Bone Biopsy

A doctor- a pathologist or a hematologist/oncologist- having special training in recognizing cells from blood and lymphoid tissue diseases will examine under the microscope all bone marrow aspirates and biopsy specimens, all lymph node biopsy specimens, all CSF specimens, and any blood smears with significant abnormalities.After cells from a sample are placed on glass microscope slides, there can follow the cytochemistry. The cells are stained with dyes that are attracted to certain chemicals that are present only in some types of leukemia cells.The technique called flow cytometry can be used to examine the cells from bone marrow, lymph nodes, and blood samples. It can determine the exact type of leukemia very accurately. The cells that are being examined using this technique are treated with selected antibodies, and passed in front of a laser beam. Each antibody sticks to certain types of leukemia cells, and if those cells are present, the laser will cause them to give off light, and the computer will measure and analyze it. There can be used this test in order to estimate the amount of DNA in the leukemia cells as well.In immunocytochemistry, cells from the bone marrow aspiration or biopsy sample are treated with special laboratory antibodies, and then the sample is treated in that way that certain types of cells change color. Under a microscope, there can be seen the change of color.There are some types of leukemia that have an abnormal number of chromosomes. Cytogenetics detects if part of one chromosome may be attached to part of a different chromosome. This change is called a translocation and can be seen usually under a microscope.We must mention the fact that there are certain substances called antigen receptors which occur on the surface of lymphocytes, and have an important role in initiating a response from the immune system. Normally, there are many different antigen receptors in normal lymphoid cells, but in lymphocytic leukemias, all the cells have the same antigen receptor.Most translocations that are visible under a microscope in cytogenetic tests can be detected by tests of leukemia cell DNA as well. Some translocations involving parts of chromosomes too small to be seen with usual cytogenetic testing under a microscope can be seen with the help of DNA tests like polymerase chain reaction or fluorescent in situ hybridization.In order to diagnose and evaluate a child with leukemia there are frequently used a chest x-ray and bone x-ray. Tests using sound waves are useful to determine if the leukemia involves the kidney, spleen, or liver.There can be also used a computer tomography, in which a X-ray beam moves around the body, taking pictures from different angles. Magnetic resonance imaging is a procedure that uses large magnets and radio waves and produces computer-generated pictures of internal organs; Gallium scan and bone scan is a procedure in which a radioactive chemical is injected and accumulates in areas of cancer or infection in the body. This area can be viewed with a special camera.

bone biopsy

Prostate Cancer Vaccine

Since in US, more than 200,000 new cases of prostate cancer are discovered every year a more effective treatment was desperately needed.At the prostate cancer symposium in Orlando, co-sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Eric J. Small, MD, UCSF professor of medicine and urology presented the findings of the study he led helped by other 19 US institutions, regarding an effective treatment for prostate cancer.Scientists said that the rate of survival increased by four and a half months in those who were administered the cancer vaccine compared with those who got the placebo.For the patients this is great news because it gives them hope that an even better vaccine could be discovered. This vaccine is not like the others that are designed to prevent a disease. This is made to treat advanced prostate cancer by increasing the immune system s response to cancer cells.The vaccine was well tolerated by patients and the side effects were mild: fever and chills. This is good news because chemotherapy and radiation gives a lot of unbearable side effects.Small included in the study 127 patients suffering of asymptomatic metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). 82 of them received the vaccine and 45 got placebo. They were administered three shots over six weeks. The treatment continued three years. For those treated with the vaccine, the median rate of survival was 25.9 months. For those who got a placebo treatment, the overall of survival was 21.4 months.The conclusions were that 115 patients of this group had progressive disease at the time of data analysis and all patients were followed for survival for 3 years.Scientists do not know if the vaccine will work on patients suffering of early-stage prostate cancer and of explosive terminal cancer. The vaccine, called Provenge, does not cure cancer but at least it slows it down.Other cancer vaccines are being developed for treating: leukemia, breast cancer, colon cancer, and kidney and pancreas cancer as well.The human body is not able to recognize the cancer cells and that is why it can not fight them without help. The vaccine is designed to alert the body is cancerous cells are present. Provenge has been made out of a genetically engineered protein and a dendritic cell provided from the patient s bloodstream. After getting the vaccine shots, the immune system will react and will activate immune T-cells to find and destroy the cancer cells.This discovery is important not only for those who suffer of the disease but also for the field. This vaccine confirms what everybody denied, that vaccines can really work.

prostate cancer vaccine

Thyroid Cancer Support Group

Thyroid support has gained a lot of popularity in the recent days and this is because of the increase number of people with an imbalanced level of thyroid hormones. Thyroid support is the alternative to the regular allopathic thyroid treatment that is entirely composed of natural products and diets with special all naturally available foods in it. Thyroid support can be for both hypo as well as hyperactive state of thyroid, or you can go with it to avoid any future risk of thyroid imbalance.

Most of us do not know what exactly happens in the body when you are referred to being in hypothyroid state or hyperthyroid condition. The most common symptoms that are generally presented with include sudden weight gain or weight loss, getting tired easily, decreased energy levels, unusual hair loss etc. If you are experiencing any similar symptoms then chances of it relating to thyroid are fairly good. A thyroid test is the simplest and most commonly used test to diagnose the state of thyroid.

Thyroid gland, which is present in the front side of the neck is made of lobules and resembles a butterfly in its shape. It is one of the very important glands in the body responsible for proper functioning of metabolisms in the body. When the function of this gland is lower than expected than its called hypothyroidism and when its exceeding the limit its in a state of hyperthyroidism.

Thyroid conditions are so common and can be so minimal that sometimes a person would not even know that he is diseased in his entire lifetime. There are dozens of options for treatment of the disease with medicine and it surely works but the duration of treatment is very long and can be tedious. For the hyperthyroid state, there is surgical method as well as radioactive treatment that scares away many people.

thyroid cancer support group

Skin Cancer Moles

Moles are common. Almost everyone has a few, and some people develop hundreds. Individuals with light skin tend to have more moles, with the standard ranging from 10 to 40.

Probably the most significant thing to know about moles is that melanoma, the deadliest type of skin cancer, can build up in or near a mole.

Some moles increase the risk of increasing skin cancer as the following section describes.

We are all born with all the moles we will ever have. Many of them are not visible at birth but will cast a shadow as one ages.

A skin mole is called by a collection of cells named melanocytes. These are present throughout the skin and are a part of skin pigmentation.

When melanocytes occur in cluster configuration they result in the eventual look of a skin mole.

A skin mole may be flat or it may be raised. Some will sprout a few hairs, which is normal. ugly moles can be detached.

Usually, since the skin mole is so ordinary, people do not have one removed unless the mole is quite large.

A skin mole can be removed using several dissimilar methods, and depending on the size of the mole, may result in some scarring.

Causes of Moles

So what causes moles? Skin moles are cause when your skin's pigment cells develop into clusters instead of growing in a naturally dispersed pattern across your skin.

And since these common growths are especially sensitive to changes in hormone levels, you may experience an increase in the figure of moles or see changes in existing ones as a teenager or while you're pregnant.

You could also have inherited a propensity toward mole growth, particularly if your family has a history of out of character or irregular moles.

Symptoms of Moles

1. Color. They're usually flesh-colored, auburn or medium to dark brown.

2. Shape. They can vary in shape from oval to round.

3. Size. They can be as small as a pinhead or large enough to cover an entire limb. Generally, moles are less than 1/4 inch (about 6 millimeters) long or smaller than the diameter of a pencil eraser.

Treatment of Moles

The majority of moles and other blemishes are benign (not-cancer). They will never be a threat to the health of the person who has them.

Spots or blemishes that warrant medical concern are those that do something out of the ordinary-those that act differently from other existing moles.

This includes any spot that changes in size, shape or color, or one that bleeds, itches, becomes painful, or first appear when a person is past twenty.

Occasionally, a mole may turn out to be a cancerous growth. Therefore, it's best to get medical counsel if you notice a mole that does not go behind the normal pattern.

A dermatologist may be able to assure you that the mole is safe. To accomplish this, he or she may study a example of it under a microscope for an precise diagnosis.

Home Remedies of Moles

To prevent the moles, daily use of Vaseline exhaustive care is beneficial.

Grind some coriander to make a fine. Apply this on the moles. This will help in moles removal in a few days. This is very simple and effectual home remedy for moles.

Mix ground flaxseeds with flaxseed oil and a small quantity of raw honey. Apply it on the moles and alter it every day.

Crush a clove of garlic and place it on the area and cover it with bandage. This is one of the simplest moles remedy.

The dandelion root is one of the best home remedies for moles removal. Take a root of the dandelion and then rub this root on the exaggerated areas, till the milky juice of the root smears the wart entirely. Repeat this thrice in a day.

skin cancer moles

Ovarian Ancer

Roughly ninety percent of women develop ovarian cysts through their child bearing years. Even if the cysts usually disappear by themselves, that doesn't mean you can disregard the condition because occasionally, they could become serious.

Below are several common ovarian cyst symptoms:

Pain during sex

Pain in the pelvic area before or during your menstrual period

Hormonal imbalance which causes irregular and missed menstrual periods

Vaginal spotting

Swelling or feeling heavy around the stomach

Pain or feeling pressure in the bladder or rectum

Signs of pregnancy - tenderness of breasts and nausea which could be misleading


Instant severe pain caused by ruptured cysts

It is necessary to see a physician or any professional healthcare once you start to experience any of the mentioned signs. If you develop a fever and feel a sharp pain in the lower part of your abdomen that means the cyst could have already ruptured so seek medical assistance at once.

Ovarian cysts are by nature asymptomatic so women might never know that they already have or had them. There actually are no symptoms and if ever there are, they don't show in the early stages. Some women might never even in any way experience any symptoms or complications connected with ovarian cysts.

Unfortunately, sometimes women do experience the pain and sufferings associated with ovarian cysts. They go through majority if not all the signs mentioned earlier. Painkillers, birth control pills and surgery are among the conventional methods of treating ovarian cyst symptoms. These are all temporary because they don't deal with the root cause and the cysts usually come back.

A lot of women nowadays choose the natural method of treating ovarian cysts as it is a permanent cure. For the reason that several side effects and possible complications can be caused by medication, this option is not preferred if a woman experiences mild to moderate ovarian cyst symptoms. The natural method of treating ovarian cyst symptoms includes changes in the diet, cleansing practice, detoxification, the correct exercise program and dietary supplements.

The natural holistic method of treating ovarian cysts permanently is the most effective. It covers all possible areas such as listening to exactly what your system is attempting to tell you.

After identifying the root cause, you will be forever free of ovarian cysts.

ovarian ancer

Cancer Apparel

Breast cancer is labeled to be just about the most deadly diseases for women. The thing that makes breast cancer actually turn into more hazardous is the lack of information and also proper remedies of people who live in the 3rd nations around the world and poor regions. By way of example, people that reside in Africa usually don't have access to education; so that they do not have sufficient knowledge and awareness of breast cancer. It is true that, the amount of women who dies of this illness will continue increasing if we do not do anything to boost people's understanding of breast cancer. Many breast cancer awareness campaigns have been completely created with the objective of spreading understanding of this harmful disease and how horribly it can affect our lives. Growing breast cancer awareness isn't always easy, particularly when people who reside in poor locations don't have access to regular media such as Internet or TV. For this reason, for these women, it's required to make use of an alternate way to convey the awareness messages to them. Probably the most common method people frequently apply is through the breast cancer awareness apparel.

The main reason why apparel should be used is: clothes are items that are typically recognized when being wore. So, the messages which are printed on the clothes are conveyed with no issues. This is why there are increasingly more companies and organizations who spend time and effort on creating breast cancer gear for the fight against breast cancer.

In fact, many women who are battling with breast cancer daily are ready to become a member of numerous campaigns and wear the apparels to raise people's awareness around the world. In reality, many women still have no ideas about breast cancer and the way to prevent this disease until one bad day, they are diagnosed to be one patient of breast cancer. By wearing apparels, people will look at you and find out what message you are attempting to express to them. For organizations, these apparels are simple to be produced. Pink color was picked to be an international color for these apparels. So when you see a woman in pink shirt with a specific symbol, you can easily know why she wears that shirt and what she wants others to find out.

Not merely for raising awareness only, people who are behind these campaigns try to create some funds for women who have to battle to survive this fatal disease. Consequently, when you buy a pink shirt from them, you contribute some cash to the funds for saving women with breast cancer.

cancer apparel

Ovarion Cancer

For those who have any recurring ovarian cyst, you probably are well aware of the truth that ovarian cysts are quite painful, and difficult to eliminate. Conventional medicine can provide some instant relief for the symptoms of ovarian cysts by utilizing hormonal treatment options, pain killers, or possibly surgery. The dilemma is there presently exists absolutely no long term ovarian cyst remedies for recurring ovarian cyst if you are using conventional medical treatments.

It is unrealistic for you to undergo a surgical procedure every six months, or perhaps be on hormone pills for the remainder of her life. Generally there will come a point in which the signs and symptoms of the drugs and the surgical treatments themselves is going to take a substantial toll on your body.

Far more women have currently turned to natural ovarian cyst remedies to doing away with their recurring ovarian cyst. It is cheap, this doesnt need to be troublesome or even take up a great deal of your time. The actual very best strategy for ovarian cysts remedies is actually prevention, and over time these types of natural remedies really do work to ensure they are show up less often or not at all.

Help make a good effort staying away from just about any kind of food products that will dehydrate you for example sodas, caffeine, and alcohol. Lack of fluids can be damaging mainly because it helps to keep your body from processing out toxins. Empty your own bladder as frequently as you possibly can, the particular less pressure you've got on your own lower abdominal area is better.

You can also take an anti-steroidal pain reliever such as Tylenol. This along with a cup of warm herbal tea will soothe your nerves and help ease the pain. There are many treatments that you can do at home like using a heating pad to relieve your immediate symptoms as well as prevent future recurring ovarian cysts from occurring.

Living a healthier lifestyle is the first step in getting rid of cysts forever. Don't waste any more time or go through any unnecessary pain click the following link for your remedy and for your instant pain relief.

ovarion cancer

Cancer In The Bones

Most people associate the harms of smoking with lung damage and cancer, but the tobacco habit's negative effects on your health go much deeper-did you know that smoking can also damage your bones? The bones are rigid organs that protect the rest of your body, provide your body with structure, and allow movement. Damaging your bones means damaging our ability to move and take part in activities. Let's take a look at some of the ways smoking harms your bones in order to keep you alert to the harsh reality of how dangerous the tobacco habit really is.

Smoking wreaks havoc on your hormonal system which in turn wreaks havoc on your bones. Your bones need hormone balance in order to stay strong and the hormone imbalances caused by smoking cause the liver to produce hormone destroying enzymes (for example to balance estrogen levels) and this leads to bone loss-these enzymes damage the bones.

Another way that smoking damages the bones is by way of the generation of free radicals. Smoking infuses the body with an overload of harmful free radicals that kill osteoblasts which are the cells that make bones. People commonly make the mistake of misunderstanding that bones are constantly growing and continuous nourishment. Disrupting the bone growth and nourishment process by damaging and killing osteoblasts can lead to increased risk of fractures and osteoporosis.

Second hand smoke can be just as damaging to the bones of non smokers. It is especially vital to zone in on the damages of second hand smoke because many second hand smokers are children and they are in crucial bone development stages. Being around tobacco smoke can seriously hamper their ability to grow the strong bones they need for a healthy adulthood.

One good reason to put out that last cigarette is your bone health. Unlike many of the other damages the body incurs from smoking, healing the damage done to bones is a very slow process and some of the damage may even be irreversible. Bone density is not something that you can improve in a week with calcium supplements.

Smoking is abusive to your body. There is nothing about the habit that is good and nothing about it that is healthy. No matter how good you think cigarettes make you feel, they are really destroying you from the inside out. From your bones to your lungs, cigarettes are contributing to a shorter, less enjoyable life. If you are a regular smoker then it is time for you to seriously consider getting rid of your tobacco habit for good. To read more about this and other health related topics go to

cancer in the bones

Cancerous Ovary

What Is Ovarian Cancer? Ovarian cancer is a cancerous growth in the ovary. A cancerous growth means that there is mass of malignant substance growing in the affected area... The fallopian tube is considered to be the common area where ovarian cancer occurs. Next to breast cancer, ovarian cancer is the second leading cause of death among women due to gynecologic infections. The Silent KillerIn most medical journals and publications, ovarian cancer is known as the silent killer because the symptoms its causes are often inconclusive and may vary from case to case, which causes delay in prognosis wherein the disease is discovered only in the later stages. Despite the variation in symptoms, the following are the most common complaints of those who suffer from ovarian cancer: 1). Abdominal pain 2). Back pain 3). Urinary urgency 4). Constipation 5). Tiredness 6). Pelvic pain 7) Vaginal bleeding 8). Weight loss Despite the long list of the symptoms manifested by those who suffer from ovarian cancer, it does not totally contribute to an early and accurate detection of the disease because the abovementioned symptoms are also commonly encountered by women suffering from other less serious maladies... Women who suffer from ovarian cancer report that the symptoms they feel are persistent wherein the frequency and the number of symptoms represent a key factor in diagnosing the disease. Causes of Ovarian Cancer The cause of the disease is relatively unknown, and is still a question that is the center of researches and studies. What is known though is that the disease commonly develops in middle-aged women. The risk of developing the disease is greater when one has a relative in the first and second degrees with the disease. Women who have never been pregnant are also at risk in developing the disease. The use of contraceptives may diminish the risk of developing the disease along with tubal ligation. Ovarian cancer is classified as secondary cancer, resulting from metastasis from a primary cancer in the body. The primary cancer for women is breast cancer.. Stages of Ovarian Cancer Ovarian cancer has four stages. The first stage describes the infection as starting with either of the two ovaries, later spreading to both ovaries. Stage two refers to pain in the pelvic area, indicating that the disease is spreading slowly.. Stage three involves microscopic peritoneal implants outside of the pelvis. The last stage involves metastases to the liver. Treatment of Ovarian Cancer The most preferred treatment for the disease is surgery.. Surgery is first done to obtain a muscle sample to determine the extent of the infection and the type of infection. Once the process is done, doctors can now decide what method of treatment to use. In treating the disease, chemotherapy is frequently used. Chemotherapy is usually administered after surgery to treat any possible remnant of the disease. Another common treatment is radiation therapy, although this is not recommended in the advanced stages of the disease because it involves exposing the body to high amounts of radiation that are harmful to other parts of the body.

cancerous ovary

Lobular Breast Cancer

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