cancer are usually painless although your body may feel achy elsewhere besides the swollen node or nodes.

    What is the best match for a Cancer female?
    What sign is best for a cancer female, like for a relationship?
    and also for a friend?

    • ANSWER:
      * A big strong, comforting, nurturing Taurus. He'll listen to you tell all about your bad day and hurt feelings. He'll wrap you in his arms and make everything okay. He'll kill bugs for you, or trap and release if that's what you want. And if you are depressed by the weather today, you can afford to take the day off, because Taurus is hard working and will support you.

arm cancer


Frequently Asked Questions

    Why is the pancreas and liver so important in the digestive system?
    Why is the liver and pancreas so important in the digestive system. Also what substances they produce and can you please explain their function.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi, the goblet cells in the pancreas produce insulin as already mentioned and it also produces Glycagon. Insulin in the anabolic (building) anabolic compound which forces the carbs in your body to go into storage around key parts of your body like the liver e.t.c.

      Glycagon does the opposite of insulin, being the catabolic (breakdown) compound. The key thing is that the pancreas senses the blood sugar level and reacts to control it by producing these chemcals accordingly..... Forms of diabetes (type 2 e.t.c.) are caused by abnormal or failed functions within the pancreas.

    How does the pancreas work with the rest of the digestive system?
    Okay, so I know what the pancreas does, but how does it work with the rest of the digestive system and the body in general to keep the body healthy? Thanks. :)

    • ANSWER:
      The endocrine part of the pancreas secretes insulin to help control blood glucose levels. The exocrine part produces several digestive enzymes (pancreatic lipase, pancreatic amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and a few minor ones) along with sodium bicarbonate to raise the pH within the duodenum. These enzymes are required for complete digestion.

    How many dogs die of pancreas infection?
    My dog might have gotton a pancreas infection from eating to much human food. What % of dogs die from this.

    • ANSWER:
      If you stop feeding him human food forever, he will probably be OK. I use to give my dog small pieces of broccoli when he did a trick. He loved it but, it gave him pancreatitis. It feels to a dog like acid reflux feels to us. It's very painful. Just give him his regular dog food and never give him any human food. I thought broccoli would be healthy for him since it's healthy for us. Boy was I wrong. My vet was livid and told me "no human food ever." So, I don't give him any human food and he was fine. It might take a little while for his pancreas to heal but, my dogs did and this happened 12 years ago. He is now 14 and still going strong so, don't worry. Just give him the meds that the vet gave you, if he gave you any and feed him dog food only and he should be healthy and happy soon enough.
      I hope this helps

    How long does it take the pancreas to complete its cycle?
    I have heard that after you eat it takes the pancreas about 6 hours to finish cycling through the food you have just eaten. How true is this?
    I did not mean cycle. More like process or job. It takes six hours for the pancreas to finish secreating the juices needed to fully digest food. Correct?

    • ANSWER:
      If you are talking the organ pancreas. It does not cycle. It is fixed below the stomach to release hormones and enzymes into the blood and gut respectively.

      If you are talking about the supplement, then it is a different story. It is taken with food. Once you get rid of it in the toilet, it does not work any more.

    Is there a possibility that your pancreas can start producing insulin again ?
    im really worried . I have diabetes type 1 and ever since i started having these dizzy spells and headaches , ive been experimenting . everytime i take insulin my body feels weird . but when i dont take insulin and eat my lower stomach/abdomen starts feeling like its trying to do something . i feel like my pancreas is trying to produce insulin again . ive experimented today and ate some food without taking my insulin and my blood sugar never went up . it was only at 118 . ( normal ) im not understanding this . and im trying to get in touch with my doctor over the phone but theyre not available on sunday's unless its an emergency

    • ANSWER:
      No that won't happen again, if the pancreas stopped the production it will never start it again, so you might be lucky that your blood sugar hasn't gone up. Another thing might be that you never had a real diabetes and so the results were misleading, but that is uncommon, so hopefully the doctor gives you the appropriate answer..

    What is an infection of the pancreas called?
    My bro just got lab results and it turns out he has an infection in his pancreas and he can't drink alcohol anymore. Is it Pancreatitis? Or are there different infections?

    • ANSWER:
      Pancreatitis. It refers to inflammation, but pancreatitis can lead to a pancreatic infection. This usually occurs when there is necrotic (dead) tissue in the pancreas from the inflammation and damage, this is known as necrotizing pancreatitis.
      Infection of the pancreas can also lead to abscess formation or pseudocyst, this is an infectious complication of pancreatitis.

    Why is it important for the pancreas to Release bicarbonate into the small intestine?
    Please answer my questions

    Why is it important for the pancreas to Release bicarbonate into the small intestine?

    How does the structure of the small intestine help the small intestine absorb nutrients?

    Please & Thanks :)

    • ANSWER:
      The partially digested food coming from the stomach is at a pH of 4-5. The pancreas releases bicarbonate to raise the pH to 7.4 - 7.8 or so so that the serine proteases like trypsin and chymotrypsin can function ( their pH optimum is ~ 7.5-8 ) to digest dietary proteins. Also pancreatic lipase and amylase have pH optima above 7. The small intestine has projections ( villi ) into the lumen of the intestine that are covered with smaller still projections called microvilli. These areas are rich in absorptive cells called enterocytes and because of the very large surface area of the villi/microvilli the mass transfer is highly efficient. This allows rapid uptake of nutrients following digestion...In diseases like celiac or sprue..the villi are not developed or have been destroyed and thus nutrient absorption is greatly compromised

    What does the pancreas, or gall bladder do for your body?
    My acupuncturist said my pancreas was out of whack... (and my gall bladder) I've been looking for websites on info and getting frustrated with it. Anyone know anything about this, or have a good website to go to? I'm looking for ways to boost their functioning.

    • ANSWER:
      I am not sure your accupuncturist knows what he is talking about. The pancreas is the organ which produces insulin so you can absorb and use the food you eat. A pancreas that is "out of whack" would cause diabetes. Your gall bladder is just a holding sack for bile, when you eat, it contracts pushing bile into your digestive tract for breakdown of the food you eat. You don't "boost" the function of these structures, you support their function by eating healthy foods, avoiding simple sugars and fats.

    What is the feature and structure of a cell from the pancreas?
    I need to know what the type of epithelial tissue the pancreas is and how it functions!

    I really need help!
    Thanks in advance! :)

    • ANSWER:
      Have a good look on Wikipedia in the pancreas section. They have some good information on all the stuff you need to know including the functioning etc.

    How does the pancreas regulate metabolism in the body?
    How does the pancreas regulate metabolism in the body?

    • ANSWER:
      Metabolism is regulated by the Pancreas because it secretes Pancreatic juices which help digest proteins in particular and sugars too. The exocrine function of the Pancreas (that is release of insulin and Glucagon) cannot be classified as regulation of metabolism since they only reduce and increase blood sugar levels respectively, and don't actually affect metabolism as it is.

    What Would Happen IF Something Was Obstructing The Pancreas and Liver?
    What would happen if something was obstructing th pancreas and liver? What secretions does it block and how does it effect the digestive system?

    Also can somebody explain whata secretion is?

    • ANSWER:
      secretions are any substance produced by the organ

      If the pancreas and liver both were obstructed, the secretions would "back up" and fill up the ducts of the organs. Then some of the ducts would rupture allowing the secretions to flood the tissues. The liver produces bile, the pancreas produces insulin and many digestive enzymes. The bile and the digestive enzymes would start digesting the surround tissue. In other words, the bile would start breaking down the liver as if it were a piece of meat that you had eaten. The digestive enzymes of the pancreas would do the same thing. The pancreas is an encapsulated organ and the swelling caused by the blockage would cause abdominal pain. Left untreated, the obstruction would kill a person, even if treated, the pancreas may be permanently damaged. The liver is the only organ of the body that can repair itself, so after a period of time the liver would be okay, but the person would probably require replacement enzymes to help out the pancreas for the rest of their life.

    What does it mean or is it even possible for you Pancreas to flip?
    What does it mean when the pancreas flips/or is it even possible for it to flip?

    • ANSWER:
      no, your pancreas can not flip, it is held in place with ligaments and the other internal body parts.

    What colour is the gallbladder and pancreas and liver?
    I was wondering because I have to do a presentation on the pancreas, liver and gallbladder.

    • ANSWER:
      The liver has a dark brownish-red color to it and the gallbladder is dark green. i think the pancreas is pink.

    how can a person start the pancreas working properly?
    what can make the pancreas start to functioning like it should by regulating blood sugar levels? There is a way! Does any body know?

    • ANSWER:
      well, the pancreas secretes glucagon, so i would guess by injecting glucagon?

      cos that converts glygogen into glucose when there is too little glucose in the blood. Without glucagon, the pancreas cannot work properly.
      I dunno google it
      Heres a useful site;-)

    What could cause an enlarged lymph node on the pancreas?
    My wife just had an ultrasound and they found an enlarged lymph node on her pancreas, we are waiting for a ct, but I was wondering what all this could be. She is 29 and is kinda scared so any helpful info would be appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      A lymph node would not be on the pancreas. Maybe you mean near the pancreas?
      Usually infection or local irritation/inflammation is the cause of enlarged lymph nodes.

    What is the chance of surviving a pancreas cancer after it started to spread to liver?
    my dad is 80 years old and in a very good physical condition ,he recently diagnose with pancreas cancer which spread to the liver he will start today a chemotherapy as the dr, wish to shrink the size of the tumor ( 32mm),I like to know what is his chances and if anyone know a new medicine to cure him?

    • ANSWER:
      Once Ca Pancreas is inoperable, Median survival is 6 months.
      If he responds very well to chemotherapy, it might be more. best Wishes

    How often are tumors on the pancreas benign?
    My dad just got news today that he has a tumor on his pancreas. He had been getting pain in his abdominal for a couple months now and recently starting vomiting a lot. I'm hoping that it's benign but I can't seem to find any information that would suggest it to be true. He's only 55 years old. Anyone out there can offer me any hope?

    • ANSWER:
      I am going to be honest with you. There is always hope, but a mass on the pancreas is as you have found out by reading often not the best news as 80-85% of these are not benign

      There are other things it can be besides aggressive cancer

      cystic tumors or neoplasms including mucinous cystadenoma and serous cyst adenoma
      islet cell tumors also called neuroendocrine tumors
      papillary cystic neoplasms
      acinar cell tumors of the pancreas

      However, even in benign tumors there is about a 15% chance that the long term outcome will not be what you would desire.

      So what can you do. You hope for the best and prepare for the worst. It is all you really can do. I pray that you and your family will get positive news as the diagnostic work continues. If I can be of further help please contact me.

    What is the main function of the pancreas in the human body?
    I think I know, I just need to make sure. I'm only doing CE so this may be a biy simplified for most of you: the pancreas squirts enzymes and lubricant to lubricate the large, insoluble food molecules so they can travel easier towards the small intestine...?

    • ANSWER:
      The pancreas is an organ involved in digestion : it secretes enzymes to break down proteins and lipids in the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. Exemple of enzymes secreted by the pancreas : alpha-amylase, trypsinogen, lipases, DNAase,...
      The pancreas can also regulate digestion through hormonal control.

      It has another main (and very important) function : the production of insulin and glucagon, hormones that regulate the glucose level in the blood.

    What are the symptoms of a bad pancreas and how to recover from one?
    I am 20 year old male and im constantly bloating especially at work. I think I have a bad pancreas.

    • ANSWER:
      im not sure why you would think this is an issue with the pancreas. Symptoms of pancreatitis include fatty stools, weight loss, chills, fever,and abdominal pain. Bloating can be caused by many other things. If this is a recurrent problem for you then a medical work up might be in order

    How serious is an enlarged Pancreas and what can be done about it?
    I have a pain and they say it is because I have an enlarged Pancreas. But now they need me to have a CT scan to find out why and what can be done about it? Is this serious and expensive? I have no money or insurance? thanks
    thank you all for your answers

    • ANSWER:
      That means you have pancreatitis. It can be very serious, but is usually not. A CT is necessary, you will want to know if there is any damage done. Although I think that an MRCP or an EUS is more accurate. If you are unable to hold down fluids they will keep you there until it calms down. It can be very expensive especially if you are hospitalized, but hospitals have financial aid for people who qualify. You will just need to ask someone how to apply for it when you are done. While alcohol is a precipitating factor, there is usually an underlying cause such as anatomic abnormalities, genetic mutations, autoimmune disorder, gall stones, oddi dysfunction, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia, etc.

      I would hope that the stereotype of pancreatitis as an alcoholics disease would be gone. It fuels the mistreatment of many patients, and quite simply is not the only factor. I don't write this for the person asking the question, but for the other people answering.

      I would also like to add that you can live without your pancreas and I know many people who do. Just by way of information there is a surgery called a total pancreatectomy with autologous islet cell transplantation. I'm not recommending it, but I just had to correct bad information.

    How much would it cost to have a pancreas transplant ?
    My 22 years old and I have type 1 diabetes. I just want to know if having a pancreas transplant would be more cost benefit than spending a lifetime supply of insulin pens ( humalog & lantus), pen needles, test strips, Lancets, and pills for my high blood pussure and cholesterol

    I spend like about a month for all these stuff expect for the test strips & lancets i get those for free thank to my insureance

    • ANSWER:
      i have actually done a lot of research on this and you can have a pancreas transplant but it is not likely one would ever be available to you, all most all of the time when someone has a kidney transplant they do the pancreas as well so the pancreas' would go to the kidney recipients first. if someone you knew donated theirs to you upon death it would be possible, but theyd have to be a match for you and thats not likely. hopefully someday there will be a cure, but the damn drug companies make so much money off of diabetics they will never let it happen

    How does the liver, pancreas, gallbladder and salivary glands aid in digestion?
    How does the liver, pancreas, gallbladder and salivary glands aid in digestion?

    • ANSWER:
      The liver converts excess glucose to glycogen, which is then sotred. If there is insufficient glucose, the glycogen is converted back to glucose. The liver also breaks down excess amino acids into the carbon group, which is deaminated to form urea and is excreted.

      The enzmyes produced in the pancreas are secreted into the small intestine to help in the digestion of food. But keep in mind, the enzymes produced work well in alkaline conditions.

      Bile, a greenish yellow liquid, which emulsify fats produced in the liver are stored here. Bile is released into the duodenum through the bile duct when the gall bladder contracts. Bile speeds up the digestion of fats.

      Salivary Glands:
      Salivary glands secrete salivia, which contains salivary amylase. Salivary amlyase breaks down starch to maltose.

    Which of the following statements regarding the pancreas is true?
    (a) the head of the pancreas lies in the curvature of the ileum
    (b) the pancreatic duct carries both enzymes and hormones
    (c) the pancreatic acinar cells secrete digestive enzymes
    (d) the pancreas assists the stomach in the absorption of digested food
    (e) the pancreas digests sugar?

    Can anyone help me answer this question? Thanx!

    • ANSWER:
      I think it's C, because the cell secret digestive enzymes within the pancreas. Hope that helps.

    What service does a persons Pancreas perform?
    I know it's one of the organs a person cannot live without . Unlike your Appendix , even 1 kidney , a lung you can lead a pretty normal life without , even an artificial heart . BUT what does a persons Pancreas do for the body that is so important and can be life threatening if damaged . Yes i have had issues in the past with it . But still don't know what it for the body .

    • ANSWER:
      Your pancreas is an organ that lies behind the lower part of your stomach. One of its main functions is to make insulin, a hormone that regulates the absorption of sugar (glucose) into your cells. Type 1 diabetes results when your pancreas can't make enough insulin, causing your blood sugar to rise to dangerous levels.

    Is inflammation in the pancreas due to diabetes life threatening?
    Hi, my grandpa was recently admitted to the hospital due to pains in his abdomen and general torso area. He has inflammation in his pancreas. Is this life threatening in any way?

    • ANSWER:
      Pancreatitis can be life threatening because pancreas is the main organ system we need to survive. You can remove other organs but not pancreas. The person above me have said what I need to say.

    can you still drink very moderately after an elevation and then lowering of enzymes in the pancreas?
    I had elevated enzymes in my pancreas from drinking. I went to the emergency room due to extreme pain. The enzymes were only slightly elevated and the count dropped by the next day. Will very moderate drinking (a glass of wine here and there) cause cancer or death?

    • ANSWER:
      Non cancer, but there's a good risk of pancreatitis (i.e. inflammation of the pancreas). Alcohol is a direct trigger and if you've already had an attack, there's a good shot it can happen again.

      Most pancreatitis self resolve, but i've seen about 10% of cases have bad outcomes, with infection/issues with diarrhea/obstruction/pain being quite profound, and sometimes even leading to death.

      I would definitely give your body a break from the alcohol for a while, and try to cut it out permanently.

    what is the difference between the pancreas and the bowels?
    is "Bowels" an old name for pancreas? what are the functions of each?

    and how common cancer erupts in the bowels or pancreas and why?

    how common maybe today and is it more common with processed foods? why people dont make more effort to eat only vegetables and fruits if so?

    how much does smoking cause this too? and why people keep smoking anyways and cant quit?

    • ANSWER:
      Risk of pancreatic cancer is increased if you have a history of diabetes, long term inflammation of the pancreas (chronic pancreatitis), hereditary pancreatitis, stomach ulcers or certain types of cancer.

      Diet - Studies show conflicting evidence on whether high levels of fat, sugar, and red or processed meats in your diet affect pancreatic cancer risk.

      Body weight and exercise - Being overweight causes a small increase in the risk of pancreatic cancer. And doing little or no physical activity in your job may increase the risk.

      Family history - Although this is not usually a factor, sometimes pancreatic cancer can run in families. There may be a genetic link in up to 1 in 10 cases of pancreatic cancer (10%).

      Researchers have brought together the results of several studies looking at alcohol intake and bowel cancer risk. The combined results show that you have a 15% increase in bowel cancer risk if you drink more than 12.5 units of alcohol a week on average. The risk increases further if you drink more than this.

      There is a strong link between obesity and cancer of the large bowel (colon cancer), especially in men. Compared to men of a healthy bodyweight, overweight men (with a body mass index of 25 or higher) have a 25% increase in risk of colon cancer. Obese men (with a BMI of 30 or higher) have a 50% increased risk of colon cancer. There is a smaller risk increase for colon cancer in overweight and obese women.

    Can we find insulin in our blood vessels? Or is insulin transported exclusively from pancreas to liver?
    Can we find glucagon in our blood? Or is glucagon transported exclusively from pancreas to liver?

    • ANSWER:
      Both insulin and glucagon can be found in the blood, my friend. They are both hormones produced by the pancreas (the alpha cells (islets of Langerhans) produce glucagon, and the beta cells (islets of Langerhans) produce insulin) to maintain homeostasis of blood glucose levels.


      Please forgive me. I forgot to say that insulin levels are measured to indicate whether someone is suffering from insulin resistance ... a pre-cursor to the development of type 2 diabetes ... as well as a few other conditions, such as PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome). Glucagon also works on the muscles of the body, where it initiates the release of glycogen ... the way that they store glucose ... back into the bloodstream. (The liver IS the main source of glycogen, but the muscles also store it for when it's needed rapidly, during exercise or 'fight or flight' reactions.)

    How does the brain talk to the pancreas?
    There must be some communication between the two. The brain is responsible for keeping balance or homeostatic level within the body. How does it send messages to the pancreas and what does it send in order to tell it to either release insulin or glucagon.
    basically what is it sending to the pancreas and where in the brain is it coming from.

    Thanks this question is haunting me.

    • ANSWER:
      The brain is the operating system / CPU and receives the signals / request from the various organs and analyse them and then later command the corresponding organs to act accordingly. For example when lot of food is available in the stomach then the brain receives the request from the stomach for the requirement of digestive juices and commands the organs like bile duct and acid producing glands to release the same to the stomach. Similarly when the digested food is getting ingested it recevies the signal from the stomach that excess food is available and hence sends command to the pancreas to release insulin for converting the same. These things can only be explained theoritically and scientists are just trying to find out exactly how these signals are sent and there is still a long way to go.

    Fat on the outside of pancreas and liver. How dangerous is this?
    My grandmother just went to the doctor. Her report said there is fat on the outside of pancreas and liver. Does this mean that she has diabetes? How about cancer?

    Her doctor said that she has to be under constant monitoring.

    • ANSWER:
      Underwater boy - "Fat on the outside of the pancreas and liver" is a weird expression that physicians do NOT use. Read the report yourself from a copy. In people who drink too much alcohol or in people with very poor nutrition, there may be advanced fatty changes IN the liver cells. This is possible of returning to normal with good treatment. Alcoholics and people with a history of inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) may have spotty loss of pancreas tissue which may be replaced by fat in which there may be deposits of calcium which often show up on X-ray studies. Maybe one of these possibilities really exists, especially if "fat" was diagnosed from X-ray studies of the pancreas or a tissue biopsy of the liver. Any fat outside the liver or pancreas does NOT harm either organ.

    What happens when the pancreas shuts down?
    My step brother is 17 and has been diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis. I don't know much about the situation but I do know that there is scar tissue formed around his pancreas and his enzyme levels have been up in the 3000's. My step mom was at the doctor with him today and the doctor said something about his pancreas has a possibility of total shut down. I'm really worried about him. Can someone help me out?

    • ANSWER:
      Don't get too overly concerned. Doctors are generally extremely uneducated about this condition. The fact that your brothers levels have gotten that high is actually a blessing in disguise. People with severe chronic pancreatitis don't have any elevation of their levels. The survival rate for any particular flare up is pretty good. I know someone who had an attack into the 20,000 range. My daughter regularly has had attacks into the 3-4 thousand range. She has been hospitalized 9 times and has been fine. The other two people who posted are inaccurate about their information. You CAN live without your pancreas, and you won't necessarily be a type one diabetic. You need to look into a hospital that does a specialized surgery called a total pancreatectomy with auto-islet cell transplantation. They take the islet cells that make insulin in the pancreas and transplant them into the liver. He should be able to manage his disease for a while without the requirement of surgery. Where he already has scarring, he will get worse if he does not take good care of himself. Chronic pancreatitis is a horrible disease, and without proper management will cause horrible pain, narcotic addiction, malnutrition, and diabetes. He should join a facebook group like the one I am a part of. They are an invaluable resource of information on diet changes, and people who understand what you are going through. Just so he is prepared, he will have to be on medication for the rest of his life. He will have to take enzymes every time he eats if he is not already. He should also be on an antacid once a day. Good luck!

    what are the chances of your pancreas failing?
    i just ate a lot of candy. i just found out that your pancreas can fail because of all the sugar. yeah i know it sounds ridiculous but what are the chances of this happening?

    • ANSWER:
      To answer your question exactly, none, my pancreas has already failed.

      I highly doubt one sugar binge is gonna cause it to fail. For me, I became diabetic in my teens, but I had also shown symptoms from when I was very young.Your pancreas is more dependent on your lifestyle and genetics than sitting down one day and eating a lot of candy

    Does a pancreas transplant have to come from a deceased donor?
    My husband may need a kidney transplant. His specialist told him it would be better to have a pancreas transplant at the same time because of his out-of-control diabetes. I know a kidney can come from a live donor, but wouldn't he have to be put on a waiting list for a pancreas?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, the pancreas would have to come from a nonliving donor, usually one that's died due to a brain injury. As far as kidneys are concerned, we're each born with 2, so somebody can donate one. Livers can also regenerate in some cases and you can receive part of a liver and it will grow to a whole one. The pancreas however is an organ that has to remain intact to work.

      It sounds bad, but the best time to find organ donors is during the motorcycle season.

    What do the liver and pancreas use to produce enzymes and bile for chemical digestion?
    Hi, I'm doing a biology packet for homework, and my book nor the internet says what the liver and pancreas use to produce enzymes and bile for chemical digestion. Please tell me if you know the answer to this question. Please help, it's due on Monday.

    • ANSWER:
      bile- main content is cholesterol. also contain bilirubin which is derived from the heme portion of phagocytosed RBC. electrolytes, water, phospholipids.
      enzymes- made out of proteins. thru transcription and translation

    How long can a heart, a kidney, a liver, a lung, a pancreas, and an intestine last out side the body?
    How long can a heart, a kidney, a liver, a lung, a pancreas, and an intestine last out side the body before it's useless for a transplant?

    • ANSWER:
      This is taken in accordance with how fast an organ will last
      to be transplanted.
      Here is a site that explains this, you can click on the link:

      Here is the answer to your question for certain organs:
      Heart 4-6 hours
      Lungs 4-6 hours
      Pancreas 12-24 hours
      Liver 12-24 hours
      Intestine 12-24 hours
      Kidneys 48-72 hours

      These are the guidelines set.

      Hope this information is of some help to you.

    What are the risks associated with post acinar cell tumour of pancreas?
    My relative underwent a surgery for acinar cell tumor of pancreas in 2005. Now she is pregnant. Is it safe for her to have a baby? What are the risks involved and what would be the precautions required so as to ensure she lives for a very long period.

    • ANSWER:
      There is no way to answer you. We do not even know the stage or her treatment. In general the prognosis for pancreatic cancer is not good. Although, acinar cell tumors have a better prognosis than adenocarcinomas. This is a very uncommon cancer and it is very unusual to occur in someone young enough to have children so there is little known about this combination and therefore, impossible to ensure a long life. She has already survived longer than the average person. I hope she stays this way.

    What amount of insulin do pancreas produce for a normal person? Can insulim produced be known for diabetic?
    I am diabetic injecting insulin and would like to know?
    Can my insulin production be known? Which vegetable, herb can substitute artificial insulin (medicine). Doctors in the whole world have never come up with any medicine to enable impaired pancreas produce insulin?

    • ANSWER:
      A c-peptide is the test that will show you how much insulin you make naturally.

      A healthy adult pancreas makes about 1 unit an hour basal, plus 3-5 units to cover meals.

    What else does the pancreas do other than produce insulin?
    Im seventeen and i have type 1 diabetes (since i was eleven). Anyways i know my pancreas does not produce insulin at all and i manage it with insulin shots and lots of water and a strict diet. My question is, the fact that it doesn't produce insulin anymore does it mean that it doesn't work anymore or does the pancreas have other functions in the body,if so can anyone tell me.

    • ANSWER:
      it cleans your blood or something. that might be your spleen though

    What is an infection of the pancreas called?
    My bro just got lab results and it turns out he has an infection in his pancreas and he can't drink alcohol anymore. Is it Pancreatitis? Or are there different infections?

    • ANSWER:
      An attack of the Pancreatitis I had was extremely painful in the lower back and belly. If he doesn't have that, it's some other kind. Colds and infections can settle anywhere in the body--even joints like the knees. But the serious kind, like I had, came from years of alcohol abuse. So maybe that's what he has. Still, severe pancreatitis usually requires hospitalization and fasting to get over--and lots of pain medicine.

    What explains the difference between a pancreas cell and a skin cell?
    What explains the difference between a pancreas cell and a skin cell?

    help really hard

    • ANSWER:
      Even though they both contain the same genetic material (DNA) and will share certain similar properties such as surface antigens they are different because they have different genes turned on and off and so express different proteins. Eg insulin is produced by the beta cells and glucagon is expressed by the alpha cells so there are even differences within the endocrine part of the pancreas (The Islets Of Langerhans) as a result of differential gene expression.

    Does pancreas function improve after stopping alcohol consumption?
    I have been drinking 1/1.5 beer daily for 5 years. Will pancreas function improve if I stop drinking beer?

    • ANSWER:
      ya definitely stopping alcohol intake improves the pancreatic function.
      you know alcochol is the major cause for acute pancreatitis(inflammation of the pancreas).
      stopping alcohol also increases liver function and also reduces cardiovascular risks

    What is the feature and structure of a cell from the pancreas?
    I need to know what the type of epithelial tissue the pancreas is and how it functions!

    I really need help!
    Thanks in advance! :)

    • ANSWER:
      This question does not provide enough detail. Are we talking exocrine or endocrine pancrease. The pancrease has so many different purposes from secreting HCO3 to decrease acidity in the duodenum and secrete enzymes that help break down molecules to secreting insulin and glucagon to help control blood sugar levels. are we talking the Beta subunit in charge of insulin, alpha secreting glucagon? You have no detail in your question it is difficult to help you out. As far as the epithelium The pancreatic epithelium is columnar and are permeable to both sucrose and insulin and becomes more permeable when protein secretion by the gland is stimulated. Because these molecules are not thought to enter cells, it has been assumed that their movement across the epithelium from interstitial to ductal fluid, as well as the increase in that flux that is observed during augmented protein secretion, is due to their passage through paracellular shunts.

    What causes pancreas cancer and How to avoid it .Anybody ? ?
    My relative complain of very painful stomach pains , and feeling cold all over, and cannot digest food,; the doctor diagnoze it as cancer of the pancreas.

    • ANSWER:
      Pancreatic cancer occurs when cells in your pancreas develop genetic mutations. These mutations cause the cells to grow uncontrollably and to continue living after normal cells would die. These accumulating cells can form a tumor.

      Understanding your pancreas -
      Your pancreas is about 6 inches (15 centimeters) long and looks something like a pear lying on its side. The pancreas is a crucial part of your digestive system. It secretes hormones, including insulin, to help your body process sugar. And it produces digestive juices to help your body digest food.

      Types of pancreatic cancer -
      The types of cells involved in a pancreatic cancer help determine the best treatment. Types of pancreatic cancer include:

      Cancer that forms in the pancreas ducts (adenocarcinoma). Cells that line the ducts of the pancreas help produce digestive juices. The majority of pancreatic cancers are adenocarcinomas. Sometimes these cancers are called exocrine tumors.

      Cancer that forms in the hormone-producing cells. Cancer that forms in the hormone-producing cells of the pancreas is called endocrine cancer. Endocrine cancers of the pancreas are very rare.


      Although there's no proven way to prevent pancreatic cancer, you can take steps to reduce your risk, including:

      Quit smoking. If you smoke, quit. Talk to your doctor about ways to help you quit, including support groups, medications and nicotine replacement therapy. If you don't smoke, don't start.
      Maintain a healthy weight. Being overweight increases your risk of pancreatic cancer. If you need to lose weight, aim for a slow, steady weight loss — 1 or 2 pounds (0.5 or 1 kilogram) a week. Combine daily exercise with a plant-focused diet with smaller portions to help you lose weight.
      Exercise regularly. Aim for 30 minutes of exercise on most days. If you're not used to exercising, start out slowly and work up to your goal.
      Eat a healthy diet. A diet full of colorful fruits and vegetables and whole grains is good for you, and may help reduce your risk of cancer. -

    What causes inflammation of the pancreas?
    My friend is only about 28 years old and he said he has an inflamed pancreas. What is the root cause? Hereditary? Too much drinking?

    • ANSWER:
      I believe it might be because of his drinking habits. First of all, alcohol is not recommended for any people at all as it causes liver damage and other bad things. Also, since he is 19, he would be very vulnerable to heavy drinking or so called 'binge drinking'. Just make sure your friend doesn't have to much alcohol and limit him as a friend would do. The best thing however, would be for him to quit for life as it is a waste of money and causes health problems. Just think of it. Your friend is buying himself a disease or possibly death or a life of endless drugs,alcohol and violence. Take care.

    What triggers the endocrine system of the pancreas?
    I have a question regarding the pancreas, and how its hormones are triggered (insulin and glucagon specifically). Are they moderated with trophic hormones?

    • ANSWER:
      Increased blood glucose stimulates insulin secretion. The baroreceptors located in the aorta and the carotid is what monitors the osmoality of blood. The portal blood supply of the islets allows blood from the beta cells (containing insulin) to bathe the alpha & delta cells, this is another pathway for communication.

      The major factor that regulates glucagon secreation is the blood glucose concentration. Conditions that include glucagon stimulus is low BP, high amino acid count, norepinephrine, epinephrine and ACh. The pathway is the same, naturally, as the insulin. If you introduce disease or trauma, the pathways change.

    Implications of having stomach and pancreas removed?
    What are the implications of having your stomach and pancreas removed?
    Effects on digestion and feeding habits?

    • ANSWER:
      There would be a few changes the person would have to make:
      1. They would have to consume digestive enzymes with their meals. The pancreas and stomach produce nearly all of the digestive enzymes and the loss of these organs would require supplementation.
      2. They would have to take insulin injections. Insulin in produced in the pancreas and losing it stops insulin production.
      3. They would have to be very careful not to eat potentially contaminated food. The stomach would usually kill most pathogens that are ingested with food.
      4. They would have to chew their food very, very well or mix it in a blender.

      The only organ that is absolutely required for nutrition is the small intestine. The loss of any other GI organ can be supplemented with lifestyle changes and medication.

    What causes an underproduction of Insulin and Glucegon in the Pancreas?
    I just need to know what causes the pancreas to under produce Glucegon or Insulin. Also more importantly i need to know sort of impact does this underproduction have on the human behavior.

    • ANSWER:
      well, if one can't maintain his/her blood sugar then it causes it to not function correctly (insulin). glucogen helps insulin to regulate blood sugar.

    what hormone that from the brain tells the pancreas to release insulin?
    I.e. what is the hormone or chemical that the brain releases and how does it travel to the pancreas through what path?

    • ANSWER:
      There isn't one. GLUT-2 transporters on beta islet cells of the pancreas allow the passive movement of glucose into the cell. high concentrations trigger the release of insulin. It is independent of the brain.


Cancer In Cats

Frequently Asked Questions

    My cat just released it's bowels on the floor, should I put her down?
    I heard that cancer cats do that, and they are in pain. I don't want her to be in pain anymore. I have the medicine to put cats down, the youthinasia. That way I won't have to pay the vet. What should I do?

    • ANSWER:
      If a vet is your concern, sorry you should not own an animal - by law you have to provide vet care. Not to mention you are likely not keeping the litterbox clean enough.
      Did your mom have you put to slee for wetting your bed? Then why would you want to do that without knowing why it happened.
      Be humane and responsible and take the cat to the vet, the cause may be something very small and curable - and when this cat's time has come, be sensible and realise that pet ownership is not for you.

    Cat with cancer of the white blood cells?
    One of our kitties was just diagnosed with cancer of the white blood cells. The vet wants to do an ultrasound a bunch of tests worth about a thousand dollars. The kitty is extremely underweight and is lethargic. My question: Is there any hope of a cure for this type of cancer in cats or would we just be prolonging the cat's suffering?
    According to the vet it is a lymphoma and not feline leukemia if that helps.

    • ANSWER:
      To be honest with you i would have the kitty put to sleep its very expensive and the treatment is not guaranteed to work you might get a little longer time with the cat but im afraid its not really worth putting it threw the pain.

    How do I know if my cat is dying from kidney failure?
    My cat was diagnosed with kidney failure on Friday. He stayed in the hospital for three days where they gave him medication and an IV to treat his bladder infection. We took him home and he's been eating, drinking and his personality is normal. He still continues to urinate on the carpet which is what made us realize he was sick. How do I know if he is dying? One kideny is not working and the other is large and overworking to compensate. The vet says that can turn to cancer in cats. I am afraid he is dying and I am afraid he has to e put down but I am also afraid to act too quickly, but I can't watch him every minute and he's urinating all over the place. What do I do? Please help.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry to hear this...please just try to make his last months as nice as him and don't have him put down.

      yes pray for him...God is always there

    How to now if a cat has skin cancer?
    i took my cat to the vet recently and the vet said she might have skin cancer. My cat has a pink growth/lump just under her eyelid. It looks really painful we have tryed treatment for it but it didnt work. I dont think it bothers her to much but shall i get her checked out again or wait for a while and see what happens. Please help me

    • ANSWER:
      If it's suspected as cancer, the only thing you can do to decide is take a biopsy. Basically, slices if the tissue are taken and stained on a microscope slide. They will also make "cytology impresssions" by pressing a piece of tissue against the slide and then pulling it away to leave cells behind. Then a pathologist will look at the slides and decide whether the cells look normal, if they are dividing abnormally, if they are invading the surrounding tissue, etc. If the growth is benign, it can probably be removed with surgery and may or may not return. If it is malignant, then it really depends on the type of cancer as to what can be done about it. When a biopsy is done, they will decide what cell types make up the tumor, and how it will be approached.
      I would not wait on this. Even certain types of malignant cancers can be treated when caught early enough. If you wait, and it is malignant, the cells may migrate to other parts of the body (lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, liver, etc) and cause cancer there as well. Good luck, cancer is hard to deal with.

    Cancer in cats - can it pass to humans?
    The neighbours cat has been coming over to our place for a few months. Sometimes I'd hand feed it, pat it and even pick it up and kiss it. I found out from the owners that its sick, it has cancer, and its getting to 20 years old. As I've come in contact with the cats saliva on my hand and my hand may have then gone to my mouth, I wanted to know if cancer in cats is contagious to humans. Thank you
    They didn't say what type of cancer, but I noticed that it has difficulting breathing, with every breath, it struggles and make noise

    • ANSWER:
      I'm not sure if you've heard that cancer in humans is NOT contagous air bourn or sliava transfered - I'm sure its the same with animals / other species -
      cancer can be caused by gentics the enviroment ( toxins etcs in air, the food consumed , and many other ways )
      you should be fine stop worring !

    How common is it for cats to have a tumor?
    My cat has been having nose problems for several weeks and it hasn't been getting better so I took him to the vet. The vet looked in his nose and couldn't see anything so he said he was worried it might be a tumor. He asked me to leave him over night so he could take some x-rays. I was just wondering if anyone knew how common tumors/cancer is in cats. My cat means a lot to me and I'm worried sick about the whole situation.

    • ANSWER:
      Unfortunately, oral and nasal tumors are pretty common in cats, especially if they are older cats. Hopefully your vet will find something else that isn't so serious. I'm so sorry to hear about you and your kitty!

    Cancer in cats - can it pass to humans?
    The neighbours cat has been coming over to our place for a few months. Sometimes I'd hand feed it, pat it and even pick it up and kiss it. I found out from the owners that its sick, it has cancer, and its getting to 20 years old. As I've come in contact with the cats saliva on my hand and my hand may have then gone to my mouth, I wanted to know if cancer in cats is contagious to humans. Thank you
    They didn't say what type of cancer, but I noticed that it has difficulting breathing, with every breath, it struggles and make noise

    • ANSWER:
      You have nothing to worry about.

    How can I help my husband survive colon cancer?
    He has stage III, possibly IV, colon cancer. He has had a portion of his large intestine, along with the cancer removed. However 6 out of 10 lymph nodes in that portion contained cancer. Also the cat scan showed something in the liver but he is to get an MRI to determine if that is cancer or not. He will be receiving chemo. through a port, 2 days every week for 6 months. Are there any alternative or additional treatments available?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi there! I am not sure where you are located, but I know what you're going through, both as a caregiver and a from a patients prospective. I am going to be 33 next week, I was diagnosed at 28 with stage 2 colon cancer. I have the gene that causes colon cancer-HNPCC(Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Colon Cancer), MLH-1 mutation. My mom passed it to me, she got it from her father, etc., My father also had colon cancer three months after me at age 73. He's had 7 cancers in 13 years-currently has leukemia and I currently have stage 1 cervical cancer.

      The previous poster was right in answering all the questions and listing the different types of chemo-I did Folfox-5FU, with Oxaliplatin, and Leukovorin-I ended up having an allergic reaction to that after I had that nice port put in and they did 6 months of oral Xeloda with me. However, at the time they were doing clinical trials with Avastin and I hear that's AWESOME stuff.

      Don't fret or lose hope! I have know people that were written off and stage 4 and they're here 10 years later! My advice to you and your husband is to be proactive! Listen and ask questions to your doctors, they are there to serve you! If you don't like their responses get another opinion, yes, time is of the essence, but this is life here, people get second opinions on their houses, cars, etc. take the time to do it on your body-I so wish we had did with my mother! Keep a chart-medical record-get copies of everything HIPPA allows you that freedom of your medical record-you'll need this information because chemo is no joy ride and if he gets ill and needs to go to the er you have his "current" chart there with you-it will speed things up and help the ER docs, etc treat him faster if needed.

      I don't know what state you're located in or else I could provide you with more resources and contacts. How old is he? Also a PET scan-google or yahoo it! It is used to "help" diagnose cancer-better than an MRI IMO, they use it as a "re-staging" for cancer patients, my father and I have one done every 3-6 months, basically it's like a CT scan, but it's of your whole body, and they inject a little dye and you drink some barium and it's this SUV (Standard Uptake Value) that is measured-it highlights up on the films like a highlighter, the higher the numbers-the greater the chance there is metabolic abnormalities there, thus cancerous cells.

      Chemo is going to be difficult, at least for me and my mother it was-my dad is very fortunate, he tolerates it well. Some things to keep in mind-use plastic utensils to eat things with-stuff will taste like metal if you don't and don't eat things from metal containers like canned fruit, etc., Once the chemo starts taking effect, like the second dose-he'll get the cold hands sensation-so no cold liquids-room temperature will be just fine, same thing with being around the fridge and freezer items & same goes with the grocery store-when you pick up a cold item it's like electricity is running through your veins. Avoid high acids foods-reflux and upset stomach will just set in-not a good combination. Zofran 4 & 8 mg was the best nausea med & now they have some that are in dissolvable kind for the tongue.

      If his blood counts go down from chemo-which they probably will, he may have to take procrit or neulasta(sp) shots, the latter will cause some bone pain because it affects your bone marrow, it's normal, but don't hesitate to mention it to your doctor-don't hesitate to mention anything to the doctor!

      Also-neuropathy-numbness in hands and feet-I found that vitamins B6 & B12 are amazing when it comes to this-but check with the doc first. If diarrhea sets in bad, A&D ontiment is good to have on hand, as are baby wipes & marshmellows-if he can tolerate them, they slow down the digestive track a little cause you get tired of taking immodium or at least I did.

      I would love to talk to you some more, or heck I'd even chat w you over the net, check out my profile, it's got my IM info in there! Good luck!

    How do you detect skin cancer in a cat?
    Can cats get skin cancer? Because I think my cat may be developing it. He has this one spot on his back that is especially dandruffy, and it is dry and the fur is getting thinner, and whenever you touch right there he starts licking his chest, and basicly freaking out. I love my cat dearly and want to help him.
    He isn't allowed out doors, but i have no clue what he has. He is overweight, but most of his fur is soft and beautiful except for the one spot
    He weighs around 18 pounds and is 6 years old, going on 7.
    PLease help me i love my cat. He is the best pet i have ever had. I treat him like he is my son
    I highly doubt my parents will believe me. Do you think I'm stupid? I would ask a cet if I could
    *vet is what i meant to say
    MY cat is not allowed out doors...he has dark fur.

    • ANSWER:
      Go to a vet

    x ray of cat shows spots on lungs and fluid around heart?
    went to vets yesterday, she said that cat had many spots on xray on lungs and fluid around heart and that she had cancer. Cat hasn't eaten or drank in days. Could is be anything besides cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      I don't have an answer. Just wanted to say I'm sorry. :(

    is it true that the rabies vaccine can cause cancer in cats?
    im supposed to take my cats to the vet on monday to get their rabies vaccine but i read that it can cause canser, is it true?

    • ANSWER:
      It's possible, but highly unlikely.

      "Do remember that approximately 99.98 percent of cats do not develop post-vaccination tumors. However, in a very small percentage of cats, a post-vaccination inflammation develops under the skin. These reactions are abscess caused by irritation and inflammation due to vaccine components. The reactions occur 7 – 12 days after a vaccine is given, and feel like small, firm lumps under the skin. They are not painful and last a week or two. They usually subside without any lasting effect."

    Dirty chin and nostrils on my elderly cat?
    My cat, who is around 15, has a tumor in his abdomen. The vet thinks it's cancer. My cat has lost weight, although still has much energy and an appetite. He has had on-and-off diarrhea, and I just saw him throw up a bit. I'm keeping an eye on him in terms of his eating habits and all, but I'm wondering about his dirty chin and nostrils: only recently, he started having a wet, dirty chin (blackish dirt), and I just saw some near his nostrils. Could that be due to throwing up? Should I be concerned?

    • ANSWER:
      The nostril thing is probably due to the throwing up. When my cat was a kitten she had those black/brown specks on her chin too. In your case its probably becasue she's sick and can't groom his chin properly so its getting dirty. Just get a wet washcloth and gently clean it off. You might not be able to get it all off but it should help.

    How often is a cat supposed to go into heat?
    My boyfriend's cat isn't spayed.... We've been living together 10 months and she's been in heat 4 times already! Right after he moved in here, about 2 months after that, again about 6 weeks ago, and now again!!! Each time it lasts 1-2 weeks. She's about 8 years old. He doesn't want to get her fixed so I'm just wondering how often I'm gonna have to listen to her howl all night & day and watch her 'hump' the bathroom steps - which is rather gross IMO.

    Before this, I was under the impression cats only went into heat twice a year. I was (obviously) wrong!

    • ANSWER:
      If the cat is that old, you (or your boyfriend) can still have her spayed. She is too old to have kittens anyway. Having an animal spayed or neutered will keep them healthier and keep them from getting certain types of cancer. Cats go into heat once evry 6 to eight weeks. Go to any shelter and you will see how many unwanted cats there are!

    What would cause blood in a cats stool?
    My 9 Year Old cat used the litter box Last night
    and right after I went to clean it up Due to the worse than normal very foul smell and I knowticed blood in his stool.
    It was a bit softer than normal, yellowish with mucusy bright red blood.What could be causing this?
    Could it be passed on to my other cats?
    Anyone had this problem with thier cat before?
    If it happens again I am for sure taking him to the Vet RIGHT AWAY!
    Im wondering if it could be just a one time thing from too much strain.
    I just adoped this cat so Im wondering if it could be stress related cause he has had a VERY stressfull last few weeks.His original owners gave him up cause he was allergic to the new carpet and it was causing him to ich which caused him loose fur on his leg and tail and get wounds from biting the area.So after 9 years they gave him up, he spent a week in the shelter then I took him home with me and he has to adjust to a new home and 3 other new cats.So the pooy guy is pretty stresed.
    TOok Clifton t o Vet, Ran tests, and couldnt find anything wring. Vets think it may be due to stress.
    :) Im so verry happy my cats not sick cause I spent the whole night worring like a mother (well I am my cats mother, so it makes scence!)

    • ANSWER:
      take him to the vet IMMEDIATELY. bloody stool can be caused by such a large number of things. it could be anywhere from cancer (cats do have it!) to another allergy. if there is something casuing a laceration in his intestines, it needs to be checked out ASAP. even if the wound heals it's likely to be reopened by the passing of hard stool in the future. if you like this cat, don;t delay.

    Why do my cats pee in the rooms their not supposed to?
    Hey, I have 2 cats ( about 1 year old, brothers) and they pee around the house. I was wondering if this is because they are not nuetured or what.
    And they haven't done it til mid-may, and they used to always go in their litter box.

    • ANSWER:
      It is instinctive for non-neutered cats to put their scent everywhere (marking their territory). Once you get them neutered it not only lowers their chance for getting prostate cancer, but it helps if you don't plan on breeding them.
      Also, if they aren't litter box trained, they put their scent on something (usually absorbent, like carpet) and go to that same area to pee again since their scent is already there. Try getting a litter called "Kitten attract." You can buy this at Petsmart or Petco, founded by Dr. Elsey. It's not expensive whatsoever, and both my kittens wanted to use the litter box all the time.

    How can I get my cat neutered without him having to get shots?
    My cat is blind and indoor only, so I don't see a need for rabies vaccines or others. I've had 3 cats who have developed cancerous tumors at injection sites and don't want that for him, but the vets will not do it no matter how much I explain. If humans have a choice then why don't we for our pets? Or do we?

    • ANSWER:
      There's NO way I'm going to believe you had ALL 3 cats developed cancer at injection sites. Today, the vets, aware of this possibility, give the injections in a different area each year to prevent exactly this. If your cat harmed someone without having had rabies shots, you would truly regret not having them vaccinated.

    How do you make indoor cats live longer?
    Ok, I love my two cats, 1 and 2 and I want them too live to like 18. They are very healthy however my one cat who is one is small,my mom won't take her to the vet because she says shes fine, but my point is how do you get your cat to live long? Is there a way? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      You can help them live longer by taking good care of them, feeding them good quality food (high in protein, low in grain and absolutely no sugar), not feeding them milk products or tuna, making sure they don't get obese by eating too much, by neutering them (and thus greatly reducing the risk of some diseases like genital cancer) and by vaccinating them once a year or at least every other year.

      Different cats are different sizes, even sometimes in the same litter. Our first litter of five had one kitten who was about 50-75% of the average size, and one who was about 150% of the average size, and those size differences held on. The tiny one moved to a new owner when she was six months, so I don't know if she ever caught up, but the large one is still just as large ^^; So just because your younger cat is small, it doesn't mean there's anything wrong with her.

      Another thing that will help your cats live longer, especially once they start getting on in age, is to be alert for changes in their behaviour. Cats are notorious about NOT showing when they're feeling bad, and they certainly won't come up to you and tell you that something is wrong. If your cat(s) stop eating as much, or won't play and looks very tired, and it's not just a temporary thing because it's played itself to exhaustion, you'll need to get a vet to look at the cat. Discovering illnesses early is very important, and the longer you wait the worse it'll get.

      If you don't already have them insured and ID-marked, I suggest you do that, as the insurance will help you pay for any medical treatment and the ID will help you get them back if they run away. ID marking can be done with a micro chip embedded between the cat's shoulderblades or by a tattoo in one ear. The price is (as far as I know) the same, but with the tattoo people will be able to tell right away that the cat is ID marked and therefore not a stray. I'm not sure how many would assume a runaway/stray cat had a chip and know where to find it.

    What would cause my cats nipples to grow in a pregnant type manner?
    She hasn't had contact with any other cats since she's a house cat and we don't have any others. There's a possibility that another cat came in an open window and impregnated her, but that's a slim chance. Is there any other things that would cause it?

    • ANSWER:
      If she is not spayed, she could be pregnant. Male cats can detect a cat in heat from miles away. Leaving open windows is definitely risky in this situation.

      Animals also sometimes go through false pregnancies as well. Swollen nipples or mammary glands can be a sign of this.

      Cats can also get mammary cancer.

      Best to get her checked out......and spayed.
      Average gestation is 63 days, so keep an eye on the calendar.

    What would cause my cat to have her entire right armpit area to become swollen?
    4 year old feral cat. Been hiding out from other cats (they fight normally) but under bed all day. Eating, drinking less than normal. Felt her body tonight swollen a lot under right armpit and the surrounding area. Not hard not too soft. What could it be from?

    • ANSWER:
      It could be a bite. Or it could be a lymph node-they swell up when the body is trying to fight off an infection of some sort. If you've ever had swollen glands, then you will know when you touch it. A trip to the vet is in order since any swelling is in response to either an injury, infection, allergy or cancer.

    How do male and female cats differ characteristically? Which do you prefer?
    I will be getting a cat for my apartment this
    weekend. Should I get a kitten or adult?
    Does spay or neuter change the cat's
    personality? Will all animal shelters require
    spay/neuter? And lastly, as asked in the subject line, how do male and female cats
    differ characteristically?

    • ANSWER:
      Most animal shelters won't release an animal that's not 'fixed', but if you're in a small town who knows.
      "fixing" animals changes them...for the better.
      They are behaviorally changed, not personality changed.
      Also fixing prevents so many cancers and possible infections and disease of reproductive system, including breast cancer.
      There are very slight differences in personality that might be gender-specific...I personally prefer females for a few reasons...mostly just my own preference, but to me male cats seem to want constant attention, whereas my girls just like to hang out with me.
      Plus...even neutered males sometimes spray & sorry I won't risk it.
      Also- two cats aren't that much more to deal with...if you get them at the same time you have a better chance of them being friends sooner, and if one cat's gonna be alone all the time it's not right.
      Mature (2 and up) cats are wonderful and just as affectionate as kits.

    Putting one of my Cats down; How are the others going to react?
    I have 3 cats and I am putting down one of my cats due to cancer ='(
    Two of my cats (including the one i am putting down) have grown up together in my house hold, and are like bothers from another mother. The other cat, which is much younger, plays with the one i'm putting down constantly (when he is feeling good).
    I am scared of the affect it will have on the 2 other cats, or will there be any affect at all? How are they going to react?
    Thank you everyone for being so nice and understanding

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry it's hard to lose a pet.

      Animal just like people go through a mourning period after losing a loved one, your cats will probably be looking for the other cats, and look upset for awhile, but the best thing to do is to give the other 2 cats alot of attention.

    when I pet my cats they all start sounding like their coughing up a hairball, do they know if I'm sick?
    I have recover and am cancer free for a year now. Does their behavior mean that I have cancer again?

    • ANSWER:
      I agree with Danielle the whole 3 yards they probably have hairballs take them to the vet & then go to the doctor for humans then ask for a exam to see if you have cancer (its just a precaution)

    What vaccinations are needed for cats to cross the border from the united states into canada?
    I am going into canada soon and am wanting to take two cats...a kitten and a full grown cat.....i need to know what are all the proper vaccinations and documentaion needed to bring them across the border into the country.

    • ANSWER:
      Great answer Samatha, Just a note on rabies vaccines
      Feline injection site Fibrosarcoma is a type of terminal cancer related to inflammation caused by rabies and leukemia vaccines.(12) Mean disease free interval time or survival time with surgical removal is about 3 months. Mean survival time with surgical removal plus radiation treatment plus chemotherapy is less than 3 years. Amputation of a rear leg plus radiation has resulted in a few cures.

      Vaccines with adjuvant, an ingredient included to stimulate the immune system, have been implicated as a higher risk, although other injectable drugs have been incriminated as well. Adjuvanted vaccines have been demonstrated to induce mutation in cell cultures. Adjuvanted Rabies, Distemper and Feline Leukemia vaccines have been classified as Class II carcinogens by the World Health Organization.

      To minimize the risk of injection site fibrosarcomas, we now recommend all non-adjuvanted vaccines for cats, including Merial PCR Purevac rabies vaccine. Testing by Dr. Dennis Macey, Colorado State University, has shown this vaccine to have the lowest tissue reaction. Although there is no guarantee that an injection site fibrosarcoma will not develop, the risk will be much lower than with other vaccines.(12) After three years on the market there have been only two injection site fibrosarcomas confirmed with Purevac rabies vaccine vs. over 70,000 caused by adjuvanted rabies vaccines

    How much will cancer surgery on a cat cost me?
    She has a little cancer on her nose and tips of ears :(
    how much will it cost me , round about?

    • ANSWER:
      Your vet can give you an estimate. Also ask about follow up. My guess is if it was spreading already they'll want to do some further treatment after removal. Good luck!

    Can my grandma sue a hospital for crushing her in a cat scan machine?
    my grandma was getting a routine cancer check up via cat scan. she was in the machine and it started getting to tight. she said the machine was to tight and was hurting her but the doctors said this was normal. she told the people after that her chest hurt. they said shes fine and sent her off. she called that hospital next day and they said she should go to a walk in clinic. my grandma went to a doctor and they said some of the muscles in her chest were torn..... can she sue for this? should she sue for this?

    • ANSWER:

    How is radioactivity applied in the treatment of cancer?
    Since radioactivity causes cancer, what science is behind its medical aplication? And what is "artificial radioactivity" Does it have anything to do with the med application of radioactivity?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, indeed, radioactivity can cause cancer, if the body is exposed to a massive amount of radioactive rays.
      Radioactive rays have the propriety of killing living cells, mostly the rapid multiplying cells, such as skin cells, hair cells, blood cells, intestine cells and... cancerous cell. If a living cell is irradiated with radioactive rays, the rays produce ionization of the atoms in the cell chemical structure, so the DNA chain is changing. If the cell detects that its DNA chain is damaged during the division, it will self destruct.
      Using radioactive rays in a controlled way, it is possible to kill cancerous cells. For deep tumors, or tumors in inoperable places, high-intensity X-rays or gamma rays are focused on the tumor. The problem with this sort of treatment is that normal cells can be affected along with the abnormal cells. Hair cells, cells lining the stomach and intestines, skin cells and blood cells reproduce quickly, so they are strongly affected by radiation. The visible side effects are skin burn on the irradiated area, hair loss and nausea.
      Radioactivity is also used to diagnose patients using PET scans or CAT scans (tomography).

      for more details, technics, radionuclids used, imaginig equipments see:

    Why do my cats go into heat so often?
    It seems as if my cats go into heat about once a month. I don't know if it's the weather, but it used to be they would go into heat about once every 6 months, but now it seems like they're in and out of it about once every month. I don't know if there's any reason that this may be happening.

    • ANSWER:
      The longer a cat goes unspayed, and unpregnant, the shorter the time between heat cycles. Some cats are almost in constant state of heat.

      Be kind, please have your cat spayed. It causes so much stress on her to be in heat, and drastically increases the risk of cancers and uterine infections.

    How do I know if my cat needs to be sterilized?
    I have a male 9 month old cat, he's sometimes too playful, sometimes cute as hell, and sometimes a bit wild and biting!
    Do have knowledge on this? When do people sterilize cats? He doesn't have contact with other cats either.

    • ANSWER:
      Sterilization really isn't just the fact of him not having bouncy babies but neutering can help with behavioral problems as well. Generally, not all, most neutered cats are calmer. Neutering also helps with urine marking and male cat urine is something you do NOT want lingering in your home. Also, neutering can decrease the risk of prostate cancer in your cat. I work at a vet's office and we had a dog come in not too long ago where the owner did not have him neutered and it was discovered he had prostate cancer, our vet went ahead and neutered him but it was too late, about 2 months later he came in and could not walk and his blood pressure was very low and he was humanely euthanized. I honestly think neutered cats live longer and happier lifes with less complications than a cat who is not neutered.

    What are your thoughts on letting cats roam around outside without being fixed?
    I think that letting cats outside is very healthy for a cat, and I made sure that my cat had all of her shots before we let her outside. I also think its a little cruel to spay a female cat. I know you should so they don't get pregnant or anything, but still. I think its mean to get your cat all drugged up, put them in pain, and give them more drugs to try to stop their pain. What are your thought on this topic?
    Btw, I live in Sherwood Park, on an acridge, so there is no traffic or animals around to hurt her. I have no other animals either, so no way she could get pregnant.
    Btw, I live in Sherwood Park, on an acridge, so there is no traffic or animals around to hurt her. I have no other animals either, so no way she could get pregnant.
    WOAH GUYS!!! Calm down!! My cat is spayed, so don't freak out on me! I wouldn't let her outside without being spayed, and there isnt any male cats where I live. And besides, I got her spayed WAY before she got her shots... Maybe you should ask before you assume that my cat isn't spayed.

    • ANSWER:
      I would just like to say Congrats on having your cat spayed, but your title did suggest otherwise. Perhaps that is why people would jump to the (logical) conclusion that your cat was not fixed. Secondly, we can't 'ask before we freak out and assume that your cat isn't spayed' because that violates the question/answer format and would be considered chatting. That being said, there is no way you could possibly KNOW that there are no male cats around. Where there is a female in heat, a male will not be far behind. Not neutering/spaying pets is cruel. It raises the risk for cancer, and leads to unnecessary population increase. Where do you think most of these feral cats end up? Hit by cars, starving, in shelters and ultimately euthanized. It is not good practice and careless pet ownership to allow an unfixed animal to roam outside.

    Do you believe in the risks that microchips can cause cancer in pets? Is your pet microchipped?
    Two of my dogs are microchips. But ive heard that microchips have actually caused cancer in 1% of the rats they were tested on. Then again, that's a rat. So my question is do you believe in the risks of microchips causing cancer?
    I dont TD people who answer my question. I always TU for that.

    • ANSWER:
      I've NEVER known of a dog to have a bad reaction to a microchip. I'm a vet tech student. Needless to say, I've witnessed many dogs being microchipped. Never once seen one go bad.

      Is it a possibility? Yes. But if a dog were to have such a bad reaction to a microchip that it caused cancer, then that dog is very likely to get it anyways. Then there is the fact that MOST strains of lab rats were bred to produce cancer to aid in research. I wouldn't be suprised if more then 50% of the rats they tested on got cancer at one point or another. How they could link 1% of it to the microchips in particular is beyond me. At my school, we have lab rats. We use them to practice restraint and for lab animal classes. Even with great care, probably 75% of them grow a tumor at some point or other. Luckily, we are a vet tech school, and most tumors are removed immedietly. Most also grow back or grow new tumors.

      There was an article about a pom that bled to death after receiving a microchip. Honestly, an 18g needle is NOTHING, even for a smaller dog, and if THAT was enough to cause that much bleeding, there was some kind of medical issue that prevented that dog from clotting. There are just no veins in the scruff that could lead to that much bleeding unless the blood wasn't clotting naturally.

      My cats are microchipped because only 1 in 10 lost cats is ever returned to it's owner, and over 70% of all shelter cats are euthanized. That means only 1 in 4 shelter cats are adopted, the rest are euthanized. My dogs are microchipped because to lose them would be like losing a member of the family. I will not take that risk with my animals.

    How long does a cat have to live after Mammary Gland Swelling?
    My cat has serious mammary gland swelling, that needs operation, but we don't have the money for it. So how long will she live? It's been a year since it started it's all blue and swollen.
    And now the cat caught another disease my mother wants to put it down.
    It's a 10 yeard old cat, not spayed and the wet said she'd need both operations, to remove the glands and to get spayed. This happened because we used hormones on the cat to prevent heat

    • ANSWER:
      Is this a young cat or an old cat? Is she already spayed or not? in yong not spayed cats there is something called mammary gland hyperplasia that has an excellent prognosis ONCE CAT IS SPAYED it usually goes away. If this is an old or spayed cat, however, cancer is much more likely. Breast cancer in cats is aggressive and they usually have less than one year to live.

    What are the chances of the Cervical Cancer vaccine causing your death, rather than the Cancer itself?
    I've watched on the internet, heard stories from friends, and read in magasines that the Cervical Cancer vaccine is the one doing the killing rather than the actual Cancer.
    I'll being going for my third and final one in January, but now I'm having second thoughts. Is it worth it? What are the chances of dying from this vaccine?

    • ANSWER:
      check the news again, recently a girl had died from it... of course, the doctors will give another explanations in the same way they do for all the complications caused for any vaccination... I don't have even my cat vaccinated ... how more stupid can it be? we want to prevent a desease or infections with poison, poisoning our body with all sorts of virus, metal, etc????????????
      I rather die by whatever desease naturally than die from one I injected in my body.
      The farmacy is a HUGE INDUSTRY - they only interested is make money out of the fear of the ingnorant - please think, poison the body to prevent it get poisoned 9desease) in the future?????????

    How long does an unspade cat live for approx. and how long does a nuetered male cat live for approx.?
    How can u tell when a cat(specifically a female cat) is starting to die? and what kind of problems will an unspade female cat have or could have?

    • ANSWER:
      Spaying and neutering your pets dramatically reduces the chances of developing cancer. Female cats that are not spayed can develop mammary cancer,pyometra which is an infection in the uterus, they also have a higher chance of being involved in traumatic accidents because of their constant need to roam to find a mate, and they also have a higher chance of getting contagious diseases. An unspayed female cat will only live to about 3-6 years old, spaying a cat greatly prolongs their lifespan and allows them to live more comfortably. A neutered male cat will live to be about 12 years old which is double that of an unneutered cat. An easy way to tell when your cat is beginning to die is by closely watching her. They will descrease their activity level, begin to sleep in weird places, lose their appetite, stop drinking,lose their balance, stop purring, become very withdrawn, have cloudy eyes, will not use the litter box. All of those are symptoms of a cat starting to die. If you cat posesses any of these symptoms please get her to the vet quickly so that her death can be prevented, or if it is too late, quickened.

    At what age should you spay and neuter your cats?
    My 2 cats, male and female but not related, are about 2 months old and they have not gone outside and won't be outdoor cats.
    I don't want the female getting pregnant

    What age did you spay and/or neuter your cat(s)? What age do they start being sexual?

    • ANSWER:
      Little boys can be neutered when they reach two pounds (about 8 weeks). Some vets prefer to wait with females until they are 2 1/2 pounds (about 10 weeks). In any case, the female really should be spayed prior to her first heat, which may come as early as 4 months (rare but happens) and certainly will happen by 5 or 6 months. Cats spayed prior to their first heat cycle almost never get mammary cancer! Male cats reach sexual maturity as early a 6 months although 9 month is much more common. Males that are allowed to become "mature" can begin to spray and it's a much easier habit to prevent than cure. All of our rescue's kittens are spayed at that 8-10 week "rule" or as soon as they get into rescue. Kittens spayed that early have zero recovery time - the boys are ready to play and romp as soon as they wake up from anesthesia, and the girls are back to normal in 24 hours or less. Make them both their spay/neuter appointments now, and it will be all done and over with, and you'll never have to worry about her getting pregnant, or him spraying.

    How often should a strictly indoor cat receive vaccinations?
    My cat is: neutered male, strictly indoors and the only cat in the household.The vaccines that he only gets is FVRCP & Rabies(I live in northern California and by law all cats must have current Rabies vacs,regardless if they're strictly indoor cats).I do believe vaccinations are wonderful for cats,but at the same time I don't want to over vaccinate him.I heard that its ok for strictly indoor cats to be vaccinated every three years,but what your view on this matter?
    BTW,my cat is one year old.

    • ANSWER:
      I have strictly indoor cats and I know longer vaccinate. It is suggested, but I no longer do. I never vaccinate my older cats as some of them are know to cause cancer. For your peace of mind, every 3 years are fine.

    What is a nice way to tell an older lady she needs to put her cat down?
    I know this sounds bad but this cat has cancer and kidney disease and the vet said will die and there is not treatment. Right now the cat is just starving to death because it can't eat at all. It will just die slowly if she doesn't do anything about it. She wants to keep it alive as long as possible but that is kind of selfish especially because she is gone all day. What should I tell her? She is just making it harder on herself.
    I do live with her and she has asked my opinion on several occasions.

    • ANSWER:
      Red Leaf,

      You question doesn't sound "bad" at all to me. In fact, you are in a difficult position, not wanting to be blunt and to appear insensitive, and on the other hand, thinking about this cat's quality of life.

      It is not just a question of being "selfish", and I don't know the history of this woman and her cat so I cannot even speculate about her reasons.

      Some people feel that a pet should die "naturally" when it is time, religious issues come into play, and some people feel that putting a pet to sleep is tantamount to murder.

      Some folks feel that making that appointment is similar to an "execution" date. All people are really so different in the way they feel.

      Perhaps a gentle way to approach the subject is to ask her what she is feeling about her cat, and her concern for its well being. Share with her how you feel, and your thoughts. Tell her you are there for her and that you support her in whatever she decides. She may feel very torn and guilty no matter what she does, afraid to make the wrong decision. And while she is not home all day, perhaps this kitty is her only real companion.

      On the other hand, there are some very special things that you can bring up as you tell her how you feel.

      Comment on how you feel about this cat's quality of life. Tell her that the decision is always hard for anyone to make. Just please don't judge her, because she will become more upset and unwilling to look at options. Ask her whether she has any options for a cat that has been diagnosed as "untreatable".

      I have been in her position, years ago, with a cat that was my soul mate. It took me far too long to send her to the rainbow bridge, and my vet was praying she would pass in her sleep. It didn't happen and I had to give her that final gift of release from her suffering. It was one of the most difficult choices I had ever made at that time. But I did know it was right.

      Here are some links that may be of help to you in helping her.

      I hope I have been of help to you.

      Owned by cats for over 40 years
      member of the Association for Pet Loss and Bereavement

    How does the relationship of a male Cancer and female Leo go around this time of year?
    My girl is a Leo and im a Cancer. Is there any reason besides coincidence that she starts questioning are relationship after the holidays and before Valentines day? Is this a Leo thing or just coincindence that its the same thing for 5 years. Than around september is when she is super in love.

    • ANSWER:
      Penn & Teller: Astrology
      Part 1:
      Part 2:
      Part 3:

      How is it that you can hand out a sheet requesting the "Standard" astrological information such as Birth Date, Time, etc. then give a WHOLE CLASS of 30+ people the SAME EXACT "Reading" and 75%+ of them will raise their hand and say "Yes, this reading was specifically for me and matches me very well"?

      "Cold Reading" plays on the same SCAM as Astrology... Stupid people will mentally work what is on the page to fit their life, not the other way around.

      Please join us in reality... It really isn't such a bad place even though it doesn't have predictions and magic.

      Debunking Astrology: Myth in the Modern Era

      Debunking the psuedoscience of Astrology
      By Emily Lu - Staff Writer

      A plea... For those of you who believe in astrology, please carefully consider what I say. For those of you who don’t, think harder about what you can do to help rid ourselves of the psuedoscience.

      I mean no ill will to the believers–some of my favorite people are genuine astrology buffs. If it makes you happy, and helps you understand life a little better, go for it. The people that upset me are those that may blindly believe in the truth of astrology without really considering where it comes from.

      Astrology is not to be confused with astronomy. Yes, astrology is the predecessor to the modern day astronomy that is the scientific study of the Universe, but it is certainly not the same anymore.

      Astrology is the study of the aspects of heavenly bodies with the belief that they hold influence over human affairs. The early astronomers did not know much about what was going on in the sky, other than what they were able to observe. At that point, astrology and astronomy worked hand in hand; some of the our most famous scientists held second jobs as astrological forecasters.

      At this point in history, though, we need to seriously separate the two. With the scientific knowledge that we have gained in recent history, there is little reason to place much trust in the notion that the Sun, Moon, or planets will affect your day to day life. Five thoughts:

      1) Distances. As anyone who has taken introductory physics should know, the force of gravity goes with the inverse square of the distance... ie., the further a body is from you, the less it will affect you. Remember how far away Earth is from the Sun, Moon, and planets (hint: MILLIONS of miles). Though the person who delivered you at birth may be much less massive than any celestial body, they are much closer and would certainly affect you more than the positions of the planets.

      2) Other influences. For argument’s sake, let’s say that there is some unknown force that far-away celestial bodies do exert. The laws of physics have yet to be completely understood, so I’ll concede that it may be possible that there is something that works independently of distance and might influence the lives of people. But if that force is not distance dependent, why aren’t stars, galaxies, quasars, or black holes included in astrological forecasts?

      3) Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. The three outermost planets were only discovered within the past three centuries. How does that work with the claim that astrologers make about the accuracy of their art for previous times?

      4) Precession of the Earth. Due to the slight wobbling of the Earth’s axis, the current position of objects in the zodiac circle are no longer consistent with the tenets of astrology set up thousands of years ago. Your "sun sign" is actually currently shifted over by one (i.e., a Leo is really a Cancer).

      5) Build me a house of ham. If you’ve thought about the human reproductive process, you know that a baby spends about 9 months gestating in the mother’s womb before it is born. Why, then, does your birth time matter? Shouldn’t it really be the time of conception that would affect who the baby is to become? Or is it that the muscular lining of the mother protects the fetus from all external forces? In that case, shouldn’t a ham enclosure do the trick?

      Think about it. If I haven’t managed to debunk astrology, I hope I’ve at least made you more aware of it. The skies are mysterious, but they need not rule your life.

    How do female cats act when they are in heat?
    I have a female cat and lately she has been acting really weird, she has been doing weird things with her hind legs.

    • ANSWER:
      They either drag their bodies on the ground and almost look like something is wrong with their legs or they stick their butts in the air. Eventually, they will start crying and whining and it is very annoying. Get her spayed and it will stop. Unspayed females also have a 70% higher risk of cancer.

    Is smoking around your dog harmful to your dog? Can it cause cancer in your dog?
    I know this owman whose dog died from cancer, when I met her she was/is a smoker she got a new dog. I am wondering if smoking aound your dog can causde cancer like it can in humans?

    • ANSWER:
      I remember back in 2003 when we had the firestorms of California, the local health department warned all people to stay indoors. In addition, they said that animals should be brought indoors as well.

      With that said, I would imagine that cigarette smoke could have equally detrimental effects on a dog or cat. They say that second hand smoke is a silent killer. Can you imagine how it affects animals who can't speak up about their ailments?

      Below are a couple of links to articles who say smoking could have negative effects on animals.

    How do I lower my testosterone level to slow the growth of prostate cancer?
    I presently have prostate cancer and have been treated with 120 radio active iodine seeds imbedded in my prostate gland. I do not want to follw up with hormone therapy but want to lower my testosterone level via vitamins or herb therpy. My PSA after the seed procedure was at 1.29 but a year and a half later has risen to 1.78.

    • ANSWER:
      If you really want to avoid the therapy - then I would see a naturopath - don't screw around with remedies you read on the web. This is your life you're talking about. I am all for homeopathic, herbal and naturopathic remedies, but most of them I talk to (who are any good) believe that combination therapy is a good thing. You might be able to follow up with hormone therapy - but take something homeopathic or naturopathic to help with the side effects or to help cleanse your body (just make sure it doesn't interact with your therapy) Some herbs and remedies can actually counteract certain treatments - so see a professional. I know - seeing a classical homeopath can work wonders. My sister shrank her cancerous tumour in her breast (before surgery) to a third of its size - through one dose of a remedy. I used a homeopathic vet for my cat too - and her tumour went down to next to nothing as well. But remember - they all help each other. Good luck.

    what would happen if someone blew cigar smoke stright into a cats nose?
    My stupid half brother blew smoke into my cats nose and now the poor little kitty is coughing, doesnt want to eat and like he has a hair ball stuck on his troath. I would relly appreciate any one who could give me feedback on this.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi there...second hand smoke affects pets like humans as well. It's best to consider asking your half brother in the future to smoke outside away from the cat to minimize the risk of second-hand smoke to your kitty. Your cat may be feeling a bit nauseated perhaps contributing to the lack of appetite from the smoke blown into his face...hopefully within a few hours should subside.

      Hairballs is best treated with petromalt, laxatone (petroleum based hairball remedies) found at any pet store. Here's a website that gives more suggestions with some home remedies to treat hairballs as well:

      Here's an article about how second-hand smoke affects cats from the Univ. of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine:

      Second-hand smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke or ETS, is clearly associated with cancer, respiratory and cardiovascular disease in humans. Several studies have shown that up to 20 different carcinogens contained in tobacco smoke can be inhaled by non-smoking bystanders.

      Dr. Timothy Fan, veterinary oncologist at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Urbana, explains that although associations between ETS and diseases in animals have not been as extensively researched, a handful of studies show a correlation between ETS and certain forms of cancer in pets.

      A Tufts School of Veterinary Medicine study found a strong correlation between ETS and an oral cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, in cats. Cats living with smokers had higher incidence of this type of cancer. Cats living with more than one smoker and cats exposed to ETS for longer than five years have an even higher incidence of this cancer.

      Why mouth cancer? Since cats groom themselves quite diligently, cats in smoking households can lick up carcinogens that have been deposited on their fur. Daily grooming over a long period of time can expose the delicate skin in the mouth to hazardous amounts of carcinogens.

      The University of Massachusetts in Amherst also found that cats exposed to ETS have a slightly elevated risk of developing malignant lymphoma, or cancer of the lymph nodes. Since the lymph nodes filter the blood, inhaled or ingested carcinogens can build up in these structures.

      In dogs, ETS is significantly associated with nasal sinus cancer and weakly associated with lung cancer. A study at Colorado State found a higher incidence of nasal cavity tumors in dogs exposed to ETS than in dogs that live in non-smoking households. This higher incidence was specifically found amongst long-nosed breed dogs such as Collies, and there was no significant increase in nasal tumors amongst short- to medium-nosed dogs exposed to ETS.

      Dr. Fan explains that longer-nosed dogs may have a higher incidence of ETS-induced tumors for two reasons. "Smokers inhale smoke through their mouths, and it ends up depositing in the lungs. Bystanders, on the other hand, usually inhale ETS through the nose." Long-nosed dogs' nasal passages have a greater surface area on which carcinogens may be deposited before reaching the lungs.

      "In addition," says Dr. Fan, "since a longer nose has nasal passages with a greater number of cells, there is a greater chance that one of these cells can be mutated by carcinogens into a cancer cell."

      Colorado State also found that although short- to medium-nosed dogs exposed to ETS dont have a greater incidence of nasal tumors than those unexposed, they do have a slightly higher incidence of lung cancer, possibly because their shorter nasal passages are less effective at filtering carcinogens out of inhaled air before it reaches the lungs.

      Unlike humans, who can develop bladder cancer as a result of ETS exposure, dogs and cats generally don't run a higher risk of bladder cancer when exposed.

      As the human-animal bond becomes stronger, we share more of our lives, our leisure time and our living space with our companion animals, and they become exposed to the same environmental hazards that we do. Many of our habits, including smoking, can affect our pets as they would affect any other member of our household.

      Designating a smoking area outside or in a physically separate room of the house may be on way to minimize ETS exposure for pets and other non-smoking family members.

      For more information about environmental tobacco smoke and your pet, consult your veterinarian.

    How old do cats live and how to give them a long happy life?
    The question is pretty much self explanitory..
    I have an older cat, and I am just wondering how I can get her live to her full extent.
    Also, how old do cats generally live to?
    She's an indoor kitty, but has escaped outside before..

    • ANSWER:
      Cats can live well into their teens and early 20's!

      Cats are considered 'senior' at age 7 and 'geriatric' at age 13. I have 2 seniors and 2 geriatrics!

      The best thing you can do for your kitty is regular visits to her vet for a wellness examination and blood work. The 'senior' blood work my vet does checks the thyroid, kidneys, liver and blood glucose. If any of these are out of the normal range, your vet will probably want to re-test in 3-6 months.

      The most common illnesses you find in the older kitty is hyperthyroidism, diabetes, kidney failure, but can also have problems with their liver and get cancer. She should have regular dental examinations and cleanings. I do my kitties every two years.

      What you can do at home is feed her a good diet, exercise her and keep her environment as stress free as possible.

      Cats are carnivores, so they need a diet primarily of meat. I have attached a link to cat nutrition written by a vet and cat lover. She describes in an easy to read, but very detailed, information about cat foods. In a nutshell, avoid most of the dry foods and canned foods with gravy. They are full of grains, carbs and sometimes dyes that kitty doesn't need. Feed a good quality canned food that lists meat as the primary ingredients. I feed the grain free Fancy Feasts, from my research and information on feline diabetic websites. My cats love them and for the first time in 5+ years, my diabetic kitty is insulin free.

      Keep kitty as active a possible by playing with her and having toys that enourage her to chase and play.

      By stress in the environment, I know things change, jobs, living arrangements. When these happen, make the changes gradually if possible and give kitty some extra snuggling so she knows all is okay.

      Mine are 7, 10, 14 and 16. I recently lost my 17 yo to CRF. The 14 yo is diabetic (5+ years) and the 16 yo diagnosed 2 weeks ago with hyperthyroidism. They are all active and playful and love to watch the birds at the feeders and baths (2 windows for their viewing pleasure)!

      Purrs and prayers for many long years for you and kitty.

    How long does it take for cancer to return?
    My cat just had a breast tumor returned (it was still early and a very small one), however I still feel lumps near the incision three weeks later. Is this something unrelated or should I start worrying now?

    • ANSWER:
      You should bring your cat to the vet.
      I hope it hasn't returned.
      Good Luck !

    Is it ok for my cats to sit on the window so much?
    My cats love to sit in the sun on the window, but is it okay for them to, i dont want them getting cancer. One of my cats is practically black, well black and dark brown, he has white on his chest and paws, also, hes a mainecoon and his ears are exposed to the sun, but he has dark skin. My other cats a lighter brown and grey, shes a norwegian forest cat and her ears are also exposed, she already has a beauty spot on her ear, and i checked with the vet, its just a spot. So are they ok on the window, i think i might just be paranoid, but its brtter to be safe than sorry.

    • ANSWER:
      thankyou for being so concerned about your cats. others aren't as. i have two myself, a kitten and an adult. but i think for your case, you should put up one of those sun beam protectors for cars. you know, the ones for babys. that may help. or a grey film of something to reduce the rays. or thin shades! wow im bursting with ideas here...
      wellll good luckk :)

    Do cats really improve the quality in people lives and relieve people from stress?
    I am unsure weather I want to adopt a cat, people keep telling me positives and negative about how cats affect people. Someone told me cats low blood pressure, others say they carry bacteria that people are allergic to. I would love to have a cat in my house but I can't decide weather they will improve my life or they will worsen my life?

    • ANSWER:
      If you want to know if you are allergic to cats, just visit a shelter and spend some time in the cat room. If you have cat allergies, you will get the itchy eyes, stuffy nose, etc. It's best to know this before you take a cat home. Do expect cat odor in a shelter. There are so many cats in such a confined space, and most of them are not spayed or neutered. One cat, spayed or neutered, in the care of a responsible owner, will not present an odor problem.

      I'm 62 and have been through two bouts of cancer. I've been through a divorce (happily remarried now, thank you), and helped my daughter through one. I suffer chronic pain from a really bad back injury about 30 years ago. Then there were all the usual ups and downs of life that I have had to deal with.

      Through it all, there were days that the only thing that kept me going were my cats. I had to get out of bed to feed them, clean the litter boxes, and give them attention. There were times when their furry shoulders soaked up my tears. When I was so tense that I felt like I was going to explode, a soft purr and warm cuddle helped to calm me down. They are highly intuitive and seem to know when and how they can best help you. When I wanted to give up on it all because I couldn't stand the pain anymore, I had to make a decision to not give up, because they needed me to care for them.

      Best of all, it's not just a cat. A dog, a rabbit, any animal that can love you back will have the same effect. I have a Giant American Chinchilla rabbit, in addition to my cats, and I must say, just looking at her makes me feel happy. Best of all, they don't care if you are good looking, wealthy, have a nice car or house...the only thing that matters to them is their relationship with you.

      Animals are the greatest healers God put on this earth.

    How does Cancer affect people around us?
    Im doing this project. We research about cancer. My role is to find out how it can affect the people around us (friends, families etc) can anyone answer this? Please?

    • ANSWER:
      My partner has taken on a huge burden of responsibilities since my diagnosis. My partner now does all the grocery shopping, so I don't have to be exposed to crowds of people while my blood counts are low; all the housework so I can get the rest I need; changing the cat litter boxes so I am not exposed to germs; as well as keeping me company during chemotherapy infusions, attending appointments with the oncologist so that we both can ask questions, etc. My partner also tolerates my mood swings without flinching and always maintains a positive attitude.

    How much is a rabies 1yr booster for a cat?
    We've had our cats spade and neutered and had the initial shots done. We're supposed to come back for the 1yr booster. Just wanted to get an idea as to how much one is.

    • ANSWER:
      If you actually do this (i dont anymore) then use only the NON ADVUVANT rabies.

      I dont know cost, I didn't use it, my cat is no longer with me. I am sure it was cheaper then the cancer treatments.

      Vaccine Associated Sarcomas (VAS) or Injection Site Fibrosarcomas - are a type of cancer caused by vaccines. Vaccines containing adjuvant, a component to stimulate the immune system, are at least 5 times more likely to cause a VAS.
      VAS is 100% fatal if the tumor is between the shoulder blades. With surgical removal, radiation therapy and chemotherapy survival time is less than 3 years. If the tumor is in the distal part of the rear leg, amputation, plus radiation, & chemo may be curative in 20% of cases.

      Non - Adjuvanted vaccines are available for cats for all preventable diseases including Rabies, Distemper, Rhinotracheitis, Calici virus and Feline Leukemia, and are considered safer.

      Intranasal Vaccines are safer.
      The AVMA VAS Task Force recommends, to reduce the risk of VAS:
      #1. reduced vaccination schedules,
      #2. vaccination in the distal hind limb, and
      #3 intranasal and non-adjuvanted vaccines.

      Core vaccines recommended for all cats.

    How do you think a cat would respond to living in earth orbit, maybe on the international space station?
    I know they have sent many kinds of animals into space, but cats use their whiskers to help them keep what happens when kitty experiences zero g's?
    the space station does not have artificial gravity

    • ANSWER:
      cats would exhibit all the other symptoms that mammals show when in space.

      France launched Felix the cat into space on October 18, 1963. The cat had electrodes implanted into its head to measure neural impluses. Felix was recovered alive but the next cat in space was not. (The flight itself failed.)

      Mammals experience various problems in a weightless environment:

      1. Fluid redistribution which in turn causes
      a) loss of blood plasma and temporary anemia upon return
      b) dehydration
      c) Head congestion/puffyness
      d) Larger chance of Kidney stones

      2. Balance/response to motion is affected because of Otoliths in ear
      3. Weight bearing bones and muscles deteriorate
      4. Higher radiation of outer space increases cancer risk
      5. Disorientation due to changes in sensory input (no downward force)

      ....but the view must be incredible!

cancer in cats

Breast Cancer Information

Breast cancer is a disease in which the malignant tumor starts from the breast's cells. The seriousness of this disease had been accelerating to the state in which one out of eight women's lives is affected. In order to highlight the seriousness of this issue, there had been lots of cancer awareness campaign being organized with the intention to create and increase the awareness of the public regarding the seriousness of the issue.

With breast cancer campaigns that possess such important objectives, it is important to ensure that the public is able to absorb and remember the messages being transmitted by the campaigns in order for the campaigns to work effectively. Thus, this is where promotional products play one of the important parts in helping the public to be able to relate themselves closely with the campaigns and of course, the messages to be transmitted.

One suggestion for a cancer awareness promotional product would be pink printed sport bottles. Why pink, you would ask. The color pink is used with the collaboration with the pink ribbon, which is an international symbol for breast cancer. Thus, the color pink is closely related to breast cancer. The pink printed sport bottles can be used to encourage the public, especially women, to take care of themselves through a proper way, with an indirect message of using sports as one of the solutions in ensuring a healthy lifestyle for the women. Besides, sports bottle can be used over and over again in their daily lives. Men can also chose to use the pink printed sport bottles to show their support towards the awareness of the cancer. The support shown by the men will of course, accelerate the women's confidence and determination in protecting themselves.

Apart from pink printed sport bottles, a pink shot glass can also be considered as a breast cancer awareness promotional product. Again, the color pink symbolizes the awareness on the seriousness of breast cancer; also, shot glass can be used frequently when hanging out with others and it can also become a decoration for the house or room as well. Thus, this cancer awareness promotional product becomes a multi-functional product in which individuals using the shot glass not only show their support to the awareness for the cancer and in the same time, it can be used for hanging out and decoration in the house as well.

Besides, tote bags are ideal breast cancer awareness promotional product as well. Awareness messages can be attached to the tote bag and whenever individuals use the tote bag, it reminds them on the issue on the cancer and in the same time, it also serves as another multipurpose item where users can use the tote bags in their daily lives.

Another suggestion for cancer awareness promotion product would be pink caps. Pink caps can be attached with awareness messages and also be used for outdoor activities in which the messages attached will expose to the public and also causing further awareness to the public.

Frequently Asked Questions

    What causes blue veins to appear on a woman's breasts?
    My girlfriend and I recently noticed that she blue veins on her breasts. We are a bit worried about this but her family does not have a history of breast cancer. Any information on what has caused this will be greatly appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      having your veins close to the surface of your skin and being of a lighter complection.

    Where can I find information describing how technology has effected breast cancer in the past 10 years?
    I am doing a research paper for school on how technology has effected Breast Cancer and I have been unable to find what I am looking for. There is so much information out there that I was hoping with a little help I could narrow it down some.
    Thanks to anyone who will help with this information search.

    • ANSWER:
      Great statistics here:

      And this one looks quite promising:

      Best of luck!

    How did early medicine view breast cancer?
    I have to compare historical beliefs about breast cancer with current ones as part of a project, but I'm having trouble finding what people believed about it many years ago.
    Any information is helpful and names of early researchers is fantastic, thank you in advance!

    • ANSWER:
      Old breast cancers for lumps they would remove the entire breast including the pectoral muscles and every lymph node in the area. These are known as radical massectomies and done much less often today. They were disfiguring, arms would swell from lack of lymph nodes and need to be removed. Today they have many options including drugs that fight breast cancers with specific characteristics. Procedure wise they may remove just a mass or they may do a simple massectomy removing most of the breast only the pectoralis minor and the sentinal lymph node. The old belief was remove the entire breast or both and people would die during the procedure. Today they use Chemo, Radiation, and less invasive surgeries along with better screening protocols.

    What type of breast cancer kills the most women?
    I know there are different types of breast cancer...some are rare..I know IBC kills but doesn't mean most women die of that type because not many women get that rare type. So what is the most common type of breast cancer that women die from? I cannot find that type of information on the internet....I find statistics but they do not state what type of cancer the women had to begin with?

    Thanks for your answers

    • ANSWER:
      What Jon posted is correct.
      Most women have ductal carcinoma and therefore that is what kills most women.

      Metastatic is a stage of cancer not a type.
      Triple negative is also not a type of breast cancer it is the hormone receptor status and does occur with different types.
      DCIS is ductal carcinoma before it becomes invasive and those statistics are separate..

    Where can I find information and prevention methods on Breast Cancer?
    Breast Cancer Statistics among women, research, cures, different associations that raise money for breast cancer research, and what can I do to help.

    • ANSWER:
      See my blog at -

      There is not particular way to prevent Breast cancer and you should have mammogram and other screening tests done every year to ensure that it is detected in case if it comes.

      You can go through the following website where from you will get lot of information on BREAST CANCER -

      I think these websites will give you a fair idea and details about Breast cancer. Best of luck-

    What is a good opening sentence/motivator for breast cancer?
    I'm doing a report on breast cancer. I have gathered all my information and i know what points I'm going to make. I was wondering if someone could give me a good motivator to start off my report on breast cancer. The report has to be in third person and it's due on Monday December 1 ! please help !

    • ANSWER:
      As a cancer patient I wrote - there might be something helpful on the site, and you are welcome to copy anything useful.

      Good luck

      Verite R

    What wineries are selling pink champagne in support of breast cancer awareness month?
    Looking for any companies that are supporting Breast Cancer Awareness Month! Know of any? Looking specifically for pink champagne & where a percentage of the purchase would go to an organization supporting Breast Cancer Awareness!
    Its for a bride & her bridesmaid so any information would be FABULOUS!

    • ANSWER:
      Korbel for one.

      And then there are these.

    What is Hereditary Breast Cancer? What are the symptoms and causes of it?
    I don't want information on breast cancer. It needs to be HEREDITARY breast cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Approximately 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are due to heredity. The majority of women with breast cancer have no known significant family history or other known risk factors.

      The National Institute of Health's National Human Genome Research Institute has a very thorough website concerning hereditary breast cancer which I've sourced for you below.

    What Should My Thesis Statement Be for My Speech on Breast Cancer in the US?
    My specific goal for my speech is to inform my audience about breast cancer, and it’s extent in the United States.

    My speech is basically going to include information about symptoms/risk factors, treatment, and how a person can possibly lower their risk.

    What should I write as my thesis statement for my speech, and is there any other information that I should include in my speech?

    • ANSWER:
      It really depends on the content of your thesis, and how you want to present it, as to how you wish to form the Statement. As a factual statement, as a statistical document or as a wakeup call. Having presented many lectures in my time, you would have to limit your ideas in accordance with the type of audience that you expect to present your speech to. Health professionals would expect a different presentation than members of the general public.
      I would make a few points on the subject - Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than any cancer except lung cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there a number of risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include+++++++etc.
      Other risks, which you can change, include being overweight, using hormone replacement therapy, taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35 or having dense breasts+++++etc.
      If all you intend to include are symptoms, risk factors and treatment, then your task will be much easier than if you intended to include with the treatment, symptoms and risk factors, details of the tests, diagnosis and causes. If you are a health professional, you might gain some information on the format of lectures on this subject from your medical library, if you are not in the medical profession, help might be gained from the reference department in your local public library. I regret that it is almost impossible to advise you in this matter. Mainly due to the lack of detail and the discussion that would be needed to ascertain all the facts in order to arrive at a specific answer.
      Hope this helps
      matador 89

    Where can I find research on mammograms causing breast cancer?
    Breast cancer is so rampant that I believe mammograms are the causation. Where can I verify this information? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Breast cancer probably appears 'so rampant' because of better detection and greater awareness.

      Contributary causes are on the link.

      The rate appears to be rising among men, and they don't have mammagrams

    Where can I find contact information on international breast cancer?
    KYC or Kurdish youth club is planning on raising more for women in KURDISTAN who have breast cancer and need financial help. However, we are not able to do this without first asking the main breast cancer organization some question. If you have any idea on where I can get an email address or a phone number of someone that would be able to help please let me know.

    • ANSWER:
      It may be very difficult to find a contact, so if none of the sites work, go to and use the helplines in your country to ask for this information.

      Verite R

    How do I support my friend that just found out that she has breast cancer?
    Besides being there for her, which I will do. But I want to do more. She is only 25 and just found out yesterday. I want to buy everything that has a pink ribbon on it. I want to get every book, pamplet, web artical that gives any information on breast cancer. But is it too early? I want her to know that I am there for her and support her, but don't want to scare her. Any thoughts or ideas would be greatly apprieciated.

    • ANSWER:
      At first I got tired of getting pink ribbons, but the further out I get, the more I like them. For me, it was nice to have friends to go out with and forget about things for a while. I was 29 and 8 months pregnant when I was diagnosed, that was almost 3 years ago.

      Anyway, what I saw is that the people who I thought were good friends kind of disappeared (not all of them, just some). When it comes to cancer, there are angels and a-holes out there. You, my friend, are an angel.

    How does being diabetic effect your treatments for breast cancer if at all?
    Just found out my grandma has breast cancer in both breasts and she is a diabetic and I'm scared that that could have an effect on her treatments. Just wanted to find out some more information

    • ANSWER:
      a good friend of mine has type 1 diabetes for the last 45 years and is now having problems with ovarian cancer.

      the cancer it self produces an insulin like action that makes the glucose numbers go down, and the patient to have to use less insulins.

      but the treatments don't necessarily help diabetics either. the chemo makes them so sick they cannot eat, so they must have whatever food they can keep on their stomachs reguardless of whether it is good for diabetics or not.

      Your grandmother should be on insulins to help control the glucose numbers while she is undergoing the treatments for the cancers. She is lucky to have both these in the 21st century! Treatments are much better than they were only 25 years ago.

      Much good luck to your grandmother beating this.

    What happens after you you have chemotherapy for breast cancer?
    So my teacher had breast cancer surgery and they said she might need chemotherapy and I'm wondering if she will be calmer when she gets back. So just tell me how she will act and look when she gets back and how long it will take her to get back since she was supposed to come back November 2nd. Give me all the information you can:-)

    • ANSWER:
      My sister had breast cancer last year and then had the chemo which is done every 3 weeks for 6 months and then radiotherapy every day for 6 weeks and my sister works in an office and was off work for almost 1 year, she lost all her hair and eyebrows and eyelashes and gained weight with the medication and she was very tired and now she has returned to work she only works part time because of the tiredness, all her treatment finished around march this year but takes a long time to get your body back to normal but her personality is just the same as it was before but she appreciates things now knowing that life is too short. It is unlikely your teacher will be calmer than she was as she will have been to hell and back.

    How do you organize a walk for breast cancer?
    My friends and I would like to organize a walk for our friend's mom who died a year ago from breast cancer. It's breast cancer month and we want to do something in remembrance, and something that will contribute to the cause. We were considering doing the Susan G. Komen walk for the cure, but we decided that we wanted to organize a specific walk for her. How do you organize a walk? Any links or information would be helpful, thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Ever thought of contacting your local news paper or news station for advertising or announcements?? You can also go to your local church and let them know a date and time this even will take place. You can make fliers and post them on community boards and light poles in populated areas. Word of mouth is probably the best thing. Does your community have a local website where it announces activities to do in your area? Most towns do and if yours does you can most likely contact them via their website to post your even info. Just do a local search like, activities in _______. Or community activities in ___(fill in your town)__. That kind of thing. Good luck! I think its a great idea! :)

    What are some other breast cancer symptoms?
    I can't find any information on what other types of breast cancer symptoms there are other than the obvious, breast lumps, discharge, changes in physical appearance etc. Anyone have any other symptoms associated with cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Breast cancer can occur in the ducts, or lobules in the breast and on the skin of the breast. Typically if breast cancer forms in the ducts or lobules, there will be a lump that you can physically feel when you examine your breasts. Other symptoms to look for would be a change in the skin on your breast, a puckering of the nipple, or nipple discharge. has some good information...

    What are the chances of me getting breast cancer?
    My grandma and mother both got diagnosed with breast cancer when they were 33, and my grandma only had it once, but my mother had it four times. i heard it was gentic, and i am wondering if maybe there is an oncologist that would know what my chances are. my grandma and mother both lived through all cancer(s). I am 12 right now.
    oh crap, are you serious, will i most likely get it?

    • ANSWER:
      Tarkarri is right, and your other answerers have given you incomplete information.

      If your mother's breast cancer was due to one of the rare inherited faulty BRCA genes known to be responsible for hereditary breast cancer, then you have a 50% chance of having inherited that gene - and of course a 50% chance that you didn't.

      If you did inherit a faulty gene from your mother, that does not mean you will definitely get breast cancer, but that your chances are increased; it would mean you had between a 50% and 80% chance of developing it by age 70.

      If your mother carries a faulty gene and you HAVEN'T inherited it, then your risk of breast cancer is no greater than anyone else's.

      Breast cancer is not usually hereditary - only 5 - 10% of cases are. Because your mother and grandma (I'm assuming it's your mother's mother) had breast cancer at a young age, it may well be that it was due to one of the inherited BRCA genes - they can be tested for this if they haven't been alreaady. If so you will be offered testing when you are older to see if you carry that gene.

      One of my friends carries one of the BRCA genes and both her adult daughters have been tested for it - one has inherited it, the other hasn't.

      Talk to your mother about this.

      At your present age your risk of breast cancer is very close to zero whether your mother's and grandmother's cancers were hereditary or not

    What are my chances of getting breast cancer?
    I am 25. On my dad's side, his sister had breast cancer. I also believe my great grandmother as well. On my mom's side, her sister, and my great grandmother. I haven't been to the doctor in awhile. Insurance kicks in soon, then I will go get a FULL exam. I am just wondering.

    • ANSWER:
      Hereditary cancer is rare; fewer than 10% of all cancer cases are hereditary. Cancer diagnosed after the age of 50 is even less likely to be hereditary.

      Only 5 - 10% of all breast cancer cases are hereditary.

      A sign that breast cancer MAY be hereditary is when several members of the same side of a family have had it, especially if some developed it at a younger than usual age (under 50). In those circumstances genetic testing may be considered appropriate to establish whether the breast cancer is due to one of the rare hereditary faulty genes known to be responsible for hereditary breast cancer.

      With one in eight women developing breast cancer over a lifetime of 80 years, it's not unusual for an extended family to have two or more members who hae had non-hereditary breast cancer.

      In your family circumstances you won't be offered genetic testing when you have your full medical examination.

      For information, fewer than 0.1% of all those diagnosed with breast cancer are under 30, and only 5% are under 40.

    Is there any breast cancer worse than inflammatory breast cancer?
    I really need to know. I hate seeing my dear mommy suffer with the stage 4 Inflammatory Breast Cancer she is diagnosed with and now I want to give her as much information I can. So please leave me answer you would not usually see in information sites, please?

    • ANSWER:
      I know it's the fastest growing breast cancer,is she attending a cancer facility like
      The City Of Hope in Ca.? Also you should buy or check out a book from the library
      called " Dr. Susan Love's Breast Book"4th edition. It has so much information on all types of Breast Cancer, But only her oncologist can help since every person is different. But you will learn much from her books. She is a clinical professor at UCLA's David Geffen School a teacher,surgeon and activist. I myself have 4th stage breast cancer and almost daily have use for this book. Your Mommy is fortunate to have a daughter like you. God Bless You Both

    How are different signs and symptoms produced and displayed in Breast Cancer?
    I need to do an essay for Breast Cancer, and it's asking for 4 signs and symptoms that should be included for the highest grade.

    can you guys help me?
    thankyou xx

    • ANSWER:
      For one thing - this is easy to look up on the internet.
      Secondly, it is a bad assignment by your teacher.
      There is only one sign/symptom for breast cancer - a non-tender lump in the breast.
      I've seen many hundreds of women with breast cancers.
      If you are talking about very late stage disease, the symptoms
      depend where the malignancy has spread. The most common is bone pain.
      Third - I wish teachers who know little about breast cancer would not scare teens
      with poor information on this subject. Teens do not get breast cancers - yet in the
      USA many teens are paranoid that they have breast cancers.
      We see questions from frightened teens every day regarding breast cancer fear.

    How likely am I to get breast cancer if my mom has it?
    My mom was just diagnosed with breast cancer. It is the first time anyone in my family has ever gotten breast cancer. She had surgery to remove the front part of her breast and now awaits radiation treatment. She's been told there's about a 6% chance of the cancer returning.

    I am a healthy 27 year old who gets regular check-ups with the doctor. I was wondering how high a percentage rate it would be for me to get breast cancer?
    In case it matters, I forgot to mention my mom was/is 67 when she was diagnosed.

    • ANSWER:
      Like all other types of cancer, breast cancer is rarely hereditary; only 5 - 10% of breast cancer cases are hereditary, and they are due to a rare inherited faulty gene.

      Breast cancer diagnosed after the age of 50 is even less likely to be hereditary.

      A sign that breast cancer might (only might) be hereditary is when several members of the same side of a family have had it, especially if some developed it at a younger than usual age. In those circumstances, genetic testing to establish whether one of the rare faulty genes is present might be considered appropriate.

      You are almost certainly not at increased risk if your mother is the only family member who has had breast cancer; but as the daughter of a woman who has had breast cancer you will be treated as at increased risk as a precaution. Your routine mammograms should start when you are ten years younger than your mother was at diagnosis if that age comes before 40, when routine mammograms start.

      Where breast cancer is hereditary, there is no pattern of it skipping a generation; the faulty gene can only be passed from parent to child, and it's a 50% possibility that it will be. Inheriting the gene doesn't mean someone will definitely develop breast cancer.


      Yes, her age is important. Breast cancer diagnosed after 50 is even less likely to be hereditary. As she's the only family member to have had breast cancer, you can be sure you're not at increased risk.

      Best wishes to your mum for her treatment - and to you, it's hard seeing someone you love go through this.

      For information about Breast cancer and a place to talk to other people who are going and have been through the same thing, you might both find htis site helpfu; I found online support forums so helpful in the days and weeks after diagnosis:

    How do I start off my persuasive speech on breast cancer?
    Im a lot better with informative speeches...Why I cant tell you but, I am having the worst time coming up with an persuasive speech and my topics on breast cancer. How do I start off my persuasive speech on breast cancer? And what do you think my three persuasive topics should be. Please help!!!!
    The speech is for my oral communications class I am speaking to a variety of students with different majors not particulary in the health care field. Breast cancer is just a topic I choose to prepare a speech on

    • ANSWER:
      I gave part of this answer to a similar question some time ago and I repeat it here for you. Having presented many lectures in my time, you have to limit your ideas in accordance with the type of audience that you expect to present your speech to. Health professionals would expect a different presentation than members of the general public.

      I would make a few points on the subject - Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than any cancer except lung cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there a number of risk factors. Risks that you cannot change include+++++++etc.

      Other risks, which you can change, include being overweight, using hormone replacement therapy, taking birth control pills, drinking alcohol, not having children or having your first child after age 35 or having dense breasts+++++etc.

      If all you intend to include are symptoms, risk factors and treatment, then your task will be much easier than if you intended to include with the treatment, symptoms and risk factors, details of the tests, diagnosis and causes.

      If you are a health professional, you might gain some information on the format of lectures on this subject from your medical library, if you are not in the medical profession, help might be gained from the reference department in your local public library.

      I regret that it is almost impossible to advise you in this matter, mainly due to the lack of detail and the discussion that would be needed to ascertain all the facts in order to arrive at a specific answer.

      Hope this helps
      matador 89

    What is the percentage of women that go into remission from Breast Cancer?
    I'm doing a research project for Health class and I need to know the percentage of women that go into remission from Breast Cancer. If you can give me a link to a website with this information, that would be nice also since I am having trouble finding information on a website.
    I would also like statistics.
    What I mean by statistics are ethnicity, race, etc.

    • ANSWER:
      90% overall

      99% at stage 1.

      Check out the link I sent you. Has all the info you could ever want on cancer survival stats.

    What is the hormonal influence on breast cancer?
    I am doing a project on breast cancer. I am asking what are hormonal influences on breast cancer. Please give me links to where you found it or know it from. Also what is being done in governmental/private research to address this issue, and what agencies,both governmental and non-governmental are involved in researching this issue?

    • ANSWER:
      Estrogen is a major contributor for breast cancer development and growth. Go to my website for extensive information on breast cancer.

      there are many organizations doing research on breast cancer, both private and government funded.

    What is the youngest age you can get breast cancer at?
    I was wondering this, because one of my friends thinks she has breast cancer, and I thought that thirteen was a very young age at which to develop breast cancer.
    I should have said this. She has a lump in her breast and she went to the doctor and they said its "abnormal." She thinks she has cancer, but she doesn't know for sure yet. She's getting a sonogram done.

    • ANSWER:
      Breast tissue is present in male and females of all ages and thus breast cancer is possible at any age with any sex. However, breast cancer . . primary or secondary in children and young teens is rare. Breast cancer in children is also not the same as an adults breast cancer. There are many different types of cancer and there are several types of breast cancer possible in children. The most common types of breast cancer in children are Juvenile Secretory Carcinoma, Cystosarcoma Phylloides, and Lymphoma.

      As for your 13 year old friend what she is most likely feeling is breast growth caused by puberty. There are often small lumps or 'breast buds' that young teens will feel. However, since no one here can really tell what is happening with your friend it is important that she see a doctor to determine exactly what is going on.

      Here is some information about normal 'breast buds' found in young teens:

      Why are my breasts sore?

    What is the current thought about the link between breast cancer and abortion?
    Again, for a while back there was a lot in the news about this. Women who had abortions BEFORE having their first child were found to have higher incidences of breast cancer than women who never took an abortion or who didn't have abortions until after they had a child or two. I'm just curious about the status of this research at this time. Do women get informed in your country about this possible link? I'm referring to informed consent. Should women be informed about this possible problem down the road?

    • ANSWER:
      Different states in our country have different laws. This state has a law which makes the women see an ultrasound before aborting their child (or children). There IS a link between breast cancer and abortion. Good question, by the way. I'm not sure, but more information might be found at

    What are some key breast cancer interest groups?
    Can you please define what an interest group is, and give a list of names of breast cancer related interest groups.

    I am doing my paper on breast cancer early detection policies so I am looking for breast cancer interest groups to help provide support for my policy.

    • ANSWER:
      You can google "breast cancer interest groups" and get a lot of information.

    What are the chances of me getting breast cancer?
    My dad's side of the family has never had any breast cancer issues, but my mom's side of the family definitely has. My great-grandmother died from breast cancer, then my grandmother's sister had breast cancer. A couple of my mom's cousins have found lumps in their breasts. A few years ago, my mother found a lump and had it removed. I'm 16. What are the chances of me getting breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Like other types of cancer, hereditary breast cancer is rare; only 5- 10% of all breast cancer cases are hereditary.

      Breast cancer diagnosed after the age of 50 is even less likely to be hereditary.

      There is nothing in the information you give to suggest that you are at any increased risk of breast cancer - as I understand it, two third degree relatives, who I'm guessing were over 50, have had breast cancer, two third degree relatives have had non-cancerous breast lumps, and your mother has had a non-cancerous breast lump removed.

      A sign that breast cancer MAY (only may) be hereditary is when several members of the same side of the family have had it, especially if some developed it at a younger than usual age. In those circumstances, genetic testing to establish whether the cancers were due to a rare, inherited faulty gene might be considered appropriate.

      But that is not the case in your family. Your chances are the same as the average woman - one in eight over a lifetime of 80+ years.

      This is not

    What more can i do to help breast cancer awareness?
    With my school the volleyball team raises a lot of money for breast cancer, and were doing The walk for a cure too, as well as some other fundraising, but I feel like that's not enough. I want to do more to help but I'm not sure what. I would love to donate my hair but I can't because its not long enough. Does anyone have any other ideas on how I can help the cause? Thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      You could focus more on breast cancer education. Most people are aware of breast cancer, but they lack knowledge about the disease. Teenage girls will freak out when they discover a lump or something else they perceive to be an abnormality without realizing that the statistical likelihood they have breast cancer is 0.0%. I think it would be wonderful if you could create a Tumbrl or Blogspot site about your fundraising endeavors, and include information about breast cancer there. You could also use a blog site as a way to raise funds in addition to awareness. On the site anyone can create a fundraising platform for a worthy person or cause. You could ask a local hospital or cancer center about what you should do to raise funds on their behalf. If you know of a few women with breast cancer who are in need of help and would appreciate being supported in that manner, you could ask them to write a little something or make a short video for the Indiegogo profile. Some people would love to participate in something like this, and others wouldn't. Always be very respectful of privacy.

      Once you have an Indiegogo platform, you can embed it your your blog and link it to your Facebook and share it will all your contacts. If all the girls shared it with all their friends on Facebook you'd reach a lot of people. Create a logo for the cause and have all the girls on their team change their profile picture to it on Facebook. This is what my sorority sisters and I do for all our events, and you'd be surprised at how effective it is for marketing considering the simplicity. Take advantage of any talents girls on the team have and make videos to embed on the blog showcasing them. Your team could make a creative, original parody of a popular song like the Harvard baseball boys did this summer. They had so many views on YouTube they made partner with it and donated the profits from the video to Friends of Jaclyn, a cause they support. Put the link to your Indiegogo and a link to your blog in the description bar of anything you create.

      You could also do old-school fundraising methods like car washes, pancake breakfasts, bake sales, and things of that nature.

      Good luck!!!

      ~ skylark : )

    Can parents be screened for breast cancer?
    Also, are their prenatal tests avalible for breast cancer? And can you discover breast cancer by karyotyping?

    • ANSWER:
      The genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 is a relatively simple blood test but it may take from 4 weeks to several months to get the results. It has been 6 weeks for me and still waiting results. I had breast cancer 3 years ago and come from a large family 1 sister and 1 aunt have also had it and have 40+ nices and nephews who should be made aware of the possible risks so they can take whatever action they feel is appropriate for themselves.

      There are a lot of pros and cons to being tested. There is some very good information at this site on the pros and cons. The biggest issue that I am aware of is if you have been tested, you may be denied insurance or have your insurance cancelled....

    How long would a person with breast cancer live?
    If a person had first stage breast cancer, who was old, under a lot of stress and didn't go to any treatment, how long could that person live?

    • ANSWER:
      No doctor can ever predict the future - especially with cancers
      - though we are asked to do this every day.
      If she is old ( how old ?), she may die of natural causes
      before the breast cancer progresses to affect her health.
      I do not see why she would refuse a simple lumpectomy,
      but maybe she is very old.
      We have so little medical information here.
      Her doctor has all of her medical history and has examined her.
      That is the person to ask.
      I've seen people with advanced breast cancers live for many years.

    What does it mean when breast cancer (level 1 tumor) has already gone into the bones?
    I have a dear family member who went to the doctor because of a fall - turned out she fractured her pelvis - but in the course of investigating it, the doctor discovered lesions in the bones pretty much all over her body. Turns out she has a level 1 tumor in her breast and that the lesions in her bones are also breast cancer. For some reason, the doctors are NOT giving her a death sentence, but I have always heard that when a cancer spreads to the bones or another organ, then there is pretty much no hope. So, is there actually hope now?

    • ANSWER:
      The "level 1 tumor" makes no sense. If there is breast cancer metastatic to bones, it is a stage IV breast cancer. We do not have a cure for this, but sometimes this disease can be controlled for many months or even a few years with hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, and palliative radiation therapy.

      We do not cure diabetes or high blood pressure, but we can control these diseases for a time with medical treatments.

      There is no reason for her doctors to "give her a death sentence" -especially since we don't know whether she will respond to simple oral hormonal agents. Is this an estrogen receptor positive or negative breast cancer? We don't have this information, but her doctors do.

      I always say this - we doctors do not "give " people amounts of time to live. It is not for us to decide that. We can only quote statistics based on the experiences of other people in similar situation - none of which will be exactly like the person concerned. Each person is special and different, and doctors cannot predict the future of anyone perfectly. I preferred not to make these guesses, but people usually push for some kind of guess.

      Interesting question - If you had an envelope containing the information about when exactly you were going to die, would you open it - - knowing you could do nothing to change it? I would tear it up and throw it away. Most of us don't want to give up all hope. There is hope for a good response in this situation and some good quality time.

    What are the chances of a breast cancer patient?
    My 2 sisters had one breast removed because of breast cancer. How good are their chances of getting out of this problem?

    • ANSWER:
      An individual breast cancer patient's prognosis depends on a number of factors, including the stage and grade of the cancer and the number of lymph nodes invovled, if any.

      It's impossible to even guess at someone's chances without having this information, and even with this information it would only be possible, even for a doctor, to give a 'best guess' based on statistics as breast cancer, like all cancers, is such an unpredictable disease.

      If found early, the prospects of complete remission with no recurrence are very good, though there are no guarantees of course.

      I am in remission almost five years after being diagnosed with an advanced, aggressive breast cancer with multiple lymph node involvement, with no sign of cancer at my last check up, and I know a number of women with similarly poor prognoses who have survived as long or longer.

      Mr T - the fundraising for breast cancer is so successful (in raising money) not because 'everybody likes a pair of boobs' but because of hard work by groups of women to raise awareness. Anyone could start such a campaign about any cancer.

      It's true that big business has since become involved, with all the awful pink fluffiness that that brings, but personally I think that has been detrimental to the campain. Apart from the fact that only pennies from the sale of each item sold 'for breast cancer' goes to breast cancer research while the rest goes into the pocket of the company selling them, the pink fluffy fun surrounding it all leads many to believe - as you apparantly do - that breast cancer is either curable or that a cure is just around the corner, and that it's a 'good' cancer to have.

      In fact like other cancers it is a deadly disease with no known cure, grueling treatments and particularly disfiguring surgery. In the US an average of 112 women die from breast cancer every day; in the UK an average of 33.


      @GlennK - that's crap. I had been a vegan for over 8 years (vegetarian for most of my life) when I was diagnosed with breast cancer - no cows milk at all, tons of organic fruit and veg. I also exercised regularly.

      Find out a few facts about cancer before you go spouting some rubbish you've read on the internet

    If i give to Breast Cancer Charity where does the money go?
    If the Breast Cancer gene is patented and owned by a company, (which it is). Then if i give money to something like Susan G. Komen Foundation, what is my money actually funding? Since this company DOESNT allow any cures or real treament to be developed, what is my money funding?

    • ANSWER:
      Im glad people are finally asking this question before giving money so blindly. Here are some Facts:

      Breast cancer is the 5TH leading disease among women. Less then 1% of men get breast cancer and children are not affected by it.

      Komen is a .5 billion dollar industry that has collected money year after year and has not shown ONE sign of progress towards a cure.

      only 19% of your money donated goes to research to find a cure for breast cancer

      Komen CEO's make a salary of 0,000+ bonuses a year

      Komen also spends a portion of your proceeds to retain lawyers to sue other charities who use terms such as 'the cure' in their charitable campaigns.

      Komen also makes money by selling your information to various marketing groups

      Komen does spend a majority of its money on marketing which they so call 'awareness'

      I will not, and do not donate to this chairity. The komen CEO's enjoy their half a million dollar a year salary so why would they be focused on a cure. If you want to donate, donate to the Jimmy V fund where 100% of proceeds go to research.

    Is there a link between hormonal contraception and breast cancer?
    Has the rate of breast cancer always been 1 out of 3? I know it is impossible to know the exact figure; prior to statistics, but has the rate increased? Why do nuns have a low incidence?

    • ANSWER:
      It isn't one in three; that's the number of women who will develop cancer of any type during their life. The risk of breast cancer is one in eight (in the UK it's usually given as one in nine).

      The rates haven't increased in many years, though survival rates have increased greatly.

      Taking the contraceptive pill or hormone replacement therapy causes a small increase in risk. However, the risk gradually returns to normal after you stop taking them, according to Breast Cancer Care and other breast cancer charities and information services

    What's a good title for my research paper about breast cancer?
    I wrote a research paper on breast cancer for english and I can't come up with a good title for it :(
    Any suggestions? Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Breast Cancer: the Destruction Close to your Heart...

      Give me more information on what exactly you wrote about, and I could probably come up with a better title.

    How easy do you think it would be to raise money to participate in a charity event for Breast Cancer?
    I am considering registering for the 3 day walk for breast cancer in San Diego. One of the requirements in order to participate is to raise a minimum of 00 in pledges or donations. If I can't raise the money then I'd have to write the check myself or drop out. How easy do you think it would be to raise the money and what suggestions do you have to do it?
    Here is the link to the site supporting the walk.

    • ANSWER:
      Perhaps you should stand in a window front nekkid with a sign saying accepting donations.

      Have you asked everyone at work? If not working have you asked all your friends and family? Have you posted a website with what is going on and how they can help? Maybe on your 360 page? You could walk around your neighborhood and pass out flyer's with your contact information and the facts about the event. I will go back and look at your link and think about it some and let you know. Good luck

    Is the risk of breast cancer increased with maternal or paternal relatives?
    I have just found out that my father's (he wasn't around when I grew up) sister died from breast cancer and that his mother has also battled with it twice. Does this increase my risk of getting breast cancer or does it not matter as they are paternal relatives?

    • ANSWER:
      Having a family history of breast cancer, either maternal or paternal, definitely increases your risk of developing breast cancer.

      Yes, there are some women, like myself, who develop breast cancer without any of the risk factors. They don't really know what causes breast cancer, but we do know that there are certain things that raise the risk, like family history, and certain things that lower your risk, like breastfeeding.

      How old are you?

      It's important that you let your OB know of your family history. Do self exams monthly (mid cycle, 2 weeks after you start your period) and be aware of ANY changes you feel in your breasts. Because there's a family history your OB will probably have you get a baseline mammogram earlier than most women do.

      There's lots of good information at and

      I just wanted to add, be wary of being tested for the breast cancer gene. I know a lot of women who had major problems getting health insurance if they tested postive for it.

    How much at risk am i of getting breast cancer?
    Im 16 and two years ago my mom died of breast cancer at the age of 36. How much at risk would you say i was of getting it, also when would i need to start being tested for this ? Any help would be amazing, 10 points best answer. Thanks x

    • ANSWER:
      Unless your mom had one of the rare hereditary types your risk is about the same as anyone else’s, 1 in 8 over your lifetime. If she did have one of the rare hereditary types you can be tested to see if you carry the gene mutation when you are 18. Otherwise it is recommended to start screening when you are 10 years younger than your mother was when diagnosed.

      EDIT: Self breast exams are not recommended at you age.
      Smoking is not a risk factor for breast cancer.
      10-20% of patients with breast cancer have a family history of it.
      Ignore Sofaking his information is always incorrect. He hates women, because he can’t get one and does not care about cancer or anyone but himself.

    What age should a woman get tested for Breast Cancer?
    Breast Cancer concerns me and I am only 17. I have known so many woman who have died from this!

    • ANSWER:
      Beginning at the age of 20 you should most definitely start performing breast self-exams and looking for any signs of change. From 20-39 you should schedule a clinical breast exam every 3 years. Taking a few minutes to do a breast self-exam a minimum of once a month can make a lifetime of difference. Nearly 70% of all breast cancers are found through self-exams and with early detection the 5-year survival rate is 98%. If you find a lump, schedule an appointment with your doctor, but don't panic—8 out of 10 lumps are not cancerous. For additional peace of mind, call your doctor whenever you have concerns.

      There are a few different ways you can perform a self exam:
      The national breast cancer institute explains a few different ways to check.
      In the Shower: Fingers flat, move gently over every part of each breast. Use your right hand to examine the left breast, left hand for the right breast. Check for any lump, hard knot, or thickening. Carefully observe any changes in your breasts.

      Before a Mirror: Inspect your breasts with your arms at your sides. Next, raise your arms high overhead. Look for any changes in the contour of each breast, a swelling, a dimpling of the skin, or changes in the nipples. Then rest your palms on your hips and press firmly to flex your chest muscles. Left and right breasts will not exactly match—few women's breasts do.

      Lying Down: Place a pillow under your right shoulder and put your right arm behind your head. With the fingers of your left hand flat, press your right breast gently in small circular motions, moving vertically or in a circular pattern covering the entire breast.
      Use light, medium, and firm pressure. Squeeze the nipple; check for discharge and lumps. Repeat these steps for your left breast.

      Risk factors for breast cancer include women over the age of 65, being overweight, lack of physical activity, early menstruation or late menopause, and a family history of breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common site of cancer and it most commonly diagnosed in early stages when it is highly curable. Common signs that you can look out for are a change in how the breast feels, how the nipple looks, and nipple discharge. Breast cancer is very common but performing monthly self exams will allow patients to catch it early on which will allow it to be easier to treat.

      I hope the information I gave you helped!

    What treatment is out there for small brain tumors that come from breast cancer?
    My daughter has tumors now in her brain from the breast cancer. The breast cancer tumors stopped growing and shrank slightly from treatment with ixempra and xeloda. What treatment works best for the brain tumors?

    • ANSWER:
      Here are some links to information and resources. You have to trust the oncologist and neurologist and pray for her...she could consider joining a clinical trial..

      Brain Tumor Information (brain tumor clinical trials…hit map tab for local trials and don’t forget to turn pages) (clinical trials) (results of brain cancer clinical trials) (click on “email a professional” to ask a question about brain tumors) (neurologist link find a physician) (diagnosis and treatment of brain tumors) (National Brain Tumor Foundation…brain anatomy…run the hand over the brain to view areas and a function box will appear underneath the illustration) (common brain tumor treatments and side effects) (treatment center database) (survivor stories) (frequently asked questions) (link list of brain tumor organizations) (alternative therapy links) (treatment resources links) (related sites link list) (brain tumor support groups) (brain tumor online support groups) (pediatric support groups…listed for other readers who might need…) (brain tumor message boards) (caregivers corner) (link list of cancer organizations) (financial assistance link list)

      Disability help (organization to help the disabled..resource) (frequently asked questions about disability

      Medicine help (partnership for prescription alliance…help with free or low cost medicines) (Patient Advocate Organization…copay assistance for malignant brain tumors)

      Nutrition and Support for cancer patients (nutrition for cancer patients) (supporting cancer patients)

      3 books on disease symptoms and treatments

      you could also get these books on ebay or amazon or a half price book store. (last two are very similar)..
      1.Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine
      2.Handbook of Diseases (Lippencott)
      3.Professional Guide to Diseases (Springhouse)

    What ideas for breast cancer awareness month do you have?
    I am in charge of this project at work. We are raising money for breast cancer awareness month for October. I have a banner coming and some stuff to sell for the cause, but I need unique ideas for the table or display. I was thinking using a pink table clothe and maybe make some pink ribbons out of construction paper to hang up. What are more ideas?? Thanks so much.

    • ANSWER:
      How nice of you! I would visit your local American Cancer Society branch and ask for some literature/information/booklets, etc. that you can display on your table. I received just a ton of excellent information from the ACS. Their website is:

      More too: Telephone (1-800-4-CANCER): Information Specialists at NCI's Cancer Information Service can answer your questions about cancer. They also can send NCI booklets, fact sheets, and other materials. Also, you can order/download more literature here:

    What are the chances of a 13 year old girl developing breast cancer?
    Yesterday, while in the shower, I suddenly thought back to that time in 5th grade where my teacher was talking about checking out for signs of breast cancer and stuff. So, I was like what the heck, and I checked my breasts for any lumps. What I felt were A LOT of LUMPS under both breasts! Scared, I finished taking a shower and researched my observations. I found out that it could have just been because my breasts are developing, or it could have been tissue or muscles? Does anyone know if that is true? Well, now I'm wondering what are the chances of a 13 year old girl developing breast cancer? As I am a 13 year old girl.

    Thanks! Relived to know that my chances are 0! :)

    @Susie Q
    Thanks! So, I am really just developing my breasts... Good to know! And I don't have breast cancer! Thank you! ^_^

    • ANSWER:
      The chances are zero. If it happened it would make medical history (and world news).

      Damn your 5th grade teacher. I mean it. Telling little girls to check their breasts! Why can't teachers who know nothing about the subject keep quiet about it?

      At your age breast self checks are most definitely NOT recommended - they'll tell you nothing and worry you unnecessarily. ALL responsible and reputable cancer advice and information services will tell you that the VERY YOUNGEST a woman should begin breast self-examination is 20, if then; and many cancer professionals say 30.

      Before that it's pointless; firstly because there are so many hormonal changes that there is no 'normal' - and self examination is about a woman knowing what's normal for her and reporting any changes. And secondly because the chance of breast cancer is almost nil.

      What you are describing is normal breast development

    What is connection with aluminum in deodorants and breast cancer?
    Some years back a woman scientist had gotten into trouble with drug company she was working for when she reported about particular content in underarm deodorant which she said cause cancer in women. Again now I read a report from Great Britain which says doctors have found aluminum salts from deodorants in breast cancer tissues which have been biopsied. But if these studies have been going on for many years now, and they have these proofs, why not do something?

    • ANSWER:
      Please ignore what was reported a few years back. Read the latest information one ow the world's leading cancer institute-

      No. deodorant and anti-antiperspirant can not cause Breast cancer and it has been told very clearly by different cancer institute -

      # Can antiperspirants or deodorants in aluminum cause breast cancer?

      Articles in the press and on the Internet have warned that underarm antiperspirants or deodorants cause breast cancer (1). The reports have suggested that these products contain harmful substances, which can be absorbed through the skin or enter the body through nicks caused by shaving. Some scientists have also proposed that certain ingredients in underarm antiperspirants or deodorants may be related to breast cancer because they are applied frequently to an area next to the breast (2).

      However, researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) are not aware of any conclusive evidence linking the use of underarm antiperspirants or deodorants and the subsequent development of breast cancer. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which regulates food, cosmetics, medicines, and medical devices, also does not have any evidence or research data that ingredients in underarm antiperspirants or deodorants cause cancer. -

    Breast Cancer : How long and how much for the hormone treatment?
    My wife is 32 and has a breast cancer stage 2A no lymph nodes involved. She is ER(estrogen) positive and PR low positive. We are going to meet the oncologist tomorrow.

    We heard that some people in similar case have to take hormone treatment for at least 5 years after Chemotherapy and some other people get injections.

    Are we going to have to pay for any of these and how long is usually the treatment?

    Thanks for your comment.

    • ANSWER:
      First of all, I want to tell you how sorry I am for your situation...I hate runs in my family and it really irritates me.

      A few months ago my grandma had a malignant tumor in both of her breasts and had a double mastectomy...she had no lymph nodes involved;she has HER2+ bc and is on tamoxifen daily, and takes Herceptin intravenously every three weeks (she has to do that for a year).

      I don't know what type of insurance you have, so I can't really tell you about the costs.

      I hope everything goes well at the oncologist tomorrow. In any case, one organization that can offer both you and your wife a lot of help and support is the American Cancer Society...I've been volunteering with them for years and they do a world of good. They can provide you with disease and treatment information, they can hook you up with a support group...and they also have a couple of really good programs for bc patients---"Reach to Recovery" and "Look Good Feel Better"--their website is

      I wish both you and your wife the best!

    What does it mean if someone is diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer?
    Someone very close to me has been diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer, I think in stage I. What does this mean?

    • ANSWER:
      Estrogen (ER) can cause breast cancer to grow.
      Progesterone (PR) can cause breast cancer to grow.
      Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (Her2) -- an overexpression of this gene can cause breast cancer to grow.

      Every time a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer, the pathologist also tests for whether or not ER, PR or Her2 causes the cancer to grow. This is done in a laboratory and the results are noted as positive or negative (with the occasional equivocal). A positive result for the hormones (ER and PR) would mean that hormone suppressive drugs will be needed. A positive result for the Her2 gene would mean a different type of drug would be needed to suppress that gene.

      When a breast cancer is determined to be "triple-negative," it means that all three tests came up negative. In other words, there is no identified cause as to what causes that particular cancer to grow. (Not all cancers are alike.)

      According to the, about 10-20% of breast cancers are triple negative. If you'd like to learn more about it, I encourage you to go to their site:

      @Dr.dhananjaya Bhupathi . . . It is considered to be bad forum etiquette to copy information from a website without giving credit. Your opening paragraph is straight from the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Foundation (R). You should have credited them by listing:

    Is it safe for a girl to be taking birth control pills if her mother had breast cancer?
    I have a friend who is interested in taking the pill to prevent pregnancy. She is 25 years old and is in very good health. However, her mother had breast cancer when she was 50. Thanks to chemo, her mother has since fully recovered and his now in good health (it was a rather mild case). Will a very low does pill like YAZ or Triphasil be safe for my friend? She'll probably only be using it for a few years.

    • ANSWER:
      High levels of estrogen are known to increase the risk of developing breast cancer because estrogen stimulates the mammary glands/ducts (this is actually why some women experience sore, swollen breasts when they ovulate). If it is in her family history she would already be at an increased risk and most doctors would be wary of prescribing a birth control containing estrogen.

      The good news is, you can get birth control which doesn't use synthetic estrogen. It is either a progestin-only pill ("minipill") or some other form like the Mirena hormonal IUD (also uses progestin). Progestin can actually decrease the risk of uterine and ovarian cancer (estrogen has an even better decreasing effect on these types of cancer), and doesn't have any known effect on the risk of breast cancer. Progestin-only methods are more likely to cause depression, loss of sex drive, irregular period and spotting/breakthrough bleeding than combined pills. There are a lot of potential side effects associated with hormonal birth control, but most women do OK on it and usually the side effects go away within the first three months.

      Your friend would be best off talking to an experienced gynecologist and a pharmacist to get more information. They would be able to figure out if her risk of breast cancer is too high to use estrogen or if she is within reasonable range.

    What is the mode of inheritance of breast cancer?
    For my Biology class, we are doing a mini-symposium on genetic disorders.
    One of the topics i have to cover is mode of inheritance. Could anyone tell me what the mode of inheritance for breast cancer is?

    • ANSWER:
      This site,

      Provides the information you're looking for. They explain the genetics of breast cancer far better than I could.

breast cancer information

Images Of Breast Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions

    Is 21 years old too young to get screened for breast cancer?
    It's breast cancer month and I heard about getting free thermal imaging breast cancer screenings in the newspaper. I don't have a history of breast cancer in the family, but I thought it would be cool to bring my mom with me to get screened. My only concern is taking up doctors time because I am only 21 and should have healthy breasts. Should I be concerned about getting screened? Do you think its too young?

    • ANSWER:
      Besides which, at least in the US, thermal imaging is generally considered as "alternative" in terms of breast cancer screening.

      There may be other countries and other cancers where it is more acceptable.

    what does a breast cancer lump look like?
    Does anyone know of a web site that would have images of breast cancer lump? I have a lump and would like to know what cancer lumps look like. I have a dr. appt. but it is a week away.
    I wasn't trying to diagnose myself. I was simply wondering as it is fearful for any woman to find. I was worried and was not looking for rude and insensitive comments.

    • ANSWER:
      This is a slideshow of a breastcancer lump.

    Does Breast Augmentation increase the chances to develop breast cancer?
    I am wanting a breast Augmentation but Breast cancer does run in my family. Just wondering if anyone who has had this done can tell me if it will increase my chances of breast cancer. I am sure the doctor will let me know, but I don't want to even waste my time going to the consult if the answer to my question is yes.

    • ANSWER:
      Breast implants do not cause breast cancer, but they can delay finding a breast cancer. It is impossible to image all of the breast tissue in a woman with implants. The implant hides quite a bit of breast tissue, so it is harder to find an early breast cancer on these screening mammograms. Also, a woman with no breast implants has a mammogram consisting of 4 exposures. Due to the extra images we take in a woman with implants, your radiation exposure is doubled to 8 exposures.

      "The x-rays used for mammographic imaging of the breasts cannot penetrate silicone or saline implants well enough to image the overlying or underlying breast tissue. Therefore, some breast tissue (approximately 25%) will not be seen on the mammogram, as it will be covered up by the implant. In order to visualize as much breast tissue as possible, women with implants undergo four additional views as well as the four standard images taken during diagnostic mammography. In these additional x-ray pictures, called Eklund views or implant displacement (ID) views, the implant is pushed back against the chest wall and the breast is pulled forward over it."

      "Breast implants can impair detection of breast cancer because they are dense on mammograms and obscure some of the normal breast tissue. This requires special mammographic pictures in which the implants are pushed out of the way, but even with the special views, some normal breast tissue is obscured by the implants."

      For these reasons, most mammographers are not fans of implants!

    What kind of doctor works with breast cancer?
    Let's say I want to be a doctor that works with treating breast cancer. What type of doctor is that (name of doctor) and what education should I get?

    • ANSWER:
      You have to be a regular doctor and then specialise in Oncology.

      An oncologist will deal in all types of cancer including Breast cancer. Oncology is the study of cancer. There are five major areas of oncology: etiology, prevention, biology, diagnosis, and treatment. As a clinical discipline, it draws upon a wide variety of medical specialties; as a research discipline, oncology also involves specialists in many areas of biology and in a variety of other scientific areas. Oncology has led to major progress in the understanding not only of cancer but also of normal biology.

      There are several sub-specialties within oncology. Moreover, oncologists often develop an interest and expertise in the management of particular types of cancer.

      Oncologists may be divided on the basis of the type of treatment provided.

      Radiation oncology: treatment primarily with radiation, a process called radiotherapy.
      Surgical oncology: surgeons who specialize in tumor removal.
      Medical oncology: treatment primarily with drugs, e.g. chemotherapy.
      Interventional oncology: interventional radiologists who specialize in minimally invasive image guided tumor therapies.
      Gynecologic oncology: focuses on cancers of the female reproductive system.
      Pediatric oncology: concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children
      In the United Kingdom and several other countries, oncologists may be either clinical or medical oncologists. The main difference is that clinical oncologists deliver radiotherapy, while medical oncologists do not. (This difference does not apply in North America: the terms, clinical oncologist and medical oncologist are used interchangeably.)

      In most countries it is now common that patients are treated by a multidisciplinary team. These teams will meet on regular basis and discus the patients under their care. These teams consist of the medical oncologist , a clinical oncologist or radiotherapist, a surgeon (sometimes there a second reconstructive surgeon) , a radiologist , a pathologist , an organ specific specialist like a gynaecologist or dermatologist, and sometimes the general practitioner is also involved. These disease oriented teams are sometimes in conflict with the general organisation and operation in hospitals. Historically hospitals are organised in a organ or technique specific manner. Multidisciplinary teams operate over these borders and it is sometimes difficult to define who is in charge.-

      So can select your course and do it according after compleation of baisc medicines and surgery. -

    I need some ideas for a raise fund in my school to help breast cancer awareness?
    I need some ideas for a raise fund in my school to help breast cancer awareness?

    We can have a one day event to a whole week, but we have no ideas
    (we can't sell food)

    • ANSWER:
      You know how people usually use the colour pink to support breast cancer?

      Get some ribbons and put them in this design

      thats in promotion for it.

      And do love heart lollipops count as food? If not then sell them, for every ribbon you buy you get a free love heart lollipop.

      If you cant give away lollipops then something else like an eraser or a pencil or a little novelty or something like that.

    how quickly can breast cancer spread to the brain?
    I have a relative with breast cancer and now she fears that it has spread to her brain. She just finished chemo in June of this year. Is it possible? She has been feeling extremely unbalanced lately and weak in her right arm and leg.

    • ANSWER:
      Metastasis is the process of the tumors 'seeding' microscopic malignant cells into the blood stream and/or lymphatic system. Once metastasis occurs than the malignant cells can travel anywhere in the body that blood goes. Systemic chemotherapy is used to try and stop the metastasis from growing new tumors in these distant locations. However, there is a problem with many type of systemic chemo when it comes to the brain. There is a blood-brain barrier that prevents many chemo drugs from entering the brain. So, it may be possible that your relative had a metastasis go to her brain and the chemotherapy she was using could not cross the blood brain barrier. My son has advanced cancer and when we were confronted with the possibility that his disease could travel to the brain, we found two chemo drugs that did cross that brain blood barrier . . Temozolimide and Irinotecan. Worked also to keep his sarcoma minimal and under control for a year.

      Your relative needs to call her doctor and schedule an imaging test (CT or PET) to see what is going on.

    How bad is breast cancer if at the time you are diagnosed you have had it for two years without treatment?
    Alright so my aunt who lives in Ghana, rarley visits a doctor and recently she went and they told her she has breast cancer. The doctor says she has most likley had it for two years.

    How advanced is two years and what could possibly be done?

    • ANSWER:
      We need to know the type, grade, stage, hormone receptor status and her age to answer you.
      It takes about 2 years before it can be seen on imaging.

    !What causes Breast Cancer and how can you get rid of it or fight it?
    I think my aunty has breast cancer because I heard them talking and looking at breast cancer things on the net.....
    so I am worried so I wanted to know what can you do to get rid of it and how do you get breast cancer basically everything!!
    Thank you oh soo much!
    Thank you guys so far!
    Samixann what do you mean you best friend lost her mum to breast cancer??
    Did she die?

    • ANSWER:
      What is breast cancer?

      Breast cancer happens when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control and can then invade nearby tissues or spread throughout the body. Large collections of this out of control tissue are called tumors. However, some tumors are not really cancer because they cannot spread or threaten someone's life. These are called benign tumors. The tumors that can spread throughout the body or invade nearby tissues are considered cancer and are called malignant tumors. Theoretically, any of the types of tissue in the breast can form a cancer, but usually it comes from either the ducts or the glands. Because it may take months to years for a tumor to get large enough to feel in the breast, we screen for tumors with mammograms, which can sometimes see disease before we can feel it.


      What are the signs of breast cancer?

      Unfortunately, the early stages of breast cancer may not have any symptoms. This is why it is important to follow screening recommendations. As a tumor grows in size, it can produce a variety of symptoms including:

      * lump or thickening in the breast or underarm
      * change in size or shape of the breast
      * nipple discharge or nipple turning inward
      * redness or scaling of the skin or nipple
      * ridges or pitting of the breast skin

      If you experience these symptoms, it doesn't necessarily mean you have breast cancer, but you need to be examined by a doctor.
      How is breast cancer diagnosed and staged?

      Once a patient has symptoms suggestive of a breast cancer or an abnormal screening mammogram, they will usually be referred for a diagnostic mammogram. A diagnostic mammogram is another set of x-rays; however, it is more complete with close ups on the suspicious areas. Sometimes, particularly if your doctors think that you may have a cyst or you are young and have dense breasts, you may be referred for an ultrasound. An ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to outline the suspicious areas of the breast. It is painless and can often distinguish between benign and malignant lesions.

      Depending on the results of the mammograms and/or ultrasounds, your doctors may recommend that you get a biopsy. A biopsy is the only way to know for sure if you have cancer, because it allows your doctors to get cells that can be examined under a microscope. There are different types of biopsies; they differ on how much tissue is removed. Some biopsies use a very fine needle, while others use thicker needles or even require a small surgical procedure to remove more tissue. Your team of doctors will decide which type of biopsy you need depending on your particular breast mass.

      Once the tissue is removed, a doctor known as a pathologist will review the specimen. The pathologist can tell if it is cancer or not; and if it is cancerous, then the pathologist will characterize it by what type of tissue it arose from, how abnormal it looks (known as the grade), whether or not it is invading surrounding tissues, and if the entire lump was excised, the pathologist can tell if there are any cancer cells left at the borders (also known as the margins). The pathologist will also test the cancer cells for the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors as well as a receptor known as

      HER-2/neu. The presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors is important because cancers that have those receptors can be treated with hormonal therapies. HER-2/neu expression may also help predict outcome. There are also some therapies directed specifically at tumors dependent on the presence of HER-2/nue. See Understanding Your Pathology Report for more information.

      In order to guide treatment and offer some insight into prognosis, breast cancer is staged into five different groups. This staging is done in a limited fashion before surgery taking into account the size of the tumor on mammogram and any evidence of spread to other organs that is picked up with other imaging modalities; and it is done definitively after a surgical procedure that removes lymph nodes and allows a pathologist to examine them for signs of cancer. The staging system is somewhat complex, but here is a simplified version of it:
      Stage 0 (called carcinoma in situ)

      Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) refers to abnormal cells lining a gland in the breast. This is a risk factor for the future development of cancer, but this is not felt to represent a cancer itself.

      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) refers to abnormal cells lining a duct. Women with DCIS have an increased risk of getting invasive breast cancer in that breast. Treatment options are similar to patients with Stage I breast cancers.

      Stage I: early stage breast cancer where the tumor is less that 2 cm across and hasn't spread beyond the breast

      Stage II : early stage breast cancer where the tumor is either less than 2 cm across and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm; or the tumor is between 2 and 5 cm (with or without spread to the lymph nodes under the arm); or the tumor is greater than 5 cm and hasn't spread outside the breast

      Stage III: locally advanced breast cancer where the tumor is greater than 5 cm across and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm; or the cancer is extensive in the underarm lymph nodes; or the cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone or to other tissues near the breast

      Stage IV: metastatic breast cancer where the cancer has spread outside the breast to other organs in the body

      Depending on the stage of your cancer, your doctor may want additional tests to see if you have metastatic disease. If you have a stage III cancer, you will probably get a chest x-ray, CT scan and bone scan to look for metastases. Each patient is an individual and your doctors will decide what is necessary to adequately stage your cancer.

    Any link of a breast cancer awareness pink ribbon to put in a blog plz?
    Hello, a friend of mine is about to finish treatment to fight breast cancer, everything is coming out good THANKS GOD!, is there a site that can give me a pink ribbon to use on my and her blog page..thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Google: Free pink awareness ribbon clip art
      There are TONS of free images available there.

    How do you know if the copyright is just for the image or the words with it?
    We want to make t-shirts for our team to walk for breast cancer. We like the high heeled shoe with the words Stomp Out Breast Cancer. Along the shoe it is copyrighted and we have tried to look up the website but it is not available. "Server not found". We could use a different shoe or boot on the shirts but didnt know if the words were copyrighted as well. How would we know if it is just the image of the shoe or the words too?

    • ANSWER:
      You can't copyright a slogan.

      A slogan can be trade marked, but I find it doubtful that anyone did this as doing so still costs money, unlike a copyright.

      the guy that invented the "free mustache rides" T shirt gets no royalties other than off the shirts he makes himself.

    My doctor found a lump on my breast, my mammography is scheduled for tuesday. What should i expect?
    Im 29 years old, no kids, my mom has breast cancer, my great-grandmother too and she died because of it. I used to smoke, what are my chances to have cancer? What doctors do in a mammography? Does it hurt?

    • ANSWER:
      Im sorry that breast cnacer runs in your family, and a lump on your breast is most likely breast cancer. if it is cancer, its a good thing that your doctor found in now and not later. And when you get a mammogram the breast is placed between an Xray platform and cover and pressure is placed down on it. It can be painful but is worth it in the end if cancer is found. Best wishes to you.
      This site probably explains it better than i did.

    What would be simple to make for some one who had chemotherapy yesterday and have lost her appetite?
    My best friend have breast cancer and have started chemotherapy yesterday. She has vomited a lot and doesn't feel like eating.If you have some advice ,please help me so that I can make her something light to eat.Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      I am so sorry to hear about your friend .... my dad had a rare cancer and received the same chemo as breast cancer patients. He refused food, even ensure, and about the only thing he seemed to enjoy was soft serve ice cream and sherbet. We later discovered that chemo patients need to avoid soft serve ice cream. There are many foods they must avoid to prevent infection during this time when their immune system is weak and vulnerable. Chemo does something to the taste buds and makes everything taste different. It was very disappointing for him to try and eat his favorite things, only to have them taste awful.

      Lukewarm bland broth and plenty of crackers satisfied him, too. Don't be alarmed if your friend just takes a few sips or bites and can't take anymore. Be forewarned, too, that what may taste alright this week won't taste as well next week or next month. Your friend may also develop sores in her mouth, and this can also affect her appetite. There are medications to help with this if it does happen.

      I hope the best for your friend, and her family and friends.

      Found this info to share with you from various websites about chemo:

      Vomiting and nausea are other common side-effects of chemotherapy during cancer treatment. It is suggested that the patient eat very small meals throughout the day instead of having 3 large meals. Never eat hurriedly, always chewing the food thoroughly to make digestion easier. Until chemotherapy is stopped the patient must avoid eating any sort of fried foods, foods with fat in them, sweets, and avoid / reduce the amount of meat intake. It is best to have a lot of fresh vegetables. Ask the physician for advice on what to eat and what to avoid.

      Management of nausea and vomiting

      * Relax. Don't assume you will be sick.
      * Use imaging and other relaxation techniques before and during your therapy. Biofeedback, self-hypnosis, diversionary activities (videos, games, puzzles), accupressure and music therapy may be helpful.
      * Avoid eating for a few hours before treatment, if you experience nausea.
      * Stay away from fatty or spicy foods, sweets and strong smelling foods.
      * Ice chips, ginger ale, unsalted pretzels, plain crackers, cool, bland foods can help combat nausea.
      * Try small, frequent meals. Eat slowly.
      * Have your favorite foods available and located conveniently.
      * Drink plenty of water.

    Can the tech doing a digital mammogram see the results right away?
    The tech who did mine said I would recieve a letter after doing my images yesterday. Their policy is to call if there is a problem and send a letter if everything is clear. She knew I always get nevous, mom had breast cancer at age 51, I am 57 have had two benign cysts, mammograms have always been clear, but this is my first digital.I'm wondering if she could see that it was okay and was trying to ease my mind, I will be on edge for a couple of days.. thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      The tech can see the data, yes. However a DOCTOR will interpret the data and give you a diagnosis. The tech can't ethically tell you the results.

    How do you describe someone's skin tone in stories without using ethnicity?
    A couple of my characters have this skin tone:

    How do you describe someone's skin tone like this without saying, "they're black", "they're skin is brown" or without referring to ethnicity?

    • ANSWER:
      My characters are fur based, but the fur colors go roughly with the same color of people's skin most of the time. (One of the minor characters is a lavender and purple panda, but hey, most are normal colored stuffed animals.) I hit hair-coloring sites. Hair dyes tend to be named for different versions of brown, black, blonde, or red. You get all sorts of choices - mahogany, auburn, caramel, or tan. Seriously, google hair-dye names and you have just about every color skin you can imagine (and about every color fur a teddy bear can sport. lol)

    What image comes to mind when you think or here about Cancer?
    My Mom had Cancer and is recovering from a Bone Marrow Transplant. I have some ideas that I want to express on the subject and I wanted to know what others think of visually when they think of cancer.
    Such as a pink ribbon for Breast Cancer... but this is not breast cancer so what image in general do you have in your mind when you think of cancer.....

    • ANSWER:
      I kept a journal while being treated for breast cancer and doodled some images of cancer being a bug (like the Raid commercials with a can of spray eradicating it or a big sledge hammer smashing the X#@! out of it.)

    Can a surgeon successfully remove a live cancerous tumor without it spreading?
    My cousin has signet cell breast cancer. It's a rare and aggressive form and she's been on chemo since December. The tumor has shrunk but, after checking it, the surgeon said it's still live. She's having a mastectomy tomorrow morning and the surgeon thinks he can get all the cancer out without spreading it. All I've heard is "Don't remove a live tumor because it'll spread." Is it possible to remove a live tumor in the breast and lymph nodes without spreading it? I appreciate your help! Thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      This is a widespread misconception that is particularly prevalent among some ethnic groups.

      The concept probably came from the days before advanced imaging when often the only way to tell how advanced a cancer was to cut the patient open with a knife and see. Unfortunately, in many cases the cancer had already advanced far enough that surgical resection (removal) was impossible. So the surgeon would come out and say "I'm sorry, but the cancer has spread and there is nothing we can do". You can see how families could intrepret that as meaning that the surgery caused the cancer to spread, when in reality the tendency to spread locally or to other parts of the body (metastasis) is a characteristic of cancer and not caused by the surgery at all.

      All cancers that are surgically removed are live; if they were dead there would be no reason to remove them. For many cancers, surgical removal is the only treatment that has any hope of producing a cure.

      I should point out that there are rare situations in which cancer can actually be spread by inappropriate surgical technique, but this does not occur when the surgery is planned and executed properly.

    What are you doing in your community to help feminism, sisters?
    I help out with the local abuse shelter, breast cancer awareness programs, as well as the Easter Seals.

    How about you?

    • ANSWER:
      I am very involved in body image and building the awareness and self esteem of young girls who feel depressed due to their looks.

      It may not be the usual stuff but I think its good that we all find different ways to support women who suffer at the hands of patriarchy.

      It's good to see a positive question about feminism.

    Is there a ribbon you can wear to indicate your support for the fight against all types of cancer?
    I know that, in the UK at least, the pink ribbon is used to support the fight against breast cancer - is there one similar for other/all types of cancer?

    • ANSWER:,r:1,s:0&tx=94&ty=44

      Hahahaha thats really long and the answer is Lavender. But that ^ shows every type.

    Would breast cancer show up on a CAT scan of the heart or lungs?
    I had a CAT scan in december? and i was wondering. If i had breast cancer would it show up on a CAT scan of the heart and/or lungs?
    I dont think it was very recent... I first thought i might have it like 2 years ago... but never went to the doctor or anything.

    • ANSWER:
      You need a mammogram. A BSE (breast self examination) is a good first step.

      A mammogram procedure shoots low amplitude X-ray to examine the breast. No other imaging technique has been shown to reduce risk.

      A CT Scan needs IV contrast for an accurate assessment of cancer. An iodine dye (contrast material) is often used to make structures and organs easier to see on the CT pictures.

      A tumor and its surrounding healthy cells are only slightly different in densities. A CT Scan by itself would not be able to make the distinction. A CT Scan can see bones and denser organs okay, but needs help from special contrast materials to see veins, cancer, and other soft tissue well. Mammograms are better suited for soft tissue.

    How can I tell if I have breast cancer?
    My boobs are TINY so it's really hard to do breast checks and not think I have breast cancer. Since they're so damn small, I feel everything like muscle or something else and I can't tell if it's abnormal or something. I'm almost 20 yrs old so it's not completely abnormal if I were to have breast cancer.....

    • ANSWER:
      At the of 20 cancer breast unlikely.
      If still in doubt and unable to do self examination,DOC advise can be taken for imaging methods.

    How many diseases could you prevent by removing JUST ONE mammary gland of infant girls?
    Would the chance breast cancer be reduced?

    • ANSWER:
      If you mean removing all of the tissue of one breast to stop breast cancer - I guess you could theoretically halve the incidence of breast cancer.

      However, you might end up creating more problems than you intended to solve - e.g. self image, ethical dilemmas with forces mutilation etc, other psychological problems. And then if the other breast gets a cancer and has to be removed, then you don't have a back up for breast feeding etc.

    Can a radiologist tell if a nodule is cancer or not just by looking a on a digital mammogram?
    I have a nodule in my left breast. They sent out a letter no area of concerns then I went to pick up my medical records and its said nodule in left breast. That concerns me and I am very worried as my cousin dead from breast cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Sometimes they can and sometimes they can’t, but they always state exactly what they see. If they can tell they say so, if they can’t tell they say that too. It is not uncommon for people to have nodules in many areas of their bodies those that are cancer have certain characteristics. This is why it is always helpful to have any previous imaging available to a radiologist for comparison. It helps them to see subtle changes early on. Even in circumstances where they are not sure, they error on the side of over testing and this is proven by the fact that 80& of breast biopsies are negative. Radiologists are notorious for riding the fence so when they make a definitive statement they are sure and they are very rarely wrong. However, the doctor who ordered the mammogram is responsible for going over the results with you and to answer any questions you have. They have your history, examined you and are able to interpret what the radiologist saw. Your cousin having breast cancer does not increase your risk for it.

    When do you start having mammograms?
    I am only 23 but have noticed "knottyness" in my right breast. I asked my doctor about it and she acknowledged that I did in fact have several small lumps, but proceeded with no concern. My question is at what point should I become concerned? I doubt I would notice if I got more, or if they grew slightly. Breast cancer does not run in my family, I know of no blood relative to ever have it. Should I request a mammogram?

    • ANSWER:
      I have been a mammographer for over 25 years. At your age, breast cancer is VERY rare. If you were to begin routine mammograms at your age, the risk of developing breast cancer from the radiation in the mammogram would be a concern later in life. Ultrasound is a wonderful way to image lumps in breasts <40 years. Then, if need be, the radiologist would request a mammogram.

      Continue to examine your breasts, which is the best way for any woman of ANY age to find breast cancer. If any of your lumpy-bumpys change and grow AFTER your period has ended, go see your doctor and insist on getting an ultrasound of the lump. Trust your instincts. Contrary to what you think, you would know if it was changing or growing. It is probably a cyst...a fluid-filled pouch which are very common and never cancer. Cysts can grow to a point to where it is painful, and a doctor can easily put a small needle in it and puncture/drain it to relieve the pressure and pain. Most cysts implode on themselves with no incident. Remember, cancer does not only grows. So if your lump comes and goes with your cycles, know that is what is normal for you.

      By the way, the fact that you have no family history is a false sense of security...75% of women with breast cancer had NO significant family history of breast cancer.

    Where do I find pictures of teens in bras?
    I need one for a project on breast cancer. I am not a creep. I just can't find any!

    • ANSWER:
      Lol. You mean like non-pornographic?

      I found a few just by google imaging "teens in bra" (safesearch on if you want to avoid the porn :P)

      Those photos might be good for what you want. Aside from that just google it.

    Called to go back for a second mammogram?
    I had a digital imaging mammogram the 22nd of Oct. I got a call today from United Breast Center,Oct.28. They said to come back in because behind both nipples,it looks like fibroid tissue. I am confused by this, I get mammograms every year. I am 72. My mother died of breast cancer at 71. Should I be worried and does their reason sound plausible.

    • ANSWER:
      Wow. You are 71 on Yahoo? Congratulations.

      Was the 10.22 mammogram compared? Because of your family history, certainly you know the importance of regular mammograms especially after the age of 50. It is just as important for them to be compared.

      The reason is not plausible. Maybe someone is sugar-coating a bigger issue. on a 72 year old woman it is unlikely for there to be change from one year to the next on both breasts.

      Do what is recommended, but make sure comparisons were done. That may prevent unnecessary biopsy.

    I want to know if finding a problem then having a ultrasound means bad news?
    There's a couple of spots on left breast that showed up on my mammogram today that calls for a ultrasound now and I am scared of the results. Breast cancer runs in my family and I'm 45 years old and don't know what's the next steps.

    • ANSWER:
      Ultrasound will help to characterize the spots seen on mammo, it will show whether they are fluid filled or solid.Fluid is a cyst-nothing to worry about (and will be black on the image), solid doesn't mean cancer but some types of solid masses are.If they are suspicious then most likely a biopsy will be the next step.
      It's a wait and see thing, try not to worry!

    why is the nfl so concerned with breast cancer awareness all of a sudden?
    I have noticed that the nfl coaches and players are wearing pink breast cancer ribbons on their caps and helmets...i'm just curious as to why the nfl is on the breast cancer awareness bandwagon all of a sudden. can someone please help me out with that? thanx!
    I AM aware that it's breast cancer awareness month, but i just want to know why the nfl is so concerned about it because they weren't before...

    • ANSWER:
      To promote the league in a more positive light. In the end it all comes down to money and image.

    How many months after treatment would breast cancer metastasize to other parts of the body?
    If you make a graph and number months after treatment which month number would get most of the hits lets say on a scatter gram?

    So if it is typically 18 months after treatment would that be typically when most cancers reoccur? I am trying to stay positive but I want to also make these times her best.

    • ANSWER:
      Dave, there is no answer for this. I saw many hundreds of women with breast cancers. There was no month in my experience that would show a concentration of "hits' on a scatter diagram. I've seen metastatic disease show up clinically one year, 2 years, 5 years, 10 years and even 20 years after the original primary cancer was treated. No two people were the same.

      Obviously - when it does recur - the metastatic disease had been there all of the time but had been dormant or too small to be clinically evident. A billion breast cancer cells makes a tumor mass only ~1cm in diameter. We cannot see a million residual cells on any scans or imaging studies. So when follow up scans are all negative - that is terrific - but there could still be millions of residual cells somewhere in the body that we just cannot see because they are too small to show up.

      The chances improve with each passing disease free year, but these women are never really out of the woods entirely. We often use the five year disease free interval as a bench mark, but that is not always safe with breast carcinomas.

      If metastatic breast carcinoma does eventually show up, it must have been there since the original diagnosis. You (you and your wife) went through adjuvant chemotherapy hoping to knock out any cells that remained. You didn't know for sure if they were there are not. You don't know whether the chemotherapy succeeded in eradicating every last cell if there actually were residual cells that had spread via the bloodstream. With adjuvant chemotherapy we are treating disease we cannot see on the chance that it may be there and might be reponsive to the chosen combination of chemotherapy drugs. We make a best "guess" based on many studies trying to find what gives people the best chance for a long disease free survival.

      When metastatic disease eventually does show up, it is just that it has grown large enough to finally be detected. We have to remember that malignancies always begin as microscopic disease.

      Added note - 5,000 and counting - WOW ! !
      Costs have truly gotten way out of hand. It was much less in the 1980's and 1990's when I was in practice - perhaps one third of that amount for the treatment you describe. Too many people are taking excessive profits these days, and I don't mean just the doctors. Drug company profit taking is just too much. Health insurance company profit taking is also excessive. We must have health care reimbursement reform in the USA. Medicine should not be such a high profit business - it shouldn't be a business at all. These are people's lives we are dealing with. 5,000 is ridiculous.

    Sore swollen lumps in armpits but no lumps found in breasts?
    What can be the cause of this? I am a 18 year old girl and I am terrified that I have breast cancer. Even though my family history does not involve cancer and I haven't found any lumps in the breasts. Also, the ones under my arms come a week or two before my period and then disappear or shrink in size for about two or three weeks. PLEASE HELP.

    • ANSWER:
      It is probably an infection elsewhere in your body causing the inflamed lymph glands in your armpits. IF you want imaging, you could have ultrasound. In any case, you should see your doctor.

      Cancer does not come/go with your cycles. Ever.

      Just see your doctor for self-assurance.

    what does enhancement mean in, "The 10mm lesion in the right aspect of the T3 vetebral body exhibits enhanceme?
    I had breast cancer 6 years ago. Now we are wondering if it has returned in the spinal column, specifically at the T3 level. It could possibly be a hemangioma, but I dont get in to see an oncologist for over 2 more weeks and don't want to wait that long without at least knowing something more. Note to all, don't get cancer in the summertime when all the doctors are on vacation. what does it mean "exhibit enhancement".

    • ANSWER:
      Enhancement simply means it uptakes injected contrast material - either CT contrast dye, or gadolinium for MRIs, or (usually) FDG for PET scanning. Enhancement in all of these cases would be suspicious for tumour but non-cancerous lesions may exhibit uptake as well - depending upon the lesion and the type of imaging.

      For instance usually - but not always - bone hemangiomas will will exhibit enhancement in MR, frequently on CT, but not usually on PET. If the report that you are reading suggests that it could be a hemangioma, then that is definitely possible - in fact, often the radiologist will suggest what he/she thinks is most likely.

      I would try not to worry. If there is only a single 10mm lesion found, then it really could be anything and is less likely to be cancer as usually you would find multiple lesions or lesions with aggressive features (which you don't mention).

      Hope this helps.

    How to invert mammogram image to negative image?
    The mammogram images that I have are from MIAS database.To create detection algorithm I need to create negative image first. This for detection of microcalcification in Digital Mammograms for breast cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Any graphics program such as Photoshop or Paint Shop Pro has an option for negative image. It's one step and simple.

    Does anyone know a website i can download a pink ribbon for my desktop?
    A breast cancer awareness wallpaper...

    • ANSWER:
      there should be several and if not, you can make you own, if you have a pink ribbon, try scanning or take picture and upload, create a blank image in editor, 800 x 600 at 72 dpi, and add image and text,

    what do ultrasound images of breast cancer look like?
    i got an ultra sound on both breast and they found tumors.. they also found one under my arm... it was like a little circle with ridges under them.. how do i know if its cancerous or not?

    • ANSWER:
      They won't know if the lump are cancerous from the images, what they will do is a biopsy now, and test the cells to determine if they are cancerous or not.

      GOOD LUCK!!!

    What's the best age for a female to start having mammograms (I am 18)?
    Like other women I'm afraid of breast cancer, but they say if it's detected early you have a better chance of survival. I heard it's best to start at age 20, but is 18 too young?

    • ANSWER:
      "Current guidelines from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the American Cancer Society (ACS), the American Medical Association (AMA) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) recommend screening mammography every year for women, beginning at age 40."

      Mammography is not an accurate screening device in young women. Young breast tissue is dense. Dense tissue appears white on the x-ray film....and so do all signs of breast cancer (both masses/lumps or calcifications). You cannot see white pathology through white, dense tissue. It is like trying to see a white volleyball in a the snow in a photograph.

      Also, dense breast tissue requires a higher dose of radiation in order to get an image. We don't want to expose the breast to the radiation when the chances of finding an early breast cancer are very low. It is risk vs. benefit, and the risk does not outweigh the benefit in the case of younger women.

      Even if you are younger, and feel a breast lump, many times the first imaging test you will have is an ultrasound. Most breast lumps, in younger women, are due to cysts (fluid filled, non-cancerous sacs). Cysts can be seen very clearly and accurately with ultrasound. If the ultrasound is inconclusive, a mammogram might be ordered.

      Monthly self breast exam and yearly physician breast exams are the best way to find potential breast problems in younger women.

    Purple spots a sign of breast cancer?
    I have two strange purple spots on the underside of one of my breasts and a 3rd under my other arm. The one under m arm is about the size of a dime and showed up after th other two. Could this be a sign of breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Do NOT listen to the first responder!! Many breast cancers cannot be felt, even if they are known to be there through imaging. That's why yearly mammograms are so important. There is one type of cancer that's called Inflammatory Breast Cancer that is often misdiagnosed as either bug bites or an infection because the breast becomes swollen, red, itchy, and tends to feel warm.

      That being said, IBC is not generally referred to as "purple", but more pink and irritated, so odds are against it being so. On top of that, breast cancer tends to stay on one side and EVENTUALLY spread to either the other breast or other places, rather than starting on opposite sides right off the bat. But, it does need to be checked out by your doctor. If you have to wait longer than a few days to get in, write down the dates and details of exactly what's happened. Take measurements regularly to track if there's any growth. This will be very important if there is a problem. If it turns out to be nothing, just toss the paper with a smile on your face. Good luck!


    how can i take a breast cancer test with out having health insurance?
    i have a little ball in my left breast .i dont know what it is but i want to know?

    • ANSWER:
      If you do not have health insurance, you have a number of options:

      1. Call your local chapter of the American Cancer Society (number in your phone book) or the national toll-free number, 1-800-ACS-2345. The ACS will be able to tell you about any low-cost or free mammography programs offering screening to women unable to pay for it themselves.
      2. Call your State Department of Health (number in your phone book). Every state now has a Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program funded by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This program offers screening to qualifying women unable to pay for it themselves.
      3. Call the YWCA's ENCOREplus Program for access to low-cost or free mammograms. To find which YWCA facilities offer this service and if you are eligible, call 1-800-95EPLUS or your local YWCA.
      4. Call the National Cancer Institute at 1-800-4-CANCER for the names of FDA-certified, accredited mammography facilities in your area. If you explain your financial situation, some mammography facilities are willing to work out a lower fee or payment schedule that will make the test more affordable. Ask the facility if they are willing to discuss these options with you.

      Many of these programs can hook you up with a doctor, so you can have a physical examination. Depending on your age, a mammogram might not be the best imaging study for you. An ultrasound is very good at evaluating breast lumps which can be felt by the patient and/or doctor. Best wishes....

    Images of genitals in presentation are forbidden but not breasts, why?
    So one girl was going to do a presentation on stds and the teacher told her not to use images of genitalia as this is a speech class. Well, one girl came to class and did her presentation on breast cancer and she had images of breasts.

    Why did she let her slide? Genetalia is forbidden but not breasts, aren't they one in the same as they are both reproductive organs?

    • ANSWER:
      From a cultural ptv most cultures in the world (including European) do not sexualize breasts anywhere near as much as Americans do.

      Trust me, nobody likes looking at genitalia on a projector screen. It would have off set people and they would have not listened to the speech.

    Which of these mammograms would you prefer and why is the FDA stalling on what appears to be the safest one?
    Mammography/Thermography - Mammograms can detect many breast cancers, but there is concern over false results and the hazards of radiation exposure that result from the tests. There are two new forms of mammography that are making news: Computed Tomography Laser Mammography and Full Field Digital Mammography.

    The CTLM - Computed Tomography Laser Mammography system uses state-of-the-art laser technology, a special array of detectors and proprietary computed algorithms. The CTLM® system does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation or require breast compression. This approach is awaiting FDA approval.

    Digital mammography still uses low energy x-rays that pass through the breast exactly like conventional mammograms but are recorded by means of an electronic digital detector instead of the film. This electronic image can be displayed on a video monitor like a TV or printed onto film. The radiologist can manipulate the digital mammogram electronically to magnify an area, etc.

    • ANSWER:

    Are there any specific color for juvenile diseases?
    im thinking like pink is breast cancer but i was wondering if there are specific colors for juvenile leukemia or juvenile diabetes or juveile autism, etc. ? those are just examples of diseases. Are the colors the same for adult and juvenile or different?

    • ANSWER:
      here are a few links for you.

    Any idea how long a breast cancer biopsy takes?
    I'm due to have a biopsy done on both breasts in a week and forgot to ask how long it takes for the results. Anyone else done this?

    • ANSWER:
      My last job it took about 2 days.
      Good luck with your procedure. Make sure you stay off any blood thinners.

    What does it mean to dream of a family member having cancer?
    in my dream i was engaged with the information of my mom becoming very sick with breast cancer

    • ANSWER:
      Many people think that dreams mean something. But that isn't necessarily true. Dreams actually mean nothing. Although it probably is not what you want to hear, but it is the truth! Although it may be disappointing but, modern medicine has proved that dreams are nothing more than a succession of images recalling past memory. I'm sorry if this is not what you want to believe.
      I will start off telling you that ALL dreams mean nothing! Dreams just express you or your emotions, they express what you feel and what you do in real life. thats why they feel so real. Dreams cannot create people, places and things thats another reason why they feel so real! dreams recall past memory, -for example if you see a person you don't recognize in dreams, you probably saw him before on TV or walking in the street (you probably didn't pay attention to them). Dreams express your emotions and thoughts in a negative way

      Nothing. The dream was about nothing. dreams mean nothing they just express your emotions and feelings in a symbolic way.

      Dreams are simple synapses in your brain firing off all sorts of things. Your brain gathers all this random information, sights, sounds and so forth. And as you are sleeping, these sights and essentially memories are jumbled up into one big mess, just random nonsense, and your brain works and works for an hour or so trying to create a nice little story with all of these sights and sounds because it wants to make sense of it. It wants to make sense out of nonsense! So, then you end up with this dream. This happens several times in one night but when you wake up, you forget all of them, and when you do remember one of them, when you do remember at least one dream, we try to make sense of it. We tell ourselves, what is this? What could it mean. When in reality, it means nothing, it is just complete nonsense. So stop trying to make sense of it, it is nothing!

      Dreams are a succession of images, ideas, emotions and sensations occurring involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep.

      For more Information read the "about me" section when you click on my account. Hopefully this resolves your problems.

      took courses in dream interpretation and psychology

    how long does it take for a breast tumor to form?
    Also, can asbestos cause breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      We think it may take many years for a breast cancer cell to divide enough to grow into a tumor mass large enough to be detected - maybe 5, 10, or more years. It is not uncommon for a woman to have a primary breast cancer treated effectively and then develop a metastatic lesion 20 years later. That means there must have been breast cancer cells present in the metastatic site (bone, lung, brain, etc.) for all of those years, but it had taken 20 years for a tumor mass to grow large enough to cause symptoms and be detected with imaging studies.

      You have to remember that one billion cancer cells in only the size of a marble - about 1 cm in diameter. A single aberrant cancer cell must go through 30 cell divisions to get to one billion cells. Once the cancer has divided 40 times and reached one trillion cells, it is usually extensive enough to end the life of the person. So three quarters of the cellular divisions occur "under the radar" without symptoms and without a size large enough to show up on any imaging study.

    If there is a lump on a person's breast do they still go for a mammogram?
    Given that mammography is used mainly inthe screening of breast cancer, if a definite lump has been found on a person's breast do they still go for a mammogram or would the doctor skip that and progress to ultrasound or MRI to obtain more information on the character of the tumour.

    • ANSWER:
      Depending on your age, a doctor would start with a mammogram (if you are around 30 or older) or a breast ultrasound (if you are under 30). Breast MRI is not widely used, due to time involved for the scan, the expensive costs and the limited availability of the specialized camera (called a coil) needed to do a breast MRI. Since most breast lumps are benign and harmless and can be diagnosed with less expensive imaging, it would be a great waste of money and resources to go straight to a MRI. Mammograms and ultrasounds run a couple of hundred dollars each, while a MRI runs around 00 or higher. Most insurance companies will not pay for a breast MRI, except in special situations (the patient has implants which makes it harder to image the breast, a personal or strong family history of breast cancer or a breast mass that is deep, against the chest wall, which makes it hard to visualize with traditional methods).

      Young women have dense breasts. Dense tissue appears white on the x-ray film....and so do all signs of breast cancer (both masses/lumps or calcifications). You cannot see white pathology through white, dense tissue. It is like trying to see a white volleyball in a the snow in a photograph. So, mammography is not as accurate on young women. Most lumps in young women are cysts, and ultrasound is very good at visualizing cysts.

      Also, remember that the far majority of breast lumps found at any age are NOT cancer. Mammograms are a good place to start. Remember that an ultrasound cannot visualize microcalcifications (which can be an early sign of cancer), but a mammogram can. The mammogram can be followed by an ultrasound, if more information is needed. If the ultrasound is inconclusive, a biopsy will usually follow. There are highly directed and accurate needle core biopsies available which are not all that much more expensive than a breast MRI, believe it or not!

      If you have discovered a lump, visit your doctor, and they are well educated on what steps to take to make sure you get an accurate diagnosis. Best wishes.....

    Should a have an ultrasound or mammogram?
    I felt a small something on my left breast. I'm not sure if it's a lump. I have been observing it for 3 months now. I was hoping that it would go away after my period.. but it's still there. I am 24 with no family history of breast cancer. Should i go to a doctor first or have an ultrasound/mammogram? Is there a low cost doctor and ultrasound that I can go to in NY? I am not an immigrant or citizen. I have no insurance.

    • ANSWER:
      Before having a mammogram or breast ultrasound, you will need a doctor's referral. A imaging facility cannot do a mammogram anyone who has breast abnormalities, without a doctor's order. So that has to be your first step. After the age of 35, a woman can have a screening mammogram (meaning she does not have any signs or symptoms) every year, without a referral.

      There are programs to help low income & uninsured women who have GYN issues and problems find affordable doctor's care. Most of the programs, which pertain to the breast, are designed for older women, but they may be able to refer you to programs designed for your age group. Here are some resources for finding low cost mammograms. I am sure they can point you in the right direction.

      ****Call your local chapter of the American Cancer Society (number in your phone book) or the national toll-free number, 1-800-ACS-2345. The ACS will be able to tell you about any low-cost or free mammography programs offering screening to women unable to pay for it themselves.
      ****Call your State Department of Health (number in your phone book). Every state now has a Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program funded by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This program offers screening to qualifying women unable to pay for it themselves.
      ****Call the YWCA's ENCOREplus Program for access to low-cost or free mammograms. To find which YWCA facilities offer this service and if you are eligible, call 1-800-95EPLUS or your local YWCA.
      ****Call the National Cancer Institute at 1-800-4-CANCER for the names of FDA-certified, accredited mammography facilities in your area. If you explain your financial situation, some mammography facilities are willing to work out a lower fee or payment schedule that will make the test more affordable. Ask the facility if they are willing to discuss these options with you.

      Even if a younger woman had a lump, most doctors will order an ultrasound before a mammogram, because most breast lumps, in young women, are cysts. Cysts are not cancer, do not become cancer and can come and go with the hormonal fluctuations of your menstrual cycle. An ultrasound is a very good way to diagnose a breast cyst. If the mass felt is not a cyst, then we would do a mammogram. So, even if you have symptoms, a mammogram is really not the best imaging study for you.

      A young woman has dense breast tissue. Dense tissue appears white on the x-ray film....and so do all signs of breast cancer (both masses/lumps or calcifications). You cannot see white pathology through white, dense normal tissue. It is like trying to see a white volleyball in the snow in a photograph. So, for young women, mammography is not very accurate.

      Also, dense breast tissue requires a higher dose of radiation to get an adequately penetrated image. Whenever we do any imaging study involving radiation, we must be reasonably sure that the benefits outweigh the risks of the procedure. In your case, the dose of radiation that would be delivered to your breast has a certain risk. If the chance of getting any benefit from this radiation dose is so low, then the overall benefit does not outweigh the risk.

    What is the difference in a mammogram and an ultrasound in diagnosing breast lumps?
    My doctor ordered an ultrasound for 2 lumps in my breast. Does anyone know the benefits of one over the other? Any advice is appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      I wish I knew your age. If you are younger than about 30, an ultrasound of your breast is the best study for you. I am going to assume you are younger, because if you weren't, you should be having a mammogram to start.

      A young woman's breasts are dense, and dense tissue looks white on a mammographic film. ALL signs of breast cancer (either a mass or certain types of microcalcifications) are white. You cannot see the white pathology through the normal white tissue. Mammograms are not very accurate in young women due to dense breast tissue.

      Another reason to avoid mammograms if you are young is this. The denser the breast, the more the radiation needed to get an image. Most young women with breast lumps do NOT have breast cancer. So, that radiation dose to the breast has little benefits. Meaning, you get a good dose of radiation without much useful information.

      An ultrasound of the breast, especially if you have lumps you can feel, is a good diagnostic tool. You can show the ultrasound tech exactly where you feel these lumps, and she can put the transducer (camera) directly over that area. You probably have cysts or maybe even fibroadenomas, which are totally benign (not cancer). These are seen well with ultrasound. Best wishes....

    Should I be worried about endometrial cancer if my endometrial thickness was at 10.6 mm?
    i'm 37, and am BRCA positive. also, i'm a 4 year breast cancer survivor, treated with lumpectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation. i only used tamoxifen for about 4 weeks after chemo finished 3 1/2 years ago. what are my risk factors for endometrial cancer? Transvaginal Ultrasound was done 1 week after the end of my cycle and i have them done annually. when compared with previous images, this time the lining is too thick.

    • ANSWER:
      The only way to tell if you have endometrial cancer is by having a endometrial biopsy. Not very fun, but worth the peace of mind.

      Been there, done that. Negative. Also had very thick lining.

      What does your doctor say about your lining?

    i just downloaded a video/picture editor to make a slideshow for breast cancer awareness month and?
    its called videopad video editor. when i write on a peice of paper and hold it up its backwards, or reversed. how do i make it so my camera captures the image how i wrote it without writing everything backwards on the paper?

    • ANSWER:
      it can be done from flip option.

    Making abreast cancer cake (torso of a woman) what kind of support could i use 2 support the breasts?
    my uncle owns a gun club and every year they hold a breast cancer shoot. this year they asked me to make the cake. ive decided to make the torso of a woman and for boob tassels im going to make pink clay pigeons. my question is what kind of support could i use to support the breasts?

    • ANSWER:
      If it is flat I don't think you need supports at all unless they are bodacious knockers!! You just need deep round pans as they will just lay on the backing sort of like these photos:

      The fondant will smooth it and make it look real.

images of breast cancer