Brain Cancer Stages

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What is the typical course that metastatic brain cancer takes?
    An old high school friend recently informed me that he's been dealing with metastatic brain cancer for the past two years. He's had two surgeries to remove tumors. Thus far, he says he's lost sensation in one hand, and can get dizzy a lot, but that's it. I know little about cancer, so was surprised to hear him say he's had no pain. He's still as sharp and witty as ever. Is this typical? I'd always thought metastatic cancer was a terrible and quick death sentence.

    • ANSWER:
      Well, if the cancer has matastasized TO the brain, it's stage 4 and considered...usually, terminal. There are exceptions to every rule, however. Look at Lance Armstrong. Brain cancer doesn't travel to other organs, unless it maybe starts in brain stem and THAT would be terminal.
      I'm pretty much the same as I ever was, aside from minor balance issues and I'm more scatterbrained than before.

      I actually had a numbing pain from my neck to my fingertips on the side my tumor was on. I just put it down to an old shoulder injury/pinched nerve pain.

  2. QUESTION:
    What is to come next with a brain cancer diagnosis?
    Back in June we found out that my father has brain cancer. He originally had melanoma which then spread to the rest of his body, but the brain is the doctors' main focus. In July he had a Grand Mal seizure and was hospitalized for some time, then went to a nursing home for about 6 weeks while he underwent radiation therapy. He is now at home with me and I am caring for him 24/7. He's also currently taking Temodar (chemo) but the doctors are not very optimistic. I am just wondering what is to come, what do I need to be thinking about? What will happen mentally and physically to him? How do I know when things are really getting bad? I have a little bit, but not much of an idea of what will happen, as he already is having short term memory loss, vision loss, etc. I am interested in hearing from people who have been through this before with their own families. Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry for your situation, very sorry. He's probably dying. Mets to the brain are usually the terminal stage for people with cancer. Melanoma in particular is very dangerous because it metasticizes to the brain easily compared to other cancers. The chemo may help, but brain mets are usally a very bad sign, and show that the cancer is very advanced.

      Depending on where it is in the brain, he may lose much of his cognitive function, he may forget things, he may not be able to do simple tasks. It's very hard to tell you what to expect, but you could be looking at him getting what looks like dementia. And then again, you may not--brain tumors can be very strange. He most likely will deteriorate though, and as the tumors spread and grow, whatever you're seeing in his behavior or inability to function will get worse.

      I recommend you look into hospice or a visiting nurse program eventually, as caring for someone 24/7 is so much for one person to handle--you need to have a life of your own, consider hospice.

  3. QUESTION:
    Can a stuttering disorder be a symptom of brain cancer?
    I forgot where, but I read that a stuttering disorder could be caused by brain cancer. If this is true, is it a specific type of brain cancer? If anyone has any idea,could you explain this in an easy understandable way?

    • ANSWER:
      My husband has Stage 4 Brain Cancer "Glioblastoma Multiforme" and currently lost his ability to speak due to 17 brain surgeries, scare tissue built up on the brain, and his cancer (the tumor's location). It is actually not considered "stuttering", they either have slurred speech or have trouble "Word finding" or forming the words.

      One would mistake "slurred speech" or "trouble with word finding" as stuttering, it is the first word that best describes the problem if we are unfamiliar with the difference.

      It doesn't hurt to get things checked out, an MRI scan will rule out a brain tumor or maybe there is some type of pressure pushing on that perticular part of the brain that controls one's speech (there are actually 2 sections of the brain which controls speech, a section in the front of your brain, and a section in the back of your brain).

      Sometimes excessive amounts of fluid or swelling of the brain can cause pressure on those parts which could make one "stutter".

      Be safe, get whoever is having the issue checked out. Good Luck

  4. QUESTION:
    How common is brain cancer, is it heredity or genetic?
    how common is brain cancer
    to any particular group?
    is it genetic
    what are some ways to help prevent it?

    please i just really need ot know this info...in a few sentences please dont write a whole page

    • ANSWER:
      Brain cancer for adults is not as common as lung, prostate, breast, colon, and stomach cancer.
      Any particular group: it can affect young children aged 0-10 very common in girls and older people 65+
      It sometimes is genetic
      To prevent it, live a healthy lifestyle, eat plenty of anti-oxidants and recognize the symptoms of brain cancer quickly before it is too late (in stages 3-5)
      Symptoms: Amnesia, fever for week+, intense headaches, nightmares, swollen lymph nodes, loss of function in hands, feet, thought.
      hope this helps

  5. QUESTION:
    Can a mexican citizen get an emergency Visa to visit a terminally ill daughter?
    Daughter has brain cancer and is in the terminal stages of her illness.

    • ANSWER:
      There is no emergency visa for that purpose. The father can apply for a B-2 visitor's visa at the nearest US consulate. He will need to show strong ties to Mexico, such as a good job, property ownership, and immediate family members like a wife remaining behind. He should provide copies of medical records and proof of the relationship. If the father never lived unlawfully in the US, then his chances are pretty good.

  6. QUESTION:
    How long can someone survive brain cancer?
    I'm writing a story, and the character has brain cancer. She will pass away, but I don't know how long that would take. A friend of mine's mother recently had brain cancer, and was given four months to live, but she passed away within a couple weeks of that statement.
    Will doctors always give you how long you're expected to live, or only when it seems real bad? About when will they hospitalize you? (I'm sorry if this is offensive to anyone)

    • ANSWER:
      I've seen survivals from weeks to months to years with brain tumors.
      Every person is different.
      Even a cancer specialist like me cannot possibly know
      how much time a person has.
      People push us to make guesses especially family members..
      We do have averages for tumor types and stages.
      But we are always wrong for an individual.
      Doctors do not GIVE people so long to live. I hate hearing it put this way.
      If WE decided - all of our patients would immortal.
      What really gets me is a family pushing to know a survival time in a 90 year old.
      By statistics, he or she should have died over ten years earlier.

  7. QUESTION:
    What type of brain cancer kills you the fastest?
    I am writing a paper about problems that people go through with diseases and i am making my girl have brain cancer. I was wondering if you can help me by telling me which one you die the fastest withh. thanks

    • ANSWER:
      stage 4 Glioblastoma multiforme brain tumor

  8. QUESTION:
    Please help, my fiancé is 23 and has lost both his parents to cancer in the last year?
    My fiancé is 23 and has lost both of his parents to cancer in the last year... His dad passed just this morning and I have never dealt with the death of a loved one until now. For the last 5 months I have been taking care of my finances father that was dying of lung and brain cancer... I watched him go from driving himself to treatments to forgetfulness to falling to bedridden to coma and then death. I got really attached to him and he treated me like a daughter (which I lack in my life given my biological fathers selfish choices).
    Last year my finances mother passed away from breast cancer that metastasized so much to the point of having 7 different types of cancer before she passed. Not 3 weeks after her death his father was diagnosed with stage 4B lung cancer, my fiancé didn't even have time to mourn his mother's death before his dad started chemo. As of now he has lost 7 family members in 5 years and only has one aunt that lives a thousand miles away and a sister that is coping by running, so it's just us. I feel very sad and very concerned, as well as ill-equipped for the situation..I can't seem to control my emotions, I miss him already I can't imagine what my fiancé REALLY feels on the inside.. Any thoughts, tips, or encouraging comments would be deeply appreciated

    • ANSWER:

  9. QUESTION:
    How long before you see the negative side effects of starving?
    Last winter I was at my lowest weight. I got there through unhealthy measures: starving, over-exercising and purging (vomiting). I still wasn't happy with my weight and was hoping to lose another 5 pounds but my mother brought me to a therapist followed by many visits to an eating disorder clinic where there was a team of specialists. However, last month on March 24, my dad collapsed. He was rushed to the hospital and was diagnosed with stage 4 brain cancer. This was obviously devastating to me and my family. I'm so ashamed of my first thoughts after hearing the news "Maybe this will be the epiphany I've been waiting for. Maybe now I'll finally be thin enough". I was mourning my father too of course but my eating disorder controlled my life at the time. My twisted mind hoped that tragedy would lead me to lose more weight but the opposite happened. People no longer say I'm too skinny or compliment me on my weight loss or look concerned. They don't think anything's wrong because now I'm "average". But the thoughts haven't gone away. I still hear them in my head. I feel like a fat failure and want control and thinness back into my life. How long can I starve (only a small portion of green beans a day) without losing my hair, becoming ice-cold to the touch, have brittle nails, etc.

    • ANSWER:

  10. QUESTION:
    How does someone survive cancer 8 times?
    It seems impossible, but I was reading about a woman who is an 8x cancer survivor. I will list these diagnosis times below.

    1. November 14, 1995 diagnosed with stage 2-3 breast cancer

    2. June 30, 1997 diagnosed with brain cancer

    3. May 28, 2001 diagnosed with liver cancer

    4. August 27, 2002 diagnosed with cancer again

    5. December 9, 2009 diagnosed with bone cancer in the spine and pelvic areas, lung cancer, and liver cancer a third time.

    6. August 7, 2012 diagnosed with liver cancer a fourth time

    Please give me feedback if this is possible or not?

    • ANSWER:
      Dionne Warner is not using the correct terminology in the account of her cancer. I would say that each and every time that she has been diagnosed with a "new" cancer that it has been metastatic breast cancer each time. She has responded well to the treatment plans for her . . . and that's great!

      However, she does not now have liver cancer for the fourth time. She has a fourth recurrence of breast cancer in her liver. When the cancer to the bones was staged as a "stage IV," that in and of itself indicates breast cancer metastases. http://www.cancersurvivorinthecity.com/story.php

      I wish her the best in her future treatments. Her cancer is quite aggressive, but her treatments seem to work each time for her. However, she does herself and the general public a grave disservice by not calling the cancer for what it is . . . metastatic disease.

      I'm hoping my bone metastases go the same route as hers . . . into some sort of remission!

  11. QUESTION:
    How did she end up with Gliobastoma Multiforme?
    My best friend who is only 15 was diagnosed with stage four brain cancer (GBM). We were doing some research and they said it was most likely found in men, and men that were over 50. She's a 15 year old girl. I was wondering why she may have gotten this when its more likely for an older man? It is something herditary?

    PS please pray for her shes on chemo and has been given 6 months to live. but i want her to see her 16th birthday in december.

    • ANSWER:
      Tell her any decent doctor would not give her a death sentence like 6 months to live. A good doctor never gives up. Also suggest she look into Avastin...it's newly approved for gbms. My gbm is also grade 4 and I'm 23. There's no research for people her age or my age...or very few studies. It is most common in men and senior citizens (over the age of 70), but it can effect everyone. It is not a hereditery cancer or tumor. I went through surgery, then 6 1/2 weeks of radiation (which both did great reduction to my tumor) then a year of temodar (oral chemo) which didn't work for me, but does great for most people, now I am on Avastin and an IV chemo which has been working well so far :) The sad part is that gbms are infamous for coming back over and over...most likely this is something she will fight forever. I was told after it's gone I've got about 5 to 6 years until I can expect to see a new one. My first isn't even gone and I've already had a 2nd and gotten rid of the 2nd. I was diagnosed in Dec 08. Best of luck to your friend. She will be in my thoughts. <3

  12. QUESTION:
    is there anyway to be fully cured from a brain tumor or brain cancer?
    if its found very early on?

    melanoma brain cancer? can it be cured ?

    • ANSWER:
      What you are describing is not a brain tumor or brain cancer it is metastatic melanoma that has traveled from the primary location to the brain. There is a difference. Brain tumors are composed of cells found within the brain while metastatic cancer from the breast, skin or lungs would all be composed of cells from the breast, skin or lungs that have traveled to the brain. The answer is that it is possible for an individual with metastatic cancer that has traveled to the brain to be treated successfully. Lance Armstrong had metastatic testicular cancer that traveled to the brain . . he had the mets surgically removed. There are various treatments that can be used for mets that have traveled to the brain . . including some types of chemo which crosses the blood/brain barrier, cyberknife, different types of radiation, and complete surgical removal. There are too many variables to guarantee any of these treatments .. you can only take a chance.

      There is no known 'cure' for cancer . . but there is treatments that can lead to an individualized 'cure' based on patient age, overall health, location of disease, type of disease, stage of disease, grade of tumor, and patients response to first line treatment.

  13. QUESTION:
    How to help some one with cancer in Afghanistan?
    Hello my moms aunt daughter has brain cancer she has been passing out she visited Pakistan they said that she will die if she went under operation. I was wondering if she might have any help here in America or some organization that can fly her here and do an operation. Please she has had a hard life and her mother also.
    Thank you for your time.

    • ANSWER:
      My best wishes to your family during this difficult time. Below is the link for the American Cancer Society. You may wish to contact them via e-mail and explain the situation. Although I don't know the name, there are charitable organizations specifically created to help people battling cancer (who lack the resources).

      She may also consider enrolling in a clinical trial for her specific type of cancer. The clinic actually pays the patients for volunteering to participate. Below is the "clinical trials" page from the National Cancer Society. They will need to know the type, stage and grade of her cancer.

      http://bethesdatrials.cancer.gov/brain_cns/index.aspx

      You and your family are in my prayers.

  14. QUESTION:
    What does chemotherapy do for prostate cancer?
    My father is 82 years old with prostate cancer stage 4 (presently in the lymph nodes only, not yet bones).

    He thinks his doctors is going to sign him up for chemotherapy later this year because his PSA seems to be rising and his hormone therapy its not working.

    Which is worst, hormone or chemotherapy? And after chemotherapy, do you think he can go back to hormone?

    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      1. The progress that has been made in the treatment of prostate cancer has resulted from development of better treatments in patients with more advanced stages of cancer and participation in clinical studies. While some progress has been made in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, the majority of patients still succumb to cancer and better treatment strategies are clearly needed. Future progress in the treatment of prostate cancer will result from continued participation in appropriate clinical studies. Currently, there are several areas of active exploration aimed at improving the treatment of prostate cancer.
      Chemotherapy: Because hormone therapy is not curative and only controls metastatic prostate cancer for a certain amount of time, efforts are underway to discover more effective systemic therapy. Recently, several chemotherapeutic drugs have demonstrated the ability to kill prostate cancer cells in patients with recurrent cancer. Developing and exploring single or multi-agent chemotherapy agents as a treatment approach for patients with metastatic prostate cancer is an area of active investigation. In particular, the chemotherapy drugs Novantrone®, Taxotere®, paclitaxel and estramustine are being evaluated in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer.
      Select patients with recurrent prostate cancer have been shown to live longer when treated with Taxotere compared to standard chemotherapy.
      In a direct comparison of treatment with Taxotere®/prednisone to the historical standard treatment–mitoxantrone/prednisone–patients treated with Taxotere survived more than a year and a half (19 months), on average, compared to 16.5 months for patients treated with mitoxantrone.[4] There also appears to be a similar improvement in survival when Taxotere is combined with the chemotherapy drug estramustine.[5]
      Combination Therapy: The growth of prostate cancers can be slowed but not eliminated by using drugs that block the effect of hormones on prostate cancer cells. Combining hormonal therapy with chemotherapy treatment appears promising.
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  15. QUESTION:
    in what are of the brain in the tumor encroaching ?
    Your grandfather is in the end stages of brain cancer. On the day before he dies, his respiration rate jumps from 15 breaths per minute to 30 breaths per minute, and his heart rate climbs to 160 beats per minute. In what area of the brain do you think that the tumor is encroaching? Why?

    • ANSWER:
      I believe it would be different depending on the situation and each their own ability at the time, would cause us all to differ.

  16. QUESTION:
    what is the advantage of seeking a divorce when one is terminally ill?
    A married couple, one terminal, the one terminal is leaving everthing to his adult sons from a first marriage and leaving nothing to the current spouse. Why divorce at this stage? He is terminal with brain cancer and acting totally out of character.

    • ANSWER:
      could be for many reasons..

      Could be he feels he cant control what is happening to him, and this give him a sense of being in control....
      Could be he doesnt want to be a burden on his family and in his own selfish mind right now he's doing what he thinks is best for all concerned..
      Could be that he just isnt thinking and just wants to live out the rest of his life the way he wants.

      Now i really dont understand how he could leave everything to his adult sons.. until your actually divorced, because up till then the spouse is next of kin and could fight the will if she had to..
      Depending on how long the married couple were married, even in a divorce she'd get half of anything that was accumalated in the marriage, house, finances, retirement, etc.. so it would depend on the length of their marriage for that.. but ive never been dying so i cant say what his rational is right now.. or where ur marriage was before he found out he was so sick.. but he's going to do what he has to do.. and if he wants a divorce then really theres no way of stopping him..

  17. QUESTION:
    What is the life expectancy of an Alzheimer's patient with Brain Cancer?
    My grandma was diagnosed with Alzheimer's about 4 years ago. She had previously had breat, cervical, and rectal cancer. She was diagnosed with lung cancer in December. The doctor said it would spread slowly. It has now spread into her brain and bloodstream. We found out today about the brain cancer, so apparently it is not a slow spreading cancer? Approximately how long would she have to live? Anything information that would help would be great! Thank You
    The breast, cervical, and rectal cancer are cured. Now is it the lung cancer, brain cancer, and alzheimers disease

    • ANSWER:
      If her breast cancer was the first diagnosis, then she probably now has stage 4 breast cancer. Alzheimer's is terminal and so is stage 4 breast cancer. Nobody knows how long, but I imagine the time is short.

      Well the cancer wasn't cured or it wouldn't have spread to her brain.

  18. QUESTION:
    How treatable is brain cancer?
    I have brain cancer, I'm 13, and I'm very, very scared.
    I do have brain cancer, actually. Not every sad story on here is fake, you insensitive b!tch.

    • ANSWER:
      It depends on how far it's spread and what stage it's in

      ^_^"

      In most cases, if it's early or it's just in a small region, it is removable.

      You have a right to be scared, but chill out okay? Doctors are professionals (well, mostly), and can be trusted with about anything medical.
      Doesn't mean doctors are stupid, but they should be able to know allot about cancer. If they can't handle it, then they will most likely send you to a higher-up doctor.

  19. QUESTION:
    How exactly does cancer kill you? For instance breast or colon cancer?
    I understand brain cancer or lung because if those parts of you die you do as well. But im confused because i'v asked everyone, but no one really can make me understand. And why do some people survive and others dont? Is it a matter of a will to live? Do some people just give up Hope? I really need to know these answers! Can anyone help????

    • ANSWER:
      You have a number of good answers already.
      This is my medical specialty, so I have seen death from breast cancers and colon cancers many hundreds of times.

      Colon cancers usually like to go to the liver where they eventually cause liver failure. They do not become "liver cancer" - it is colon cancer growing in the liver. Retroperitoneal lymph nodes and the lungs may also be sites of spread for colon cancers. For unknown reasons, colon cancers do not like to go to the brain or the bones. In some cases it is a matter of tumor volume causing weakening and malnutrition of the person affected. In those cases a late infection can cause death.

      Breast cancers go almost anywhere - brain, bones, bone marrow, liver, lungs, adrenal glands, ovaries - but usually not the heart. (Only melanomas seem to metastasize to the heart.) So breast cancers can end life by causing "end organ failure" due to involvement of vital places such as the lungs, liver, and brain - or there can just be an overwhelming tumor burden that the body cannot support - again the general weakening effect and late stage infection such as pneumonia.

      Remember that breast cancer spread to the bone is not "bone cancer" - it is still malignant breast tissue that is growing in the bones which might respond to - but not be cured by - hormonal therapy.

      Hope this isn't too grisly for you. These are bad diseases when widespread. The best situation is to catch breast or colon cancers early with screening. Both are usually cured when caught early. Once breast cancers or colon cancers are clearly evident as visible metastatic disease, neither is considered curable in today's medicine. The people who are cured - and there are millions in the U.S. - are the ones diagnosed earlier in the stage of their diseases.

  20. QUESTION:
    How do I start a charity for my aunt?
    Recently my aunt was admitted to the hospital due to breathing problems and tests have proven she has cancer in both lungs. Today more tests have shown brain cancer. My family is devastated and I want to help raise money to help any payments that need to be made. Do any of you know how or what I must do? I'm at a complete lost besides just getting a jar, putting her story on it in random places?? I don't want my aunt to lose this battle :( She is in her early 50s.

    • ANSWER:
      The cancer she has is in the end stages. Her care may focus more on palliative care and remaining comfortable. She probably doesn't have more than a couple of months left at this point so spend your time with her wisely and have fun and keep by her side . Be there for her . Focusing on raising money may take up all of the time you have left to spend with her. Go to the American Cancer society site and see if they have a list of charities in your area that can help with her expenses also ask the social worker at the hospital she is in for the same..
      Best wishes.

  21. QUESTION:
    stage 4 lung cancer, brain cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis?
    my husband has been diagnosed with stage 4 lung cancer, brain cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis. what are the chances of treatment for these 3 altogether? i've heard anti-cancer drugs dont work well with tuberculosis treatment. is it all doomed?

    • ANSWER:

  22. QUESTION:
    Is brain tumour at third stage is curable?
    Hi,my friend is suffering from severe headache from last few months.SOme times this headache cause blurred vision.he is becoming weak day by day.Doctors are saying he has brain cancer at 3rd stage.Can please suggest me best doctor & best hospital for brain cancer in Chennai or in India?can this cancer is curable at this stage?

    • ANSWER:
      Primary brain cancer isn't staged; it's graded. Did he have a brain scan? A biopsy? Surgery? Is he having radiation and chemotherapy? We never say brain cancer is curable because it can and many times does, grow back eventually. My brain cancer was grade 3 and it was removed and I went through radiation and chemo together, then 6 more months of chemo. My surgery was in september of 2008 and I get scans every few months and so far, no sign of any regrowth.

  23. QUESTION:
    Final stages of brain cancer are taking place? How long will they last before death occurs?
    Once the final stages such as sleeping loads, dry mouth, no response when talking to them or touching them. Not able to move at all, no food or drink consumption and not talking for the last 24 hours. How long would you say? :-( just need to prephare my self...

    • ANSWER:
      I am so sorry that you have to witness this but at that stage unfortunately there is very little time left ,usually the person is sleeping a lot because of the medication and therefore will slip into unconsciousness and I would think that is where your patient is now.It is would be impossible to say but the next days will tell a lot as other complications can set in .I think you are dealing with this in a sensible manner as the time is near and you are right to be prepared but I'm not sure you can ever be prepared enough .Take care .

  24. QUESTION:
    I have had chemo and radiation two years ago and still am so tired. Any remedies?
    I have had uterine cancer stage 3a plus an acoustic neuroma on my brain which I underwent gamma knife surgery for, plus thyroid surgery and Its been two years and I am soo tired.Any help?

    • ANSWER:
      I've never had cancer or cancer treatment, but I do have trouble with fatigue because I can't get any vitamin B 12 from my food.

      If I were you, I'd schedule a full physical..be sure to tell them that you want full blood work done, screening for anemia or vitamin deficiencies or anything else the doctor might think would be an issue for YOU.

      It probably wouldn't hurt you to start taking vitamins without talking to medical personnel first, but in your case, I wouldn't want to rule out any other medical issues you haven't thought of.

  25. QUESTION:
    is being sleepy all the time a sign that the cancer is taking hold?
    my father has brain cancer and has been constantly sleepy, more so than staying awake, what's the reason possibly?

    • ANSWER:
      You don't say what stage cancer your father has, but being constantly sleepy is one sign that the cancer is taking hold. From the Hospice website article "Preparing for Approaching Death: The person may spend an increasing amount of time sleeping, and appear to be uncommunicative or unresponsive and at times be difficult to arouse. This normal change is due in part to changes in the metabolism of the body." http://www.hospicenet.org/html/preparing_for.html This is what happened to both my father and father-in-law who both died of cancer.

      The increased sleepiness could also be from his medications. If your father is no longer receiving treatments for his cancer, I strongly urge you to contact Hospice to help guide you through this difficult process. They are wonderful. You're in my thoughts and prayers.

  26. QUESTION:
    What stage of brain cancer would my grandma be in?
    She was diagnosed with lung cancer last winter/early spring and had surgery to remove it this mid-summer. It was assumed that the cancer was completely eliminated, but now she's having troubles again that point to the cancer spreading to her brain. She's had headaches for a couple weeks now and overall has been pretty sick (bad cough and bad headaches).
    She's getting a call from the doctor sometime this week, but if you had to take a guess at which stage she's at now, what would you say?

    • ANSWER:
      Brain cancer is not staged and there is no reason to believe she has brain cancer.
      If you are thinking she has brain mets, which she has not been diagnosed with anything yet, but if she did it would still be lung cancer and it would be stage 4.
      There is no guessing about it.
      It does not depend on a lot of things and clearly there is a stage for this.
      It is what I do for a living.

  27. QUESTION:
    What are the survival rates of brain cancer?
    What are the general survival rates for a brain tumor based on the stage it is diagnosed- grade 1, 2, 3, and 4?

    • ANSWER:
      Here is a site that talks about the survival rates of brain cancer. Overall it's about 33% of people diagnosed that are still alive after 5 years.
      http://cancer.emedtv.com/brain-cancer/brain-cancer-survival.html

      This site discusses in great detail the different stages of brain cancer and what each type means. It also talks about the different prognoses for each type. There are links on the site about other information pertaining to brain cancer.
      http://www.medicinenet.com/adult_brain_tumors/page2.htm

      I hope this information helps you! If you or someone you know is affected by this disease, best wishes for you!

  28. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know of a great cancer treatment center?
    My uncle was recently diagnosed with colon cancer stage four, liver cancer, pancreas cancer and brain cancer. He also has diabetes. Doctors say he has probably had this for about eight years, but was never diagnosed. He is given only two months to live. Anyone know of any centers, treatments or survival stories that apply?
    thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Gerson Therapy Clinic. Dr Max Gerson's most famous patient was nobel prize winner, Dr. Albert Schweitzer - cured of advanced diabetes at the age of 75.

      To apply for admission to a Gerson Clinic>>>
      http://www.gerson.org/Programs/findgersonclinic.htm

      Gerson Therapy>>>
      http://gerson.org/GersonTherapy/gersontherapy.htm

      Charlotte Gerson on Alternative Cancer Treatments>>>
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NkxndocXWhc&feature=related

      "When you truly heal, the body heals everything." - Charlotte Gerson.

      Subject: Brain Cancer

      Case 35 in A Cancer Therapy. Presented by Dr. Gerson in 1946 to U.S. Senate Committee. Ulcer biopsied, U.S. Army, August, 1944: basal cell carcinoma. Surgery removed right mastoid cancer. Recurred April, 1945. Discharged, no treatment. Carried to Dr. Gerson, crying in severe pain, left eye swollen closed, right eye barely open. October, 1945, X-rays showed fist sized tumor at base of skull growing into brain. Almost gone in four weeks. Complete recovery. Remained free of cancer for 49 years. Died of heart attack 1994.

      Subject: Colon Cancer

      ROSAMOND RAY, 81, COLON CANCER, MIGRAINES.
      1953, blood in stool, pain, weakness. Head of Rectal Surgery, Stanford University Medical School did biopsy: malignant polyp 13 cm up from rectum. Doctor stated that without colostomy, she had less than 10% chance of survival. Went to Dr. Gerson's New York clinic in October, 1953. Recovered. Married in 1955. No more migraines after therapy began. Alive and well over 40 years later.

      Subject: Liver Cancer

      DELLA ROBINSON, LIVER CANCER.
      1974, jaundiced. Portland, Oregon hospital liver scan and biopsy proved cancer. Given three to five weeks to live in January, 1975. Weight down to 67 lb. Sent home in severe pain, heavy drugs, semi-coma, hopeless prognosis. Family started Gerson Therapy at home. Able to leave bed in three months, no more pain or drugs. Regained normal 115 lb. weight. Remained well, cancer-free for twenty years. Passed away 1995, age 90, of causes other than cancer.

      Subject: Pancreatic Cancer

      PATRICIA AINEY, PANCREAS CANCER SPREAD TO LIVER (Michael Landon's cancer), SPLEEN AND GALL BLADDER.
      In pain, vomiting blood. Pancreas cancer biopsied January, 1986. CAT scan showed tumor in liver, spleen, gall bladder. Given hopeless prognosis. Began Gerson Therapy in Mexican hospital March, 1986. Patient says "complete turnaround in 10 days." Recovery shown by CAT scan 6 months later amazed her Canadian doctor. Enjoys work, grandchildren. Feels "really good" nine years later.

      Subject: Diabetes

      MELVA BLACKBURN, 79, DIABETES, ARTHRITIS, ALZHEIMERS, KIDNEY, ADRENAL DISEASE, CUSHING'S SYNDROME, ETC.
      Medical problems from 1944. Treated until 1979. Heart, coronary artery disease. Diabetes drugs after 1965. Poor control of legs, feel. Cushing's syndrome (adrenal disease, obesity, fatigue, weakness, osteoporosis, edema, infections). Pneumonia twice/year. Enlarged liver. Arthritis in all joints. Anxiety, ataxia, confusion, aphasia. Alzheimer's (premature old age) diagnosed. Years on drugs, many surgeries. Began Gerson Therapy in Mexican hospital October, 1979. Rapidly improved. All diseases gone, no drugs. Astounded her doctors. Remains active, well 18 years later.

  29. QUESTION:
    How effective is oral chemotherapy?
    My grandmother just started oral chemotherapy and radiation today due to her having stage 4 brain cancer that is aggressive. What will be her side effects?

    • ANSWER:
      Well first of all, primary brain cancer isn't staged, so I assume you mean grade four which would be glioblastoma multiforme. That's the most deadly form of brain cancer. If she had surgery and IF they removed the entire tumor, her chances of living a few years is much greater than if they could only debulk it. I've not known any with gbm that temodar worked on for long. They usually end up in clinical trials. PCV and/or avastin seems to give a little more time...
      I was on temodar while getting rads for 6 weeks. Lost hair where rads hit, thyroid swelled because it was hit with rads, so my risk of thyroid cancer just increased. I have a spot on my head where surgery was that hair won't regrow. Temodar after rads was a much higher dose and made me extreeeemly fatigued. Many patients' blood panels drop and chemo has to be postponed, but mine was always normal. Zofran was a lifesaver for me. I just took it before my chemo and never threw up once. I ran out and forgot to refill my zofran once, so I took another anti nausea and threw up for 5 hours straight. This September 1 will be my 2 yr anniversary since my surgery.

      Yeah, Reid is a dipstik.

      Depending also, if tumor was removed, she will only have steroids for a short time and if she is still having seizures after surgery, she will be put on keppra also. I had no more seizures and was only on roids for a week after surgery.

  30. QUESTION:
    If the psa and gleason score is low, can the cancer still spread to the bones?
    For prostate cancer patients stage 4? Or not likely?
    (its currently in the lymph nodes)
    Is it true that bone metastases does not result in pain ?

    • ANSWER:
      I found complete relief from very painful sinus by giving up water and other liquids for 48 hours. That was 3 years back and no sinus since then. Earlier I used to get sinus 2-3 times in a year with extreme body pain and fever of 105. There was an additional factor. For last 2-3 years I was drinking 1 glass of water 1 hour before each meal and no other water or liquids during the day.

      Since then I tried the same approach on lot of other ailments - like renal failure, slip disk, dry skin, dandruff, constipation, mouth ulcers, dry eye syndrome etc. The result were shocking.

      I had been wearing spectacles since the age of 15 i.e. for last 34 years. I have been trying eye exercises since begining with practically no benefits. Last 3 months I started eye exercises in a different way. It gave benefits in a number of areas. Better concentration and memory, better digestion, clearing of dark eye circles, no head aches etc.

      I wonder that cough effects every nerve in the nearby area. Food pipe is also close by. So it effects that as well. All mental problems also arise because of excess water. I am quite hopeful that drinking water and liquids on alternate days and giving up water and liquids on other days as a way of recovery from cancer and all other diseases. Eye exercises is additional way of speeding up recovery from cancer and other diseases.

      Dark eye circles are caused due to nasal congestion. Dark eye circles are also due to gluten intolerance and celiac diseases. That is a clear indication that cough effects eye muscles, brain, entire gastric system and could be responsible for cancer.

      General Guidelines -

      Give up water and all other liquids for 24 hours. To avoid dehydration keep indoors. In case of cancer repeat this after every 24 hours.
      On other days drink 1 glass of water 1 hour before each meal. The total water intake on these days should not be more than 3 glasses.

      There are 3 main or rather only common symptoms of cancer -
      1) The cells are not able to produce 38 units of energy that is done in case of normal cells.
      2) The stomach acid is very low.
      3) Tumours or general swelling.

      The reason and logic for the above in short is as under -
      The cells of the human body are at the lowest level of producing energy. To produce energy cells burn glucose in presence of oxygen.
      When there is more water in the cell then the energy producing capacity of the cell is significantly reduced. Reduced energy by the cells cause build up of water outside the cells as well. That causes pain in the entire body due to constant excess weight on the cells.
      Continued less burning of glucose also causes accumulation of other minerals in the cell. That causes the cells to swell up.
      This does not happen overnight.
      There are various checks in the body to avoid build up of water in the cells. Like whenever there is change in atmosphere temperature the body adjusts the amount of water that cells carry. When this adjustments fails due to some reason the body tries various modes to get rid of the excess water - sinus, cold and cough, adrelin levels, water reduction thru increased urine etc.
      There are certain other complications that happen due to build up of excess water in the cells. One is build up of bacteria and infections in the body.
      These bacteria or infections cause the increase in the body temperature. The increased temperature takes care of the situation.

      What is the reason for cancer. Same. There are tumours in all kind of cancers. The tumours are caused due to cells not dieing. The reason for cells not dieing is cells not producing enough energy and that prolongs their life cycle.
      What is the cure for cancer. The cure for cancer and all other common ailments is same. I found that sinus, cold, cough, IBS, skin blood clots, slip disk, dry skin, mouth ulcers, renal failure etc can be cured effectively by giving up water and all other liquids for 24 hours to 48 hours. This has been tested on more than 50 persons so far. Thru Yahoo Answers this same been tested on more than 100 people but I do not have conclusive proof of this. The cerainity with which relief is produced in 24 hours gives enough hope for cancer cure in 15 days.

      After treatment of cancer patients with chemo etc they are asked to avoid getting in touch people with cold and cough. The chances of such people catching infection is more.

      By giving up water what happens in the body. The blood acids go up by 10% in 24 hours due to reduction in water content by 5% of body weight. That produces enough heat in the body. That causes the infections not to grow, water to come down, there will be more energy production. Increase in body temperature is enough indiction of antibodies becoming more effective. Google on fever and treatment.

  31. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know of a great cancer treatment center?
    My uncle was recently diagnosed with colon cancer stage four, liver cancer, pancreas cancer and brain cancer. He also has diabetes. Doctors say he has probably had this for about eight years, but was never diagnosed. He is given only two months to live. Anyone know of any centers, treatments or survival stories that apply?
    thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Your uncle needs a center of excellence for colon cancer. You can use this map in the box below to find a center close to you. Then you need to find out if the ones near you have good experts in colorectal cancer.

      Try to get on a clinical trial if possible as, apart from very strange alternative therapies, it is probably his only chance at surviving this.

  32. QUESTION:
    what the survival rate of a patient of brain cancer after having a major brain surgery ?
    Sis-in-law has under gone a major brain surgery and 90%of the cancer has been removed, does her survival rate increase now?

    • ANSWER:
      Really sad to read.
      The exact response will only be given by treating Oncosurgeon,who knows the actual stage and will know Bx. report which will be helpful in deciding further needed therapy and it,s outcome and prognosis.

  33. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know what the future holds for my Grandma?
    My Grandma was recently diagnosed with lung cancer that has metasticed to her brain. Never smoked a day in her life! Her airways are fine, and no bad symptoms of the lung cancer. But she has had a seizure in her arm from the brain cancer.
    My question is, has anyone seen someone pass away from this? And if so, what happens as they progress through this until death? I just want to be prepared. She won't be doing any treatment due to it being a stage 4 and she is 83 years old.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry; that doesn't sound good. We had a family friend who had lung cancer that metasticised to her brain. She was a smoker and was much younger than your grandmother. She was fortunate in that she passed away in her sleep and didn't suffer much at all. Best wishes to you and your grandmother.

  34. QUESTION:
    Why does a brain cancer patient develop slurred speech?
    I have a friend who's breast cancer has just spread to her brain. She is on many treatments, and her speech has become a little slurred, slowed, and sometimes difficult. What is causing this? Will it fix itself or stay like that forever?

    • ANSWER:
      There are several possibilities regarding the speech problem:

      * The tumor(s) are damaging her brain's speech center

      * The chemotherapy drugs and/or other medication are impacting her speech center

      * She had a stroke.

      Youir friend has stage 4 breast cancer with brain metastasis, so her prognosis is very poor. While chemo may slow the progress of her disease, you need to have realistic expectations about her future. The tone of your remark, "will it fix itself or stay like that forever?", suggests that you do not understand her prognosis.

  35. QUESTION:
    How close are we to finding a complete cure for cancer?
    I know several people who have had cancer, some have survived but others were not so lucky. To me, the word “cancer” has got to be the worst 6 letter word known to man-kind. It just fucking sucks.

    Chemo, radiation, surgery etc are not cures, only treatments. And yes sometimes they work, but a lot of the time they don’t.

    How close are we to finding a complete cure? Coz it really sucks that innocent people have to suffer like they do.

    • ANSWER:
      Here's a little comic that actually rather succinctly sums it up: http://www.phdcomics.com/comics/archive.php?comicid=1162

      We won't have a cure for cancer, because cancer isn't a single disease. It's hundreds. Thousands, maybe hundreds of thousands depending on how you count them. Sure, we call them all cancer, but each one is unique, though they share common features. Each one requires its own solution.

      We're inching forward. Painfully slowly up a hundred mountains. And there is progress. Testicular cancer now has something like a 99% cure rate. Inflammatory Breast cancer went from a 1% survival rate to 60% in the late 1990s. That's not perfect but find me someone who will take a one a hundred shot over a 6 in ten.

      There's a lab I ran a quarter ago for upper division undergraduates. I give them a culture of cancer cells, in a dish, MCF7, a breast cancer cell line. There are two variations of it, differing only very very slightly - they're actually taken from the same patient. Same patient. Same cancer. And then we give them some of the drugs that kill cancer cells and let them see what happens. The drugs work very well on one MCF7. They don't work at all on the other MCF7. And keep in mind, these cancer cells are from one woman.

      There's some very promising things. We've got technology and techniques available to make a new kind of vaccine that can teach the body's immune system to go out and kill cancer cells much better than it would otherwise. They're testing some of them now. In five, ten years maybe we could have a shot that could stop you from getting melanoma - that's better than a cure. You never get it.

      But that's one type of cancer. A big nasty one. That same treatment won't work on breast cancer, or bone cancer, or brain cancer.

      There's a team in the lab down the hall from me that works on chemically engineering a better way to kill cancer cells - tools that can take a cancer drug that we now have to administer through an IV, and hit every cell in the body with, and make it so that it only goes to the cancer cells.

      There was another team, not one I know but one that published recently, that took the T-cells out of two patients with Stage 4 Melanoma - a certain death sentence on a very short time scale. They reprogrammed these T-cells genetically, put them back into the patients and the T-cells exterminated the cancer. Fully. That was a total cure, at least in the short term, but it cost millions of dollars of research and weeks of labor by dozens of people to make those cells. Maybe it will be usable some day - and we'll be able to take a blood sample from someone with cancer, tinker with their cells, and make something that will go in and exterminate it.

      A professor in a university near mine took the DNA for one of the genes that's broken in cancer cells- a gene that kills them when they become cancerous. He wrapped the DNA in millions and millions of little plastic balls, so small that they squished the DNA down, and could slip it into a cell. He then used it to put that gene back in cancer cells in mice, in a lung cancer. It was incredibly effective - not a complete cure, not capable of killing the cancer totally, but it savaged it horribly. Much better than any other treatment. Maybe useful one day if they can work the kinks out.

      The thing is, don't go looking for some magic pill that you can take, that will kill every cancer ever. That's not going to happen. It's just not. Remember. Even what we call 'breast cancer' isn't just one type of identical cancer - I can think of at least five major types that are all nearly completely different just off the top of my head.

      It's a long slow road that needs lots of brilliant people working on incredibly difficult problems that are only small, tiny, tiny pieces out of the whole. It's frustrating. It's slow. But cancer - whatever type and whatever form does suck. You're right. But what we can do now was science fiction in 1990. If you'd gone to the best cancer scientist in the world in 1986 and listed those things I put up above, it wouldn't even be science fiction - they'd look at you like you flat out insane. It's important not to stop working just because the problem is so hard - but it's just as important to look back and get a sense of perspective at the amazing distance we've come in so short a time.

  36. QUESTION:
    How fast would the population grow if all cancer was cured?
    I want to calculate the population if a cure for cancer was found. I know that right now the growth rate is about 1.2% every year. What would this figure be if all cancer related deaths were taken out of the equation.

    • ANSWER:
      Umm.. cancer is ALREADY CURABLE. You can cure first stage cancer lesions with surgery where you remove the cancer cells with an added layer of healthy tissue to make sure no cancer cell is left. A lot of tumors respond insanely well to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and the person can be cured.

      Leukemia can be cured. Hodgkin Lymphoma can be cured. Heck, some kinds of brain cancer can be cured. Now, if you were telling me you had pancreatic cancer of any cellular type or an end-stage astrocytoma, I'd say you're out of luck and enjoy your last few months.

      And since most people that get cancer are no longer of childbearing age, the population wouldn't grow by the millions. It's probable the 70 year old guy that got cured of his prostate cancer will die tomorrow from a heart attack.

      Now, if you asked this very same question from diseases like diarrhea which is the #1 killer of children (people that obviously haven't reproduced yet) and which kills children by the hundreds of millions each year, then we can seriously state the world population would be severely altered.

  37. QUESTION:
    Is Glioblastoma relavent to my friend's weird habit?
    My friend is 15 with stage four brain cancer (glioblastoma multiforme). I know it can cause the person to do some strange things with their personality change that they may go through, but my friend has recently started doing something thats a little out of the ordinary: sleep texting. I was wondering if the changes in her brain have anything to do with this, because as much as its funny to read the interesting gibberish she send in the middle of the night, it also kind of worries me as her friend :P Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Is this an actual serious question?? Do you know much about gbm and how serious a disease it is? Has this friend gotten surgery and treatments for this? Brain cancer doesn't change your brain waves. The standard treatments for brain cancer don't cause any odd brain activity either. Maybe your friend can't sleep and is just bored.

  38. QUESTION:
    What is the percentage of people surviving stage 3b lung cancer?
    Cancer has reached an area in the brain? My dad has cancer, just wondering how long will he live. He was diagnosed about a month ago?
    He's already received radiation.

    • ANSWER:
      If the lung cancer has metastasized to the brain, it is stage IV.
      Survival at five years is 1% or one in a hundred.
      http://www.lung-cancer.com/lung-cancer-survival-rate.html
      I personally have never seen a patient like this survive more than two years,
      and I saw hundreds of stage IV lung cancer patients.
      The following reference lists average length of survival at eight months.
      That would fit with my experience. That is an average.
      I lost some at less that six months and a few made it a year.
      Of course his medical oncologist or radiation oncologist who know your dad
      and his medical history would be the best ones to make guesses regarding
      survival. Go with your dad and ask them when your dad has a doctor's appointment.
      We have not seen your dad nor his x-ray studies.
      You have not even given us his age.
      So all we can do is show you statistics.
      He's had radiation ? Where - to the chest or the head or both ?
      - - - -
      Sorry to give you such bad news. I assume people on this site want honest answers.
      Was your dad a cigarette smoker ? Every single one of the many hundreds of people
      with lung cancers I saw in North Carolina had been a smoker. I estimated that the
      average person I saw with lung cancer had smoked half a million cigarettes before
      their diagnosis was made. Smoking causes 90% of the lung cancers in men.

  39. QUESTION:
    What is the survival rate of someone surviving cancer?
    My grandpa was diagnosed with brain, lung, and bone cancer about 1 1/2 months ago. He's taking chemotherapy and it's making him really sick. I wish he could live forever but I know that day is going to come. Does chemotherapy even help at all, because I heard that some people die of radiation poisoning, rather than of the cancer? I don't really know how long he's had cancer or how severe it is because I don't like to talk about it. The doctor said he had like 60% or something, but im not sure.

    • ANSWER:
      Cancer is a terrible thing. 3 months after my nana was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer she had a major operation. The doctor said even if it does work shell have 5 years at the most if she's lucky. This wis the worst cancer to get though. 3 months later they said it was successfully removed. 4 months after that they said that it was removed it was back and she could do chemo and have the chance to lengthen her life about 1 year or 2. 5 months after she was diagnosed with stage 4 cancer she passed. Se did chemo and everything but got really sick an the chemo made her body weak. She had to undergo a stomach operation again, but her body got so weak after all this has happend in 2 years and just couldn't handle it. She stayed on a breathing machine uncontious for the last week of her life in icu. Cancer didn't cause her death completely but it did cause some of it because the chemo messed her up and everything made her so weak. She had a 1% chance of making it out of the first surgery and everything being okay. The secret to those extra months was praying. Signing up for pray groups, supporting her, and just remembering every chance we get with her is special, not wasting a minute.

      Best of luck. He could make it out of it but he could be in sever pain and be uncomfortable. So it's really up to him because max years left could be 5. Complications do happen when you go through chemo and it really makes you weak. Best of luck.

      Thoughts and prayers go out to you an your family.

  40. QUESTION:
    What are the final stages of brain and spinal cancer?
    I have a brother dieing of cancer . Please help me to understand the final stages of what he is going thru and what I can expect. Help me to understand his pain and how to deal with it.

    • ANSWER:
      My heart goes out to you and your family at this time. I know what it's like to walk a family member through the stages of dying and then to be there when it takes place to see them out of this life.

      Your brother will be provided with pain medication, most likely morphine sulfate. He will kept as pain-free as possible and the morphine will be administered on a routine basis and for breakthrough pain. The idea will be to prevent pain rather than treat pain.

      What can you expect? Not all people experience all the phenomena of end-stage brain & spinal cancers. These are decreased mobility and muscle wasting, incontinence, preoccupation or distancing, headaches, increased sleeping, decreased eating, increasing confusion, childlike behaviors, hallucinations, difficulty with speech or conversation, personality changes, agitation, seizures, vision changes or blindness, references to travel or the end of life, nausea and vomiting, decreased talking, decreased drinking, swallowing problems, inability to keep eyes open for very long, low-grade fever, restless legs, serenity, coma, changes in breathing and death.

      These are more or less in order of occurrence. Help your brother face his impending death by helping him resolve any conflicts, by helping him find meaning in his life. The entire family can review his life and point out the good things he's done, how much he's contributed and how important he is to each of you. It's okay to talk about death and how very much you'll miss him. Don't avoid using the words "death" and "dying". Use them as often as appropriate. Don't use euphenisms like "passing" or "leaving". These words avoid the truth of what is happening. Answer any questions he may have as honestly as you can. Help him through the stages of anticipatory grieving by going through these stages with him. Assure him that he is loved without question. And finally, tell him it's okay to die and he won't die alone. Keep your word to him. His last breath will a sigh. Very gentle, very peaceful and very final.

  41. QUESTION:
    besides the seven signs of cancer are there any other ways of finding out if a person has the disease?
    Recently a neighbour died from cancer. Although I visited this person, I could not tell. A relative said that the doctor found fluid on his lungs and could do nothing about it.What are some of the common and not so common signs of cancer whether in male or female?

    • ANSWER:
      No, you cannot tell . . because the body is a large place . . and cancer refers to one cell that has mutated and begun to grow. Cancer is a progressive disease, which means it will start out very, very small and grow indefinitely. Cancer is your own cells . . any one of them . . any of them at any given time can develop cancer . . a kidney cell is different than a brain cell that is different from a colon cell . . so there is absolutely no way to know in the early stages that you have cancer. The body does not recognize a tumor as anything foreign and can co-exist quite awhile with the tumor. It isn't until the late or advanced stages that you start to have symptoms . . sometimes . .

      Cancer is progressive . . it starts out small and grows . . when it gets big enough it may start to invade local tissue and cause some type of vague pain, uneasiness, or other symptom. By the time cancer becomes noticed it is usually already large, more than one, and it may have metastasized which means it send new metastatic cells into the blood stream. Those new cancer cells can travel anywhere in the body and start a whole new colony of cancer. That is probably what happened to your neighbor. Cancer is often not that painful until the very end stages . . it will hurt only if the tumor is invading tissue, disrupting body functions, or pressing on nerves. Otherwise . . no pain.

      Wish there were more signs . . but the truth is that cancer can be totally misdiagnosed for quite some time . . especially in young people.

  42. QUESTION:
    Can your organs just stop working with stage 4 cancer of bone and liver?
    Can your organs, brain, heart, lungs pancreas, spleen, gallbladder basically any of the vital organs stop working suddenly with stage 4 cancer. Not bedridden cancer yet.. Just cancer alone that is in the bone, lymph and liver.. Basically can they stop suddenly or would it be a gradual thing that you would get sicker and sicker. Anyone that knows would help.

    • ANSWER:
      It's a gradual process. My sister went through the same thing. Long story short, she ended up with cancer in every major organ in her body. As a nurse I would never have expected one person could live with so many cancers but she did. She live a year and half and ended up bed ridden and by the grace of God, died in her sleep. It's never that simple that organs just give out all at once. I wish you the best if your talking about yourself. God bless

  43. QUESTION:
    What to expect from someone with a brain tumor?
    My mom has stage 4 breast cancer which has now spread to her kidneys and brain, she was given 4 - 6 months of living left. What should we expect down the road especially with the brain tumor?

    • ANSWER:
      Its hard to say how this will progress. There's probably at least two different paths that might occur. One one path, multiple organs start to fail and she could take a sudden turn for the worse before the brain cancer causes any symptoms. This path might be more likley if the kidney problems progress faster than the brain cancer.

      The other path is one where the brain cancer causes problems before organ failure occurs. This path is very difficult to predict since the effects of brain cancer depend on the precise locations where the tumors are located and the nature of the tumors. At one end of the spectrum of possibilities, she might suddenly lapse into a coma, and not recover. At the other end of the spectrum, neurological problems might slowly multiply and become more severe until a critical brain function is lost.

      Hopefully she will have little pain and keep a clear mind for much of her remaining time. Keep this in mind if faced with options that might prolong her life by few months versus treatments that will make her remaining days more pleasant.

  44. QUESTION:
    does any1 know where i can get a video about brain cancer research or donating 2 find a cure 4 it?
    i need 2 find a video 2 put on my myspace about fighing brain cancer. i do NOT want one that just talks about small kids....cause everyone can get it...not just small children. i want one that talk about how horrible it is or how you can help stop it or who you can donate to so they can study to find a cure....please help me

    • ANSWER:
      First off thanks for your efforts! My friend has had brain cancer for over a year now. There is a site I have heard of called young adult surving glioblastoma (stage 4 brain caner) http://www.yasg.com/
      The guy that started it also created movie I have never seen it but he documents his fight I believe he has since pasted away but if you to the site you might be able to get a copy of the video.
      Good luck!

  45. QUESTION:
    What is the chance of survival with these cancers?
    Brain, liver, lung and cervical.
    Someone close to me has all four.. what is her chance of survival if she just found out about a week ago?
    Ok well if i must be specific is started as cervical cancer and has obviously spread! I dnt know much about the detail, all i know is what she said. And I wouldn't think our best friends (and i mean they're literally our best friends and have been forever) would lie about cancer.. and she's been getting treatments every day.

    • ANSWER:
      I doubt very much she has all 4 of those cancers at once. She probably has a stage 4 cervical cancer which has a 5 year survival rate of 5%.

      EDIT: Yes survival rate are just statistics. They are based on over 50 years of information we have kept on cancer. In this case it means 5 years after diagnosed with stage 4 cervical cancer 5% are still alive. As the years progress the percentage declines. HPV does not cause cancer it is a risk factor for some.

      SECOND EDIT: If it started as cervical cancer it is still cervical cancer – it doesn’t turn into something else. Every type of cancer is a different disease, so yes you do need to be specific.

  46. QUESTION:
    why does my dying father keep taking his clothes off?
    my stepfather has stage four brain cancer and lately he keeps stripping down to his socks and underwear only.

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry to hear that. I'm expecting a loss in the family soon myself.

      I can think of 2 possible reasons for his stripping:

      1)His body heat is accumulating under the sheats & making him unbearably warm. I stirp down to my undies for bed in Spring & Summer. Ask if he would like a fan set towards his face as well.

      2)Sensitive skin from illness or sweating, chafing against him or tickling his nerves. I had that with food poisoning once. It just felt dreadfull to have enything touch the skin.

  47. QUESTION:
    What is the difference in inflammatory breast cancer and invasive breast cancer?
    Or is it the same thing because I was diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and while looking up info I keep seeing inflammatory and I just am wondering if its the same thing or not.

    • ANSWER:
      Inflammatory & invasive breast cancers are given these names because of the symptoms they present. But having one doesn't mean that you have the other. For example: a person can have a headache or a brain tumor. But having either one doesn't mean you will suffer from the other.
      Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) is marked by some or all of these symptoms: the nipple may be flat or inverted, sudden onset (perhaps over a few days/weeks) of swelling of one breast, nipple discharge, pain or itching, redness that may look like the breast is infected, or thick-feeling areas of the breast. The symptoms and appearance of IBC can sometimes cause a doctor to misdiagnose a patient with just an infection, and some feel mammograms can be inconclusive due to breast density at the time of the swelling.
      Invasive breast cancer is graded in stages of 1-5, and at its higher stages has the traits of invading other parts of the body. This means the cancer has spread outside of the membranes of the breast ducts where it usually starts (Stage 0). It DOESN'T necessarily mean that it's spread throughout the WHOLE body. Most likely it has spread to the surrounding tissue of the breast.
      Please keep researching. Get to know your invader and how to deal with it. Explore all options before making a final decision.
      We hope this helps. Good luck in your journey.

      Mark
      the charityplush.com team

  48. QUESTION:
    My uncle is dying from stomach and brain cancer. how many stages are their in brain and stomach cancer?
    Also, I would like to know the symptoms or pretty much what to expect and how the life expectancy. I have been researching it but have not had much luck. So, if possible can you also provide a good website to also help answer my question. Thank you, all answers are greatly appreciated by me and my family.

    • ANSWER:
      There are four stages in cancer.

      I hope this website helps:
      http://cancercompass.com


brain cancer stages

Dcis Cancer

Once you have been diagnosed with breast cancer, usually treatment starts first with surgery. There are generally two components to the operation: 1) the breast, and 2) the axilla (armpit).

In the breast, there are two choices: 1) lumpectomy (removing the cancer lump and some surrounding tissue), or 2) mastectomy (removing the entire breast). Just a quarter of a century ago, almost all patients had mastectomy, even if their breast cancer is small. But over the past few decades, it has been demonstrated that for small cancers, lumpectomy followed by radiation treatment is just as good as mastectomy. Now, "small" is a relative term. The goal of a lumpectomy is that the breast would still look like a breast after all the treatment is done. In someone with small breasts, a "small" cancer may occupy a significant portion of her breast. An adequate lumpectomy in this case may result in an unacceptable cosmetic outcome, and the patient may actually prefer having mastectomy with plastic surgery reconstruction. Another factor is the number of cancers in the breast. Usually, mastectomy is required for multifocal cancer (cancer discovered in two or more locations in the same breast)

At the same time as the breast operation, surgery in the axilla also is carried out for invasive (or infiltrating) breast cancer, as well as in selected cases of DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ). This is done to determine whether the breast cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the axilla. In general, there are two choices: 1) sentinel node resection, or 2) axillary node dissection. In sentinel node resection, the surgeon maps the lymphatic drainage of the breast cancer to the first lymph node that receives this lymph, i.e. the sentinel node(s). Only a few (1-3) nodes are then usually removed. In axillary node dissection, more lymph nodes are resected, usually 8-25. Sentinel node resection is a good choice for small early cancer that is unlikely to have spread to the axilla. When the suspicion for cancer already in lymph nodes is high, then full axillary node dissection should be performed.

The above are only general guidelines. No two breast cancer patients are exactly alike, and therefore the decision making process is different and unique for each individual person. Regardless of any one else's advice, you should make the choice that you personally will be able to live with for the rest of your life.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What type of breast cancer kills the most women?
    I know there are different types of breast cancer...some are rare..I know IBC kills but doesn't mean most women die of that type because not many women get that rare type. So what is the most common type of breast cancer that women die from? I cannot find that type of information on the internet....I find statistics but they do not state what type of cancer the women had to begin with?

    Thanks for your answers

    • ANSWER:
      What Jon posted is correct.
      Most women have ductal carcinoma and therefore that is what kills most women.

      Metastatic is a stage of cancer not a type.
      Triple negative is also not a type of breast cancer it is the hormone receptor status and does occur with different types.
      DCIS is ductal carcinoma before it becomes invasive and those statistics are separate..

  2. QUESTION:
    Does most women with stage 2a breast cancer always have a recurrence?
    I know that it is rare for stage 1 breast cancer to come back later and metastasize, but is it for stage 2a breast cancer? Stage 2a means no lymph nodes involved.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry, but your statement is very incorrect. This is from the National Cancer Institute:

      Stages of Breast Cancer
      Key Points for This Section

      After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the breast or to other parts of the body.
      There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
      The following stages are used for breast cancer:
      Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ)
      Stage I
      Stage IIA
      Stage IIB
      Stage IIIA
      Stage IIIB
      Stage IIIC
      Stage IV

      After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the breast or to other parts of the body.

      The process used to find out whether the cancer has spread within the breast or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment.

      There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

      The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:

      Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
      Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
      Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.
      When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.

      The following stages are used for breast cancer:

      Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ)

      There are 2 types of breast carcinoma in situ:

      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, DCIS may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues, although it is not known at this time how to predict which lesions will become invasive.
      Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules of the breast. This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having lobular carcinoma in situ in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.
      Enlarge

      Pea, peanut, walnut, and lime show tumor sizes.

      Stage I

      In stage I, cancer has formed. The tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has not spread outside the breast.

      Stage IIA

      In stage IIA:

      no tumor is found in the breast, but cancer is found in the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm); or
      the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes; or
      the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

      So, there is also no concrete evidence that it is "RARE" for stage I breast cancer to "come back" and "metastasize." When cancer "comes back," it is called a recurrence. When it has "metastasized," that means it has spread to another organ. These are two different situations.

      There are women who had been dx'd with stage 0 or stage I breast cancer, and leapt to stage IV in the blink of an eye.

      You just can't assume that stage I means a person is in the clear.

      Cancer doesn't play favorites. It may never come back for a woman who was diagnosed originally as a stage IIIb. This is why it is crucial for women to be extreme advocates for themselves and be in tune with their bodies.

      By the way, I was diagnosed as a stage IIa/IIb, and I fully intend on NOT having it come back.

  3. QUESTION:
    How many people in the US have breast cancer?
    Men and Women and only ones that CURRENTLY have breast cancer not ones that survived it.

    • ANSWER:
      In 2013, it is estimated that among U.S. women there will be:

      232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer (includes new cases of primary breast cancer among survivors, but not recurrence of original breast cancer among survivors).
      64,640 new cases of in situ breast cancer (includes ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), of those, about 85 percent will be DCIS). DCIS is a non-invasive breast cancer and LCIS is a condition that increases the risk of invasive breast cancer. Learn more about DCIS and LCIS.
      39,620 breast cancer deaths.

      Rates of breast cancer among women vary by:

      Age

      Race/ethnicity
      African American
      Ashkenazi Jewish
      Asian American and Pacific Islander
      Hispanic/Latina
      American Indian and Alaskan Native

      Specific populations

      Lesbian, gay and bisexual women
      Transgender people
      Pregnant women

      Men

      Breast cancer in men is rare, but it does happen. In 2013, it is estimated that among U.S. men there will be :

      2,240 new cases of breast cancer.
      410 breast cancer deaths.

      Rates of breast cancer incidence (new cases, including new cases of primary breast cancer among survivors, but not recurrence of original breast cancer among survivors) and mortality (death) are much lower among men than among women.

      http://ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/Statistics.html#US

      You can gather this information simply by entering "breast cancer statistics" into your favorite search engine.

  4. QUESTION:
    Are all stage 1 breast cancer patients with no lymph node involvement recommended to take chemo?
    What if a person has stage 1 breast cancer with no lymph node involvemet and have estrogen and progesterone negative tumors, will chemo strongly be recommended for that person especially if they are young? Also, I would like to know are positive estrogen and progesterone tumors very slow growing tumors? Are negative tumors faster growing?

    • ANSWER:
      Ok....trying to think back. I was diagnosed when I was 29. I was a stage 2 because of the size of one of the tumors. I had no lymph node involvement. I am er+, I had DCIS and invasive tumors, and I am Her2+ which means that my cancer was a little more agressive. I was strongly encouraged to do chemo because of my age when I was diagnosed, and I think for us early stage breast cancer folks, that is always the case....but I could be wrong. It's been 4 years and I still blame chemo brain.

      Anyway, I hope I answered your questions a little. Good luck!

  5. QUESTION:
    Does everyone with breast cancer receive a bone scan?
    For everyone who has had breast cancer, when you were first diagnosed with breast cancer did your doctors have you to take a bone scan? Is it necessary for a person who has been newly diagnosed with breast cancer to have a bone scan?

    • ANSWER:
      Unless you are diagnosed with DCIS or LCIS it is standard procedure to have a bone scan.

  6. QUESTION:
    Will past breast cancer affect my life insurance options through my new employer?
    I just started a new job and I am trying to decide if I should choose a lower life insurance option that does not require the evidence of insurability form, or take the risk of applying for the higher insurance that I really want. I had DCIS a year and a half ago which was fully cured with mastectomy. I needed no chemo or radiation and had a clean 1/year check up. Has anyone had the experience of being rejected by a life insurance co for similar reasons?

    • ANSWER:
      From my experience, cancer is a definite thing not to have in your history if you want life insurance. My husband had testicular cancer, a seminoma, with 97-100% cure rate and he can't get any extra life insurance through his employer or buy another policy. Most recently, he applied for and was denied disability insurance through state farm insurance. Given that breast cancer has a lower survival rate, I would think if my husband wasn't approved, you most likely wouldn't be either. And his cancer was in 2000 and his five year mark was three years ago. But, with that said, it can't hurt to try. The most they can say is no.

  7. QUESTION:
    2 suspicious clusters of pleomorphic calcifications found on one breast only during mammogram?
    Cancer blood test was negative. Mammogram showed these. Biopsy was done and results r in but doctor hasn't signed the waiver for them to be released yet. Does this always mean cancer? If so, what is the likely type and stage? Does it only mean there is a chance? R they usually malignant or benign? Is it more likely that they r cancerous or non-cancerous? What is normally done if they r cancerous? What is normally done if they r not cancerous? Only serious answers with reliable resources please!

    • ANSWER:
      I know I already answered your question as there are few people who believe there is such a thing as a “cancer blood test”.
      Doctors don’t need to sign waivers for a patient to get medical records.
      Stage is not determined by biopsy. If it is cancer it is likely ductal carcinoma or DCIS because most breast cancers are.
      Yes they are “usually” malignant or benign. Can you think of any other possibility?

  8. QUESTION:
    Does taking Tamoxifen really benefit women with DCIS?
    Is it worth taking Tamoxifen to prevent recurrence of DCIS if your DCIS is ER and PR positive? If you put the risks and benefits on a balance, do the benefits outweigh the risks? I understand the benefit is quite small.

    • ANSWER:
      It is true that the benefits outweigh the risks for most patients, but it is also true that the benefits are small for all patients. In the large NSABP-B24 trial, where patients were randomized to either tamoxifen versus placebo (after all had undergone lumpectomy and radiation), patients were followed for breast events, defined as a new/recurrent breast cancer (DCIS or invasive) in the same breast, new lesion in other breast, or any metastasis. Patients took tamoxifen (TAM) for 5 years.
      Results: Events by 5 years on TAM 13.4% vs 8.2% on placebo. Risk of developing invasive breast cancer on same side by 5 years on TAM 2.1% vs placebo 4.2%. Risk of other breast developing cancer decreased from 0.8% on placebo to 0.4% on TAM.

      As you can see, odds are pretty good doing placebo, but they do really improve on TAM. You have to add in the costs financially and from side effects to make best decision. Most patients do OK on it but many have hormonal problems that disrupt life. One option is to just try it and if you don't like it, stop. I find it more useful in patients who have had a series of biopsies or multiple mammograms/ultrasounds because of breast abnormalities in addition to their DCIS, as these patients' lives may improve if we can decrease the incidence of breast abnormalities (less biopsies, xrays, costs, anxiety, etc).

      Also, another way to look at it. Reduction in breast events is ~5%. This means you have to treat 20 patients with TAM to help one benefit. To prevent one new invasive cancer from developing (risk dropped from 4.2 to 2.1% so ~2% difference), you would have to treat 50 patients.

      Hope all this helps.

      Blessings

      Edit: I do not mean to suggest the downsides outweigh the benefits, as Lily feels. Just that the benefits really are small overall and many women feel this decision has far more weight than it really does. This medicine can help reduce future problems (such as needing future surgery) but it has not been shown to affect survival or save lives (because the problems this medicine prevents are overwhelmingly cured with later surgery if medicine not taken). Statistically, it is beneficial, and it IS worth trying, but probably not worth ruining your quality of life over if not tolerated.

  9. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to have a breast removed if you have breast cancer?
    I don't know if this sounds stupid...but if I had breast cancer, I would rather them just remove my breast and me be flat chested than to die of cancer. Does this even happen? Could it happen? Why or why not?
    So now that i know they do it.. does this cure the cancer ? Like... instead of having radiation and chemo is it an option just to have your breast removed?? and would they remove both so it wouldn't look wierd?

    • ANSWER:
      I had dcis, I was not given the option.
      I was told a mastectomy had to be performed.
      A person who has a breast removed due to cancer
      has an option of wearing a prosthesis or reconstruction.
      I chose to do reconstruction of removed breast.
      In my case it cured the cancer.
      That was 4 years ago.
      I did not require chemo or radiation after mastectomy.

  10. QUESTION:
    What Is The Least Dangerous Form Of Cancer That Needs To Be Treated With Chaemotherapy?
    i know some forms of skin cancer are easily treatable with a small operation, but i'm talking about the ones that you need chaemo for? which is the easiest to get over?
    twice i've spelt it wrong! haha sorry didn't read it properly. chemotherapy...

    • ANSWER:
      This is kind of a strange question, but it’s probably DCIS.

  11. QUESTION:
    Can someone die of cancer and not even know they had it?
    I'm writing a story and its about a woman who has cancer. I would like to know if someone can die of cancer without eve knowing they had it. It can be any type of cancer. I need to know the symptoms and anything else about please. Thanks
    Does someone know what the symptoms of breast cancer are? And thanks for all the answers they're a lot of help.

    • ANSWER:
      Symptoms of breast cancer ........... Any sudden change or appearance of breast
      Lump felt by woman during self breast examination
      Dimpling
      Inverted Nipple
      Breast Cancer is not normally painful.
      A person who does not know they have cancer will come to know in middle to end stage cancer.
      Symptoms will show up making patient aware some thing is wrong
      I had breast cancer for two years before it was diagnosed by my oncologist.
      I was not aware that I had breast cancer ( Ductal Incarcinoma Insitu )
      With DCIS patient doesnt normally feel a lump
      Another cancer that patient dont feel in beginning stages is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
      Lung & bone cancer will probably be felt by patient in early to middle stages.
      Oral Cancer is usually discovered by your dentist or patient sees that there are abnormal
      Lesions in mouth.
      Colon Cancer usually warrants patient to go to doctor for changes or blood in bowel movement.
      Cancer Of The Heart ... http://www.ygoy.com/index.php/heart-cancer-symptoms/
      Uterine Cancer ... Abnormal Bleeding from Vagina or spotting, Pain when emptying bladder.
      Pain during sex.
      Anal Cancer ... . http://www.medicinenet.com/anal_cancer/page2.htm#symptoms
      Any cancer that a patient does not feel right away is usually in middle to end stages. At this point some cancer patients can be saved but some are not.
      All these cancers above the patient will die if he/she is not aware of the symptoms.& does not go see a doctor.
      Most patients are aware of the fact that they do have cancer due to the symptoms that they become aware of.
      I could go on & on but hope this helps.

  12. QUESTION:
    What does breast cancer feel like?
    Could you tell me where in the breast the lumps occur, what they feel like, etc.?
    What are some other symptoms of breast cancer? Are hair loss and tremors some symptoms?
    At what age can you get breast cancer?
    Any other info I should know?
    Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm a ten year survivor of breast cancer. Here goes.
      Tumours can occur in any part of the breast. Generally they are not painful at the outset. The one form of breast cancer that is painful from the start is a nasty little beast known as Inflammatory breast cancer. All women's breasts are somewhat lumpy and nodular to the touch. This is why monthly breast self examination after age twenty is recommended. The woman becomes familiar with the normal look and feel of her breasts, and any changes become immediately apparent ( lumps, orange peel skin, thickening etc.) Mine felt like a large kidney bean that was not too mobile. Cancer usually anchors itself to the blood stream somewhere. Hair loss is not a symptom of breast cancer. It 's a side effect of chemotherapy. Tremors are not a sign of breast cancer either.

      Breast cancer in women under thirty is rare. 1% of all cases in the US occur in women under thirty. I was 43 and considered young for breast cancer.

      A good reference is found here.

      Risk Factors

      When you're told that you have breast cancer, it's natural to wonder what may have caused the disease. But no one knows the exact causes of breast cancer. Doctors seldom know why one woman develops breast cancer and another doesn't.

      Doctors do know that bumping, bruising, or touching the breast does not cause cancer. And breast cancer is not contagious. You can't catch it from another person.

      Doctors also know that women with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop breast cancer. A risk factor is something that may increase the chance of getting a disease.

      Some risk factors (such as drinking alcohol) can be avoided. But most risk factors (such as having a family history of breast cancer) can't be avoided.

      Studies have found the following risk factors for breast cancer:

      * Age: The chance of getting breast cancer increases as you get older. Most women are over 60 years old when they are diagnosed.

      * Personal health history: Having breast cancer in one breast increases your risk of getting cancer in your other breast. Also, having certain types of abnormal breast cells (atypical hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], or ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]) increases the risk of invasive breast cancer. These conditions are found with a breast biopsy.

      * Family health history: Your risk of breast cancer is higher if your mother, father, sister, or daughter had breast cancer. The risk is even higher if your family member had breast cancer before age 50. Having other relatives (in either your mother's or father's family) with breast cancer or ovarian cancer may also increase your risk.

      * Certain genome changes: Changes in certain genes, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, substantially increase the risk of breast cancer. Tests can sometimes show the presence of these rare, specific gene changes in families with many women who have had breast cancer, and health care providers may suggest ways to try to reduce the risk of breast cancer or to improve the detection of this disease in women who have these genetic changes.

      Also, researchers have found specific regions on certain chromosomes that are linked to the risk of breast cancer. If a woman has a genetic change in one or more of these regions, the risk of breast cancer may be slightly increased. The risk increases with the number of genetic changes that are found. Although these genetic changes are more common among women than BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of breast cancer is far lower.
      * Radiation therapy to the chest: Women who had radiation therapy to the chest (including the breasts) before age 30 are at an increased risk of breast cancer. This includes women treated with radiation for Hodgkin lymphoma. Studies show that the younger a woman was when she received radiation treatment, the higher her risk of breast cancer later in life.

      * Reproductive and menstrual history:
      o The older a woman is when she has her first child, the greater her chance of breast cancer.
      o Women who never had children are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
      o Women who had their first menstrual period before age 12 are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
      o Women who went through menopause after age 55 are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
      o Women who take menopausal hormone therapy for many years have an increased risk of breast cancer.

      * Race: In the United States, breast cancer is diagnosed more often in white women than in African American/black, Hispanic/Latina, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native women.

      * Breast density: Breasts appear on a mammogram (breast x-ray) as having areas of dense and fatty (not dense) tissue. Women whose mammograms show a larger area of dense tissue than the mammograms of women of the same age are at increased risk of breast cancer.

      * History of taking DES: DES was given

  13. QUESTION:
    How to define breast cancer stage ?
    Overall lump size is 2.6 cm, found both IDC and DCIS, and nodes negative. What is her stage?

    • ANSWER:
      Assuming there are no mets, it would be a stage IIA.

  14. QUESTION:
    how likely is it to get cancer from radiotherapy?
    My aunty had DCIS in her left breast, after lumpectomy, she needs to have six weeks of radiotherapy, but the doctor mentioned cancer as one of the several long-term side effects that might happen becasue of radiotherapy. Im just worried, how likely is it to get cancer from it? is radiotherapy really dangerous? will it shorten your life?

    • ANSWER:
      Our radiation oncologist and breast oncologist will tell you exactly what the probability the chances are that you will get cancer from this treatment. As I recall it is less than 5% chance of that happening. The chance that it will prevent cancer from returning is much greater, so most people will use radiation as insurance that cancer will not return.

      What is important when fighting any cancer is to do whatever you can at the initial diagnosis to keep it from returning.

      Less than 5% is something we could live with.

  15. QUESTION:
    Where would one find information about forms of breast cancer?
    I believe it is called infiltrating ductile carcinoma. I am not sure about the spelling, but I think it is close. I just need information, and where to find said information for reference.

    • ANSWER:
      Mammary ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer in women. It comes in two forms: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissue and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a noninvasive, possibly malignant neoplasm that is still confined to the lactiferous ducts, where breast cancer most often originates.
      Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). IDC accounts for about 70 percent of all breast cancers. The cancer cells form in the lining of your milk duct, then break through the ductal wall and invade nearby breast tissue. The cancer cells may remain localized — staying near the site of origin — or spread (metastasize) throughout your body, carried by your bloodstream or lymphatic system.

  16. QUESTION:
    What stage were you when you found out you had breast cancer?
    How did you find out & what stage were you at? What treatments did they give you & did they work?

    • ANSWER:
      I was one of the "lucky" ones. I had an area of dense tissue that my OB thought I should get checked out (I had just weaned my 14 month old son). The breast surgeon didn't find anything on the ultrasound but wanted to do a biopsy while she had me there. The biopsy found stage 0 DCIS. Crazy, it wasn't even related to the dense tissue (which ended up being just dense tissue). A mammogram showed it scattered throughout my entire breast.

      I had a mastectomy and thankfully the biopsied nodes where clear so no further treatment was needed. Now I get exams from my breast surgeon and ob every 6 months and mammograms every 6 months.

      I was only 28!

  17. QUESTION:
    is it possible to die at stage 0 of breast cancer?
    my neighbor has type 0 breast cancer. Is it possible she can die?

    please help me!

    • ANSWER:
      Stage 0 can either be DCIS or LCIS and both require treatment. It is only possible to die from either one if it is ignored.

  18. QUESTION:
    What are my chances of getting breast cancer when I'm older?
    Well, I'm actually only 15 right now, but both my aunt and grandmother have had breast cancer. I know I'm still waaay too young to even be thinking about this, but I'm pretty curious. They survived it, but does this make my chances super-high? My mom's unrelated to both of them, so maybe that decreases it...?

    • ANSWER:
      My maternal great-aunt had breast cancer (it did not kill her) and although I don't know of anyone else in my family that has had it, I was diagnosed with stage 0 DCIS last month. I had a lumpectomy and am currently undergoing radiation treatment...I'm 44.

      Having it in your family doesn't ensure you will get it, and not having it in your family doesn't mean you will not. Just make sure you get a baseline mammogram in your mid to late 30s, and then yearly ones from age 40 on. It was my mammogram this year that found my tiny little issue...it was too small to be felt.

      Try not to worry about it...you may never develop cancer, and even if you do the treatments available are so far advanced from what they once were, and 'cure' is high when caught early enough.

  19. QUESTION:
    what is mastectomy when you have breast cancer what do a mastectomy have to do with breast cancer?
    when you have breast cancer what is mastectomy what do mastectomy have to do with breast cancer do it means that you have to get your breast cut off is it a surgery term

    • ANSWER:
      A mastectomy is performed on a patient when cancer shows up in the the breast.
      If it cannot be treated by lumpectomy, followed by radiation, or chemotherapy, then a mastectomy
      is performed to prevent cancer from spreading in to the lymph nodes to other parts of body.
      In my case I had DCIS where the only option was a mastectomy with no further treatment required.

  20. QUESTION:
    My niece who is 40 has been diagnosed with DCIS, stage 0 cancer, right? Is a mastecomy the answer or radiatio
    Is a mastecomy the way to go, or radiation & you have the unknown if it is going to reoccur?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes you are correct DCIS is a stage 0 and most often either mastectomy or a lumpectomy with radiation is the therapies of choice.

      There is really no correct answer to your question I’m afraid. It is really up to the woman to decide what is best for her, what kind of risk she is willing to take and her willingness or lack of, to be diligent with her follow up exams, etc. What is right for one woman isn’t always right for the next. There are several factors that should be taken into consideration to make an informed decision none of which were mentioned, but should have been discussed in detail with your niece. One of the important factors is the result of her ER (hormone) test one should have defiantly been done and she should know the results.

      As her aunt I understand your concern and I know you want her around as long as possible. Maybe she should have a second opinion. It is always a good idea when faced with a big medical decision. Make sure she takes all of her reports, especially her pathology reports, and films with her. Maybe another opinion will help her decide. Best wishes to you both.

  21. QUESTION:
    Why do some women have to have mastectomy for DCIS if its a non invasive cancer?
    That is confined to the milk ducts in the breast.
    Please dont post to use nolvadex .......... That is up to doctor. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      You are a frequent contributor here with an excellent knowledge base.
      The reason women opt for mastectomy is the higher risk of a recurrence
      in the breast after lumpectomy alone - 25 to 30%.
      http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/types/dcis/
      "DCIS isn’t life-threatening, but having DCIS can increase the risk of
      developing an invasive breast cancer later on.
      When you have had DCIS, you are at higher risk for the cancer coming
      back or for developing a new breast cancer than a person who has never
      had breast cancer before. Most recurrences happen within the 5 to 10
      years after initial diagnosis. The chances of a recurrence are under 30%.
      Women who have breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) for DCIS
      without radiation therapy have about a 25% to 30% chance of having a
      recurrence at some point in the future. Including radiation therapy in the
      treatment plan after surgery drops the risk of recurrence to about 15%.
      If breast cancer does come back after earlier DCIS treatment,
      the recurrence is non-invasive (DCIS again) about half the time
      and invasive about half the time. (DCIS itself is NOT invasive.)
      According to the American Cancer Society, about 60,000 cases of DCIS
      are diagnosed in the United States each year, accounting for about
      1 out of every 5 new breast cancers."

      So Susie, the answer is prevention.
      And women do not "have" to have a mastectomy.
      It is an option that should be discussed.
      Then the woman makes the choice for her own safety and peace of mind.

  22. QUESTION:
    My friend has been diagnosed with breast cancer. If you've had the same experience, can you provide any tips?
    Maybe some advice on what to expect or tips and tricks on how to make things go easier...possibly something the doctors or nurses forget to tell you? I do not know a lot of specifics yet but, if you could just post any helpful information you have, she would most appreciate it. She is almost 44.

    • ANSWER:
      There are many types of breast cancer. could you possibly say which type.
      She should have you with her. A patient when told she has breast cancer don't take it all in what the doctor is saying.
      Bring a notepad & pen with you if you choose to go to doctors appt with her.
      The doctor will tell her step by step as she goes along with treatment.
      I know how she feels i was diagnosed 4 yrs ago with DCIS ( Ductal Incarcinoma Insitu ) --- a non invasive breast cancer unless left unchecked for a period of 3 to 5 years.
      The treatment for me was mastectomy & I also chose breast reconstruction followed by no further treatment.
      If she has DCIS I can help her step by step on what to expect.
      I am a survivor & so will she .
      The advice --- Be with your friend & help her through the fears she may have.
      There are really no tricks --- Just follow the doctors orders.
      If she smokes quit.
      Today I was told ----- I am being released by my oncologist after 4 long years. I am breast cancer free.

  23. QUESTION:
    My mother was diagnoise with breast cancer in 2001. The name of the breast cancer that is in her left breast i
    The name of the breast cancer that is in her left breast is Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma. There is a lump on her right breast now. The question I am trying to ask is it okay for her to get a biospy on the lump that is on her right breast.

    • ANSWER:
      definately is a strong connection that first cancer has migrated if first cancer is not in situ the type of cancer your mum has is non evasive but always best to get checked
      Ductal carcinoma is a very common type of breast cancer in women. It comes in two forms: infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC), an invasive cell type; and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a noninvasive cancer.

      DCIS is the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer in women. Ductal carcinoma refers to the development of cancer cells within the milk ducts of the breast. In situ means "in place" and refers to the fact that the cancer has not moved out of the duct and into any surrounding tissue.

      As screening mammography has become more widespread, DCIS has become one of the most commonly diagnosed breast conditions. It is often referred to as "stage zero breast cancer." In countries where screening mammography is uncommon, DCIS is sometimes diagnosed at a later stage, but in countries where screening mammography is widespread, it is usually diagnosed on a mammogram when it is so small that it has not formed a lump. DCIS is not painful or dangerous, and it does not metastasize unless it first develops into invasive cancer

  24. QUESTION:
    Is anybody out there had dcis{breast cancer and is now a breast cancer survivor?
    Just wondering if anybody had dcis

    • ANSWER:
      There are about 60,000 cases of DCIS each year and unless they leave it untreated they all survive.

  25. QUESTION:
    If you have breast cancer do you HAVE to get your breast removed?
    is there another option? we have been learning about this in my health class and im jjust wondering. and also could you get breast implants to replace your lost breast, and would they be able to replace the nipple and aerolia too?

    • ANSWER:
      The surgery recommended depends on the individual's particular cancer; the size of the tumour and whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes are just some of the factors taken into consideration when deciding whether to recommend mastectomy (removal of the breast) or lumpectomy.

      I had a mastectomy. Given the position of my tumour, a lumpectomy probably wouldn't have had very satisfactory results aesthetically, but the main reason for removing my breast was that in addition to the tumour and cancerous lymph nodes, the breast had widespread ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which means precancerous cells.

      Breast reconstruction is a possibility in many cases, which can include a 'nipple'; and some people choose to have areola tattooed onto the reconstructed breast.

      I personally decided against reconstruction. What many people don't realise is that breast reconstruction is a huge operation, much more so than a mastectomy. It is major surgery that takes many hours to complete (between 9 and 14 hours depending on the type of reconstruction was the information I had & years ago), and is not always successful - I have known a few women whose reconstructed breasts had to be removed - more surgery. I decided once under the knife was enough for me.

      Why on earth were they teaching you about breast cancer in health class? Are they also teaching you about prostate cancer and Alzheimer's - two more conditions that you won't have to worry about until you are very, very much older.

      We are always seeing questions on here from teenage girls terrified they have breast cancer because of lessons in school.

      I hope whoever delivered your class gave you these facts: breast cancer is almost unheard of in under 25s, a girl aged 16 - 19 has less than a one in one million chance of developing it (which means that she is statistically more than twice as likely to be struck by lightning), and the risk to a girl under 16 is statistically zero.

      Fewer than 0.1% of all those diagnosed with breast cancer are under 30, and only 5% are under 40. Most (80%) are over 50 and the average age at diagnosis is a little over 60.

      I also very much hope they told you that at your age you should NOT be doing breast checks - they'll tell you nothing and worry you unnecessarily. The American Cancer Society and all other responsible and reputable cancer organisations recommend that women begin breast self examination at no younger than 20, if then; and some cancer professionals say 30. Before that it's pointless; firstly because there are so many hormonal changes that there is no 'normal' - and self examination is about a woman knowing what's normal for her and reporting any changes. And secondly because the chance of breast cancer is almost nil.

  26. QUESTION:
    Can a person relapse from cancer even if the cancer has been in remission for 50 years?
    Someone told me that they have heard of someone relapsing from the disease even after 50 years of being diagnosed. Is this possible?
    Is a person really considered cured after 10 of being in remission of cancer
    What i meant to say is a person really considered cured of cancer after being in remission for 10 years?

    • ANSWER:
      I have never seen one recur 50 years later, but I have seen melanoma recur more than 40 years later, so yes it is possible. It isn’t unusual to see melanoma recur 20-30 years later, or breast cancer recur 20 years later, kidney recur 10-20 years later, etc., etc. and they are not new cancers they are recurrences.

      When a person is considered cured depends on the kind of cancer you are referring to, the location and the extent of the disease. For example someone with DCIS is considered cured immediately after treatment. Some colon cancers are considered cured during the colonoscopy.

      When cure cannot be determined it is referred to as disease free.

  27. QUESTION:
    What are the seven levels of classification for breast cancer?
    I am doing a project and i need help!!!!! i cant find squat!!!!! i need the levels to be from the original SEVEN levels please!!!!!

    • ANSWER:
      Stage 0
      Stage 0 is used to describe non-invasive breast cancers, such as DCIS and LCIS. In stage 0, there is no evidence of cancer cells or non-cancerous abnormal cells breaking out of the part of the breast in which they started, or of getting through to or invading neighboring normal tissue.

      Stage I
      Stage I describes invasive breast cancer (cancer cells are breaking through to or invading neighboring normal tissue) in which:

      the tumor measures up to 2 centimeters, AND
      no lymph nodes are involved
      Stage II
      Stage II is divided into subcategories known as IIA and IIB.

      Stage IIA describes invasive breast cancer in which:

      no tumor can be found in the breast, but cancer cells are found in the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm), OR
      the tumor measures 2 centimeters or less and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, OR
      the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes
      Stage IIB describes invasive breast cancer in which:

      the tumor is larger than 2 but no larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, OR
      the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes
      Larger VersionStage III
      Stage III is divided into subcategories known as IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC.

      Stage IIIA describes invasive breast cancer in which either:

      no tumor is found in the breast. Cancer is found in axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone, OR
      the tumor is 5 centimeters or smaller and has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures, OR
      the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures
      Stage IIIB describes invasive breast cancer in which:

      the tumor may be any size and has spread to the chest wall and/or skin of the breast AND
      may have spread to axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone
      Inflammatory breast cancer is considered at least stage IIIB.
      Stage IIIC describes invasive breast cancer in which:

      there may be no sign of cancer in the breast or, if there is a tumor, it may be any size and may have spread to the chest wall and/or the skin of the breast, AND
      the cancer has spread to lymph nodes above or below the collarbone, AND
      the cancer may have spread to axillary lymph nodes or to lymph nodes near the breastbone
      Stage IV
      Stage IV describes invasive breast cancer in which:

      the cancer has spread to other organs of the body -- usually the lungs, liver, bone, or brain
      "Metastatic at presentation" means that the breast cancer has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes, even though this is the first diagnosis of breast cancer. The reason for this is that the primary breast cancer was not found when it was only inside the breast. Metastatic cancer is considered stage IV.

      EDIT: Now, there is ONLY 4 stages, but different levels within the stages, which I didn't even know!

  28. QUESTION:
    DENISEDDS I have a question that you that surely you will know the answer to!?
    I have a question about cancer statistics.

    Do "in situ" cancer count in the stats? If someone, for example, has ductal carcinoma in situ, does she count in the stats of the number of women diagnosed with breast cancer?

    I was wondering this question because I don't believe the in situ cancers count for cervical cancer. The number is just to low to include them. But do they count for other cancers?

    I though since she is a cancer registrar, she would know this! Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      The stats for DCIS are usually separate from the invasive cancers. If you look on the National Cancer Institute website it has its own category. For other sites like the colon they are included with the invasive cancers. They are not included at all with cervical cancer. In situ cancers of the cervix and the prostate are not even reportable. Neither are BCC and SCC of the skin even in the rare cases where they have metastases.

      You’re right - if cervical in situs were included the numbers would be much higher. As a side note, you will probably be happy to know that we are getting ready for some major changes in how we abstract starting with patients diagnosed in 2010. Among the changes we are going to report more information regarding HPV.

  29. QUESTION:
    If my mom has the BRCA2 gene but I don't, can life insurers still charge me more for it?
    She had breast reconstruction done because they found DCIS (stage 0) cancer. The insurance agent has asked me if she was diagnosed with cancer, but I'm not sure how to accurately respond. If I say yes I will get charged a higher premium even though I don't have the increased risk caused by the BRCA2 gene. I want to be honest though.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm not sure exactly how things work over in the US with insurance, as I'm a UK resident. But in terms of giving a truthful account of your risk, its difficult.

      It sounds like your mum did have cancer. The definition of DCIS (Stage 0) is:

      "DCIS is a Stage 0 cancer—the earliest form of breast cancer. Stage 0 breast cancer is a contained cancer that has not spread beyond the ductal system (to the lymph nodes or other areas of the body). The cure rate for DCIS is close to 100% provided that an accepted standard method of treatment is followed."

      So although it was cancer, the outcome is generally very positive. If you know that she has the BRCA2 gene - then that is very likely to be the cause of her cancer. So in theory if you don't have that gene then you are less likely to be at risk. But given that 1 in 9 women get cancer at some point in their lives, you can't eliminate your chances by just not having a certain gene. It is believed that my Mum doesn't have the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene - yet she got breast cancer and so did her mum. I therefore figure that my risk of getting it is probably proportionately higher even if I don't have these particular genes, because there are probably other genes and circumstances that interact with each other, to increase my risk. This said, having been to see a genetic consultant I've been told my risk is 20% as opposed to the general population's risk of 10%. This is because neither my gran's sisters or my aunts (my mum's sisters) have had cancer.

      The notion of risk that insurance companies deal with should be the same as doctors - but I'm not sure if that is the case. Be honest, say that she was diagnosed with cancer and had the BRCA2 gene. But also make it clear you've been tested and you do not have the gene. This should limit the impact on your premiums and the terms they place on the paying out.

  30. QUESTION:
    how fast does grade 2 breast cancer spread?
    My mom was diagnosed with breast cancer. There was a slightly swollen lymph node in her armpit that tested positive as well. She has idc and dcis (both apparently in the same tumor). The tumor is 2 cm and grade 2. My question is what are the chances the cancer has metasized to her bones and organs?

    • ANSWER:
      The tumor grade determines its aggressiveness but it can’t be used to predict how far the cancer has spread. She will need a bone and PET scan for that.

  31. QUESTION:
    Is DCIS breast cancer hereditary?
    My 29 year old sister has been diagnosed with DCIS breast cancer and I am wondering if I should have some type of screening done, there are also other family members who have had breast cancer on my fathers side of the family.

    • ANSWER:
      Only about 5-10% of all breast cancers are hereditary. However, because your sister is so young there is concern for the possibility. You do not mention your age or which family members had cancer or how old they were at diagnosis. The answers to these questions also help determine the likelihood. It also helps to know if any were males or if anyone had ovarian cancer.

      I’m sure your sister’s oncologist will be going over all of this with her. They should have your sister tested to see if she has one of the BRCA genes. It is much easier and less expensive to check a known cancer patient.. If she tests positive then you should also be tested. If she tests negative than you do not need to be tested, as it is not hereditary.

      However, even if it is not hereditary you would still be at a higher risk for breast cancer and therefore you should begin screening now. Screening is not normally recommended for women until the age of 40 so if you are younger than 40 be clear with your doctor about your family history. If you are under 30-35 it you may need a few testes as the breast tissue in younger women is usually too dense to see anything on mammogram.

  32. QUESTION:
    I have a question about Robin Roberts from Good Morning America?
    When Robin Roberts was first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2007 does anyone know what stage her breast cancer was in?

    • ANSWER:
      It was in the "early stage", Robin said she was originally told it was DCIS. Her SNB was clear but the final path report upgraded her to Stage 1 or 2.

  33. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know the name of the website that shows the new breast exam alternative to mammograms?

    It's when your breasts are submerged in water.

    • ANSWER:
      Maybe it is just me, but a tumor has to be pretty frikking big to produce enough heat to set off a thermogram. Thermography was attempted in the late 70s/early 80s but was deemed not effective at fining early stage breast cancers.

      Evidence of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) is as little as 2 millimeters in size. There is no temperature change in a *not yet* tumor of that size...at this stage it is only an atypia of cells. Mammography is the ONLY breast imaging modality to find DCIS.

      Don't hold your breath for this technology...breast imaging is governed by the FDA. It will take DECADES for the FDA to approve a totally new breast imaging technology.

  34. QUESTION:
    How bad are we talking here? One of the women I work with was diagnosed with breast cancer...?
    At first it was called DCIS but they found more. Now they had to remove one of her breasts and the cancer is in her lymph nodes and muscles. Is this stage III already?? She's only 34. She is starting chemo and radiation.

    • ANSWER:
      DCIS stands for ductal carcinoma in situ. That is the earliest stage. This can be easily treated. In many cases, there does not need to be any adjuvant therapy.

      How it got from that to spreading to her lymph nodes and muscles that quickly sounds fishy. Perhaps, it was not really DCIS.

      Lymph node involvement is never good. I don't know the exact specifics of ther case. It could be stage III.

      I would suspect that chemotherapy (doxorubicin/adriamycin) and radiation are the standard treatment after surgery. Maybe a hormone blocker like Tamoxifen or Femara if she is ER+.

      Cannot say how bad but, remissions can be achieved.

  35. QUESTION:
    is having a prophylactic mastectomy a good idea?
    I had dcis in 2006' had lumpectomy 2 times counting that first time, my mother has just been diagnoised with breast cancer. I had the gene test done, waiting on results. I just want to know if I can have a prophylactic mastectomy since I have already been diagnosed with cancer. I had radiation, and am now on tamoxifen. thanks for any advice I can get.

    • ANSWER:
      in my opinion, you have made a difficult and courageous step. and i believe you are doing the right thing. i believe one day very soon i will be in the same boat as you. my mom and my granny both had BRCA and i want a prophylactic mastectomy as well. but i have not gotten the gene testing yet.
      the reconstruction options these days are truly amazing.
      however, prophylactic means just that...preventive. and since you have been diagnosed with ductal, i don't know how your doctor/insurance would view it.
      when you talked with your oncologist, what did he/she say?
      it may be just a matter of wording on the insurance forms/claims by your physician.

  36. QUESTION:
    Is calcium deposits in the breast necessarily a form of breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      No they are calcium.
      They can indicate DCIS. It would say so in your report.

  37. QUESTION:
    What are the ocular side effects of the medicine tamoxifen?

    • ANSWER:
      Hope this helps... I put the web site where I got the info fron just incase you wanna go look at it.. Good Luck!

      GENERIC NAME: tamoxifen
      BRAND NAME: Nolvadex
      DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen (blocks the effect of estrogen on tissue). The precise mechanism of its action is unknown, but one possible mechanism is that it binds and blocks estrogen receptors on the surface of cells, preventing estrogens from binding and activating the cell. It is used in patients for treating and preventing breast cancer. Controversy currently exists as to which breast cancer patients will benefit from this treatment.

      PRESCRIPTION: yes

      GENERIC AVAILABLE: no

      PREPARATIONS: 10mg oral tablets.

      STORAGE: Store in a dry place at 15-30°C (59-86°F).

      PRESCRIBED FOR: Tamoxifen is used for the treatment of invasive breast cancer, the most common type of breast cancer, following surgery and/or radiation and for preventing invasive breast cancer in women at high risk for developing it. Tamoxifen also is used for the treatment of women following surgery and radiation for a less common type of breast cancer called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS or intraductal carcinoma). Women who have had ductal carcinoma in situ are at high risk for developing invasive breast cancer at a later date, and tamoxifen prevents development of the invasive cancer in almost half of the women during the first five years of treatment. Occasionally, tamoxifen is used to stimulate ovulation.

      DOSING: Tamoxifen should be taken at doses specifically directed by the physician. Currently, long term dosing is recommended (in excess of 2 years). Tamoxifen can be taken with food.

      DRUG INTERACTIONS: Tamoxifen can cause abnormalities of liver tests and other blood tests, and patients taking it should keep appointments for blood work to monitor for these side effects. Patients should report any suspected side effects immediately, especially bleeding and yellowing of the skin.

      SIDE EFFECTS: The most common side effects associated with tamoxifen are: hot flashes, weight gain, abnormal menstrual periods, and nausea.

  38. QUESTION:
    I have lost more than 6 dress sizes and have also had a diagnoses of breast calcifications.?
    My question is, is the weight loss because of the calcifications?

    • ANSWER:
      Congratulations on the weight loss, but is won't have cause the calcifications, see below for what it may be...

      Breast cystsCell secretions or debris
      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)FibroadenomaMammary duct ectasiaMastitisPrevious injury to the breast
      Previous radiation therapy for cancer
      Skin (dermal) or blood vessel (vascular) calcification

      Have a look at the mayoclinic.com for more info.

      Very best of luck.

  39. QUESTION:
    Why do I have stuff coming out my nipple?
    I am 18 and a half, I squeezed my nipple and liquid came out of it..I am on my period though..Can this mean I am pregnant? And if I am, how far along would I be if I have milk coming out my nipple? It is only a really small amount when I squeeze it though..

    • ANSWER:
      Sometimes, nipple discharge is just a normal (physiological) part of your breast's function. If that's the case, the discharge might resolve on its own.

      Most often, nipple discharge stems from a noncancerous (benign) condition. However, breast cancer is a possibility, especially if:

      * You have a lump in your breast
      * The discharge contains blood
      * Only one breast is affected

      Possible causes of nipple discharge include:

      * Abscess
      * Breast cancer
      * Breast infection
      * Excessive breast stimulation
      * Fibroadenoma
      * Fibrocystic breasts
      * Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
      * Galactorrhea
      * Hormone imbalance
      * Injury or trauma to the breast
      * Intraductal papilloma
      * Mammary duct ectasia
      * Medication use
      * Paget's disease of the breast
      * Pregnancy
      * Prolactinoma

      Rarely is nipple discharge a sign of breast cancer. But it might be a sign of an underlying condition that requires treatment. If you're still having periods and your nipple discharge doesn't resolve on its own after your next menstrual cycle, or if it's particularly bothersome, make an appointment with your doctor to have it evaluated.

      In the meantime, take care to avoid nipple stimulation — including frequent checks for discharge — because stimulation actually makes the discharge persist.

  40. QUESTION:
    what does it mean when you have fluid coming out your breast?
    everytime i squeeze my breast a clear liquid will come out.

    • ANSWER:
      By Mayo Clinic staff

      Nipple discharge refers to any fluid that seeps out of the nipple in a nonlactating woman. Nonmilk discharge comes out of your breasts through the same nipple openings that carry milk.

      One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your nipples or breasts. A nipple discharge may look milky, or it may be yellow, green, brown or bloody. The consistency of nipple discharge varies from thick and sticky to thin and watery.

      Possible causes of nipple discharge include:

      * Abscess
      * Breast cancer
      * Breast infection
      * Excessive breast stimulation
      * Fibroadenoma
      * Fibrocystic breasts
      * Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
      * Galactorrhea
      * Hormone imbalance
      * Injury or trauma to the breast
      * Intraductal papilloma
      * Mammary duct ectasia
      * Medication use
      * Paget's disease of the breast
      * Pregnancy
      * Prolactinoma

      You need to have this condition checked by a doctor

      good luck

  41. QUESTION:
    What is intraductal papillary carcinoma with oci suspection?

    • ANSWER:
      Ask an Expert: Intraductal papillary carcinoma

      Q. I have recently been diagnosed with a very rare type of breast cancer called Intraductal Papillary Carcinoma. I am looking for any information you might have on this type of breast cancer and how it is treated.

      Answer from the expert staff of breast cancer research at the Robert W. Franz Cancer Research Center at Providence Portland Medical Center: Intraductal papillary carcinomas are indeed rare, accounting for less than 1 percent to 2 percent of breast cancers in women. However, this type of cancer is similar to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in some important ways. It is a non-invasive cancer that is confined to the ducts in the breast. It rarely spreads to the axillary lymph nodes or elsewhere in the body.

      Standard treatment for intraductal papillary carcinoma is the same as treatment for DCIS; namely, either a combination of lumpectomy and radiation or a mastectomy, possibly followed by tamoxifen therapy. Less than 1 percent of patients treated for intraductal papillary carcinoma will have a recurrence.

  42. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know what a "blood filled vascular lesion" of the breast is?
    My 25 yr old daughter had an ultrasound today because she found a lump in the underside of one of her breasts (she's been nursing for 5 mos.) She was told it's a "blood filled vascular lesion" and will have to see a surgeon. Since I went through breast cancer last year (non-invasive DCIS) and radiation, I have some concerns...... I find info online about "vascular lesions", but not blood filled. Any info would be appreciated.

    • ANSWER:

  43. QUESTION:
    Pagets Disease of the nipple on a male?
    I have just recieved an email warning women of Pagets Disease of the nipple. I would like to know does anyone know of any males that have been diagnosed or suffered this disease. My partner had similar symptoms and I want to know if this is common in males too.
    If so what did you notice first and how long did it take for you to go see a doc? My partner is stubborn.

    • ANSWER:
      Paget's Disease of the Nipple: An Overview
      Paget's disease of the nipple, also called Paget's disease of the breast, is an uncommon type of cancer that forms in or around the nipple.

      More than 95 percent of people with Paget's disease of the nipple also have underlying breast cancer; however, Paget's disease of the nipple accounts for less than 5 percent of all cases of breast cancer. For instance, of the estimated 211,240 new cases of breast cancer projected to be diagnosed in 2005, fewer than 11,000 were expected to involve Paget's disease of the nipple.

      Most patients diagnosed with Paget's disease of the nipple are over age 50, but rare cases have been diagnosed in patients in their 20s. The average age at diagnosis is 62 for women and 69 for men. Paget's disease of the nipple is rare among both women and men.

      Paget's disease of the nipple was named after Sir James Paget, a scientist who noted an association between changes in the appearance of the nipple and underlying breast cancer. There are several other unrelated diseases named after Paget, including Paget's disease of the bone and Paget's disease of the vulva.

      Causes of Paget's Disease of the Nipple
      Scientists do not know exactly what causes Paget's disease of the nipple, but two major theories have been suggested for how it develops.

      One theory about the cause of Paget's disease of the nipple proposes that cancer cells, called Paget cells, break off from a tumor inside the breast and move through the milk ducts to the surface of the nipple, resulting in the disease. This theory is supported by the fact that more than 97 percent of patients with Paget's disease also have underlying invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). DCIS, also called intraductal carcinoma, is a condition in which abnormal cells are present only in the lining of the milk ducts in the breast, and have not invaded surrounding tissue or spread to the lymph nodes. DCIS sometimes becomes invasive breast cancer. Invasive breast cancer is cancer that has spread outside the duct into the breast tissue, and possibly into the lymph nodes under the arm or into other parts of the body.

      The other theory concerning the development of Paget's disease of the nipple suggests that skin cells of the nipple spontaneously become Paget cells. This theory is supported by the rare cases of Paget's disease in which there is no underlying breast cancer, and the cases in which the underlying breast cancer is found to be a separate tumor from the Paget's disease.

  44. QUESTION:
    Whats the risk of dying once youve been discovered with breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Quite small. In Canada, DCIS is considered pre-cancer.

  45. QUESTION:
    is there an alernative for Tamoxifen?
    I will be having 6 weeks of radiation for breast cancer(I had a lumpectomy) I am cancer free and was at stage 0. It was suggested that I take Tamoxifen I don't want to.

    • ANSWER:
      Stage 0 breast cancer is either ductal carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ (DCIS or LCIS). It's main risk is of recurrence, and of progression to invasive cancer, either of which are quite curable when they are caught early when followed closely (as you will be after going through this now). In this case, Tamoxifen is basically your only choice- the other drugs are not FDA -approved for DCIS or for prevention indication.
      Assuming you have DCIS, taking tamoxifen does the following:

      Women who take tamoxifen have fewer breast cancer events (defined as new invasive or non-invasive breast tumors in either breast) at 5 years compared with doing nothing, 8.2% vs. 13.4%. With tamoxifen, developing invasive breast cancer in the same breast decreased from 4.2% to 2.1% at 5 years. Tamoxifen also decreased the incidence of other breast tumors (invasive and noninvasive) from 0.8% per year to 0.4% per year.
      So, as you can see, your relative risk is reduced by 40-50% in all cases, but your actual risk is low to start with. For example, looking at risk of having invasive breast cancer develop in your breast which had the DCIS, if you do nothing it is 4.2%. You can decrease this by 50%! with tamoxifen- sounds great, right? However, reducing 4.2 by 50% gives you 2.1%, which is only a 2.1% absolute decrease. This means that if 100 women with DCIS were followed over 5 years who did not take tamoxifen, ~4 would be expected to get an invasive cancer. If all those women took tamoxifen, then only ~2 would get it- not exactly a big decrease right?

      It is reasonable for your doctor to offer tamoxifen (I do too). But it is also reasonable for you to look at that information and not feel the risk:benefit ratio is right for you. ALternatively, you could try it and see how you like it- if all goes well, you can finish out your five year course.

      Either way, please discuss this further with your oncologist.

      Blessings

  46. QUESTION:
    What are clustered microcalcifications in the breast?

    • ANSWER:
      If magnification views reveal additional smaller microcalcifications clustered with those visible on the regular mammogram, the likelihood of cancer increases. http://www.katc.com/global/story.asp?s=1230164&ClientType=Printable

      Sometimes on a mammogram tiny white grains of calcium or microcalcifications are seen. No one knows exactly why, in certain circumstances, the breast lays down calcium. Fortunately the majority of microcalcifications seen on mammogram are due to benign changes and often represents an aging process. There are 4 main classifications of microcalcifications

      1. Malignant Calcifications

      These calcifications are very characteristic and are associated with invasive cancer. No one is sure, why the breast lays down microcalcifications in this situation. One theory is that with malignant/premalignant conditions, there is an abnormal production and turn over or death of cells. With cell death, calcium is a by-product.

      2.Premalignant Calcifications

      These calcifications are associated with pre-cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Sometimes it is easy to distinguish the premalignant calcifications that are associated with DCIS but this is not always the case.

      The breast is made up of fat, fibrous tissue and glandular tissue. The glandular tissue comprises ducts and lobules/ milk glands. The ducts are the hollow tubes by which the milk produced in the lobules / milk glands is carried to the nipple. The ducts and lobules/milk glands are lined with cells. It is these cells which can become pre-cancerous and then have the ability to become cancerous.

      The actual term ductal carcinoma in situ is confusing and alarming. Because the word carcinoma is used the natural assumption is that DCIS is invasive cancer. This is not correct. DCIS is a premalignant or precancerous condition of the breast. It is not invasive cancer but it does have the potential to change to invasive cancer if left in the breast. The main difference betweeen invasive cancer and precancer is that invasive cancer has the ability to invade into blood or lymph vessels and spread through out the body. Precancer or DCIS is not able to do this as the cells are contained within the duct walls ( see diagram ).

      DCIS is graded by the pathologist into either high, intermediate or low grade. It is thought that high grade DCIS definitely becomes invasive in the time frame of a few years while low grade DCIS probably becomes cancerous but over a longer time period - 10-20 years. The intermediate grade DCIS has activity lying between high and low grade.3.Indeterminant Calcifications

      Sometimes the calcification pattern is unclear and the calcifications are called indeterminant . To determine the nature of these microcalcifications, there are two options available.
      * The microcalcifications can be biopsied either surgically or by stereotactic core biopsy .
      *Alternatively a 6 month repeat mammogram can be done. The absence of any change over this time interval would suggest that the calcifications are a result of a benign process. Because the process of precancerous cells turning invasive takes years, reviewing the area through a 6 month mammogram is not felt to jeopardise the situation.

      4. Benign Calcifications

      The major group of calcifications seen on mammogram belongs in this group. http://www.healthguidesonline.com/Breast_Microcalcifications.html

  47. QUESTION:
    what is the life span of the 5th stage breast cancer patient?

    • ANSWER:
      There is no fifth stage... the stages go from 0-4

      Stage 0—Carcinoma in situ
      In stage zero breast cancer, atypical cells have not spread outside of the ducts or lobules, the milk producing organs, into the surrounding breast tissue. Referred to as carcinoma in situ, it is classified in two types:

      Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)— very early cancer that is highly treatable and survivable. If left untreated or undetected, it can spread into the surrounding breast tissue.
      Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS)—not a cancer but an indicator that identifies a woman as having an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

      Stage I—Early stage invasive breast cancer
      In stage 1 breast cancer, the cancer is no larger than two centimeters (approximately an inch) and has not spread to surrounding lymph nodes or outside the breast.

      Stage II
      Stage 2 breast cancer is divided into two categories according to the size of the tumor and whether or not it has spread to the lymph nodes:

      Stage II A Breast Cancer—the tumor is less than two centimeters(approximately an inch) and has spread up to three auxiliary underarm lymph nodes. Or, the tumor has grown bigger than two centimeters, but no larger than five centimeters (approximately two inches) and has not spread to surrounding lymph nodes.
      Stage II B Breast Cancer— the tumor has grown to between two and five centimeters (approximately one to two inches) and has spread to up to three auxiliary underarm lymph nodes. Or, the tumor is larger than five centimeters, but has not spread to the surrounding lymph nodes.

      Stage III
      Stage 3 breast cancer is also divided in to two categories:

      Stage III A Breast Cancer—the tumor is larger than two centimeters but smaller than five centimeters (approximately one to two inches) and has spread to up to nine auxiliary underarm lymph nodes.
      Stage III B Breast Cancer— the cancer has spread to tissues near the breast including the skin, chest wall, ribs, muscles, or lymph nodes in the chest wall or above the collarbone.

      Stage IV
      In stage 4 breast cancer, the cancer has spread to other organs or tissues, such as the liver, lungs, brain, skeletal system, or lymph nodes near the collarbone.

  48. QUESTION:
    What else can "Tamoxifen" be used in?
    I want to know what else it can be used in besides the cancer ....I am training in a pharmacy as I am a undergraduate pharmacist and yesterday I dispensed Novaldex(Tamoxifen) and my supervisor (the pharmacist) told me that Tamoxifen is not always used for breast cancer but also in some hormonal disturbances and troubles in the breast ........I need to know these problems more definitely

    • ANSWER:
      You really need to look this up yourself. As a Pharmacist, you NEED to be able to find answers on your own.

      On example, you find the rest. Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS).


dcis cancer

Cancer Res

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Why are scientists studying negative effects of masturbation?
    Should'nt research money be spend on something else?

    Less mental health satisfaction.
    Brody S, Costa RM. Satisfaction (sexual, life, relationship, and mental health) is associated directly with penile-vaginal intercourse but inversely with other sexual behavior frequencies. J Sex Med 2009;6:1947–54.

    Increased prostate cancer
    Bosland MC. The etiopathogenesis of prostatic cancer with special reference to environmental factors. Adv Cancer Res 1988;51:1–106.

    Worse prostate function, less semen volume, worse quality sperm, lack of elimination of waste products.
    Purvis K, Magnus O, Morkas L, Abyholm T, Rui H. Ejaculate composition after masturbation and coitus in the human male. Int J Androl 1986;9:401–6.

    I found all these and more here:
    http://www.howtostopmasturbation.com/is-masturbation-healthy-science-says-no.html

    • ANSWER:
      They are next level chootiya's. Masturbation a day keeps doctor away.

  2. QUESTION:
    what is the probable way to synhesis the anti cancer drug fom the tobacoo?
    tobacoo having nicotin,and it will help to form an anti cancer drug.so what s the possible route for it?

    • ANSWER:
      Hope this answers your question:
      http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=950DE4DD1E38F937A35757C0A96F948260

  3. QUESTION:
    When being really offensive with my co-workers, should I continue to throw in the “just kidding” disclaimer?
    I really hate them all and wish they would all get seriously debilitating illnesses up to and including cancer. I don’t want to get fired for being verbally abusive but I don’t want there to be any mistake about how much I hate them either. How should I handle this? Thanks for your legally defensible response.

    • ANSWER:
      I call my co-workers b*tches, wh*res, skanks, hookers, and insult them in so many different ways.

      Of course, they call me the same, but we really all love each other... even though we're never kidding about it. I think you're good!

  4. QUESTION:
    Does anyone have two dark grains of something on the bottom of their circumcision?
    Between the glans penis and the body is the furrow.

    On the bottom part of the circumcision furrow (closest to the body when flaccid) I have a little fold of skin. If I dig into that fold I find what looks like a little a speck of ground pepper. What is it? They'res one on each side of the fold.

    The grain grows back if you pick it out. (But it stings for like half a second if you do it)

    • ANSWER:
      I can answer this. This is a black spot that can be anything, usually dirt. It can lead to cancer if you see any changes in the size color or shape. I know because I have this and that's what my doctor said. A lot of cut men have this and you should watch this to make sure nothing happens.
      We used to think that circumcising was healthier, but really it isn't. There are just as many problems.

  5. QUESTION:
    what happens if i put my hand on a copy machine and copy it?
    i put my hand on a copying machine and copied it, my parents told me it has a lot of radiation and i will get cancer. is that true?

    • ANSWER:
      No. Your parents told you that because they didn't want a lot of fingerprints on their copier. Basically if you put your hand on a copier and copy it you end up with a low res black and white picture of your hand.

  6. QUESTION:
    What issue or cause do you think should receive it's own awareness month?
    For example, they'res mental health month, a breast cancer month, a black history month. If you could choose any issue/cause that's in the world today, and have the entire world or your country recognize, what would it be?

    • ANSWER:
      Stray Animals Day

  7. QUESTION:
    What is the pill called that makes you ovulate more than one egg?
    I'm trying to find out what the pill is called that a fertility specialists gives you to make you release more than one egg. You start taking it at the beginning of your cycle. I'm trying to research it to see if it might be something we want to look into. Are there any other oral things I should look into? I don't want to do shots or IVF. Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      There are two pills. The most popular and well-tested is called Clomid. I got pregnant the first month I took it after TTC for 3 years at the age of 38. So yes, it works, but the side effects can be debilitating. You should never use it without first having tests from a fertility specialist because of the (sometimes fatal to the woman) risk of Ovarian Hyperactivity Syndrome. The other test is actually a cancer drug which some REs will give for fertility. It also increases the strength of ovulation, but again, requires some simple but life-saving tests (blood tests) from the specialists. Best of luck to you!

  8. QUESTION:
    What, if any, particular name might there be for the hair that would grow along one's scalp?
    I would like to be able to refer specifically to such without having to through such an unsightly phrase as "the length of hair growing atop one's head", and when the lone word "hair" would be ambiguous.

    • ANSWER:
      Try the links below :

      Hair gives little sun protection for scalp (ABC News in Science)12 Sep 2008 ... Receptor gene linked to melanoma risk; Hair gives little sun protection for scalp; Controversy over moisturiser-cancer link ...
      www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2008/09/12/2362010.htm - 32k - Cached - Similar pages

      Simple Rules For Cultivating Hair.; Loosen the Scalp by Daily ...dab of :tonio rubbed in a little. After this is completed the hair maw be ' seized at the.en/s in' the .hnds and .. This .helps , to dr the scalp, ...
      query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0B13FE3C5A17738DDDAA0994D8415B878C... - 19k - Cached - Similar pages

      Tony Maleedy Trichology Hair Loss & Scalp TreatmentTony Maleedy Trichology Hair Loss Scalp Treatment, ... It encourages better hair growth and ensures that the scalp is healthy and free from flaking and ...
      www.ukhairdressers.com/store/details.asp?ID=tmhlst - 64k - Cached - Similar pages

  9. QUESTION:
    Investigate Henrietta Lacks. Why is she an important person in the history of biology?
    Investigate Henrietta Lacks. Why is she an important person in the history of biology and what was her contribution to medical science?

    • ANSWER:
      You're in luck! I actually wrote a paper about this a couple semester's ago. I did in fact write this myself.

      Book Review: The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot

      1. Introduction
      The topic of this paper is a review of the book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. This book discusses the origin and accomplishments of the HeLa cell line, named after Henrietta Lacks. I have selected this topic because I think HeLa cells in some way have affected every living person on the planet and the circumstances surrounding their initial procurement, development and subsequent monetization have significant political, economic, social and ideological impacts on our society. The discussion of political, economic, social and ideological impacts on society can be referred to as the Williams Conceptualization Model or PIES. This theoretical concept defines a framework from which it is understood that politics, economics, social/culture are all functions that are designed to serve the prevailing ideology. This framework works when viewed within the corresponding framework of a structural analysis. A structural analysis in this case states that our society is based on three levels, the individual or micro, the systemic or macro and the ideological or meso. This type of structural analysis says that society follows a set of agreed upon or pre-determined ideologies and that these ideologies are carried out or realized by systems that enforce the ideologies and the actual individuals and enforcers on the ground level are called functionaries. For example, using the health care industry as an analogy, we can say that that the overriding ideology that allows this industry to exist is the notion that Americans want, or rely on, others to keep them healthy. The systems that facilitate and perpetuate the existing ideology are insurance companies like MetLife, Technology companies like GE and health care companies like HCA. The micro level, or functionaries, consists of patients who directly use or benefit from these systems and doctors or nurses who directly deliver services under the supervision of the presiding system.
      2. Pertinent Legal and Historical Background
      A major theme in this book concerns the development of the HeLa cell line and its use in the scientific community. The book discusses the cells origins as samples of cancerous tissues were removed from Henrietta’s cervix during the initial diagnosis and before the treatment of the cancer. These cells were grown in a lab by Dr. George Gey, the attending physician and researcher, and eventually labeled “HeLa” cells after Mrs. Lacks' name. HeLa cells were the first cells that were proven to be reproducible. When it was proven that HeLa cells could survive packaging and shipping, the first cells proven to do so, HeLa factories were setup around the world under the supervision of Dr. Gey. HeLa studies contributed to many important scientific discoveries, such as the development of the polio vaccine and of medicines used to treat Parkinson's disease and cancer. HeLa cells have even been sent into space for study and been involved in nuclear testing. Over 50 million tons of these cells have been grown and studied. “HeLa has helped build thousands of careers, not to mention more than 60,000 scientific studies, with nearly 10 more being published every day, revealing the secrets of everything from aging and cancer to mosquito mating and the cellular effects of working in sewers” (Margonelli, 2010). There is also the story of HeLa cells having a dubious past as well. HeLa cells were involved in what was dubbed the “HeLa Bomb”, where HeLa cells were found to contaminate most isolated human cell lines in existence in Russia and the United States. “In 1966 it became clear that HeLa had contaminated hundreds of cell lines, destroying research as far away as Russia” (Margonelli, 2010). The recognition that most cell lines that were being used for research were actually contaminated rendered millions of dollars of research, findings and even patents useless. The racial connotation at the time was that black cells contaminated white cells, based on the one-drop rule at the time concerning federal racial classification. “By 1925, almost every state had some form of a one-drop law on the books. These were the laws that empowered bureaucrats to insistently label families of mixed ancestry as black, despite the actual percentages” (Wright, 1994).

  10. QUESTION:
    How do I keep a pimple from scarring?
    Ok, i know i wasn't supposed to pick it but i did. Now it's really red and like, an open WOUND. What do I put on it to dry it up without getting bacteria and stuff in it? And what can I put on it later to keep it from scarring?

    • ANSWER:
      get Burt's bees blemish stick or for scars try Dr. Burt's Res-Q Ointment haven't used it yet but you can try it for me and see how well it works. it is all natural and free of harmful cancer causing ingredients like sodium laureth sulfates and DEAS.

  11. QUESTION:
    What is the best romance sign for a Scorpio?
    Just out of curiosity, what is the best romantic sign for a Scorpion?

    • ANSWER:
      Love Match: Scorpio Woman Dating Taurus Man

      This is another powerful love match. In fact, when a Scorpio woman dates a Taurus man, she might have finally met her match in every sense of the word. He is her equal.
      The Scorpio woman is penetrating and wants to go beneath the surface of everything whereas the Taurus man is practical. They have an intuitive link because the Scorpio woman is a master of the sixth sense whereas the Taurus man is master of all the physical senses.

      Sexually this becomes quite obvious. The Taurus man ignites passion in the Scorpio woman and she relishes his calm mastery during lovemaking. They each succumb to the inevitable soul connection as they reunite during sex.

      Love Match: Scorpio Woman Dating Cancer Man

      When a Scorpio woman dates a Cancer man, it will either be unforgettable in a good way or a terrifying way. The creativity and sensitivity between these two is overwhelming and the intuitive link powerful.
      The Scorpio woman is more intense than her Cancer man. As they date it will become apparent that both have extraordinary mood shifts but they each deal with their moods differently.

      Sexually, the Scorpio woman and Cancer man will be protective of one another and love each other with great care and feeling. They may cry during sex in the early dating stage as they become enmeshed in one another’s energy field.

      Love Match: Scorpio Woman Dating Virgo Man

      The Scorpio woman and Virgo man will discover a great friendship during dating time but may not be the most social love match.
      The Scorpio woman and Virgo man both value their solitude. She needs her secret time and he needs time to purify their soul. They will certainly discover a soul level bond after the first few dates. The Virgo man has the ability to temper the Scorpio woman’s devouring nature.

      Sexually they are in complete harmony. The Scorpio woman will thrill at her Virgo man’s precision and he will delight in her eroticism.

      Love Match: Scorpio Woman Dating Scorpio Man

      The Scorpio woman and Scorpio man will either date and become the ultimate love match or date and sting one another to death. There will be no in between.
      The Scorpio woman and Scorpio man both agree that emotional intensity is their way of life. They can instantly reach the depths of the other’s soul and yet if there is a conflict neither the Scorpio woman nor the Scorpio man is likely to forgive or forget.

      Sex and power go hand in hand for these two and when they make love it is an overwhelming experience. The Scorpio man and Scorpio woman will communicate telepathically with their bodies as they make love.

      Love Match: Scorpio Woman Dating Capricorn Man

      This dating game will turn into an ambitious, powerful love match easily. Both signs are experts at power and enjoy wielding it. Not only do they make a wonderful couple but they will also make a perfect business relationship.
      The Scorpio woman fears her deepest secrets being exposed but the Capricorn man doesn’t care about them all that much so she can relax more as she dates him. Together they are an enigma and use their resources well.

      Sexually they are a perfect match. The Scorpio woman will come on strong initially but the Capricorn man will be able to keep up with her since he’s all about being on top.

      Love Match: Scorpio Woman Dating Pisces Man

      This will be emotional intensity to the hilt! From before the first date there was a telepathic connection so strong between the Scorpio woman and Pisces man that it’s downright eerie. They may have dreamt of one another before actually meeting.
      The Scorpio woman and Pisces man are a creative powerhouse and will soar to new levels of imagination together. The Scorpio woman helps her Pisces man embrace a sense of self while he helps her recognize she truly cannot control everything.

      Sexually, they are beyond this world for certain. They will put each other in a hypnotic trance during lovemaking and block out the rest of the world.

  12. QUESTION:
    A Lot of people are saying that liquid chlorophyll has no benefits?
    I have been taking this stuff for about 3 months for anemia and a bad digestive track. I took it under doctors orders and have noticed lots of changes in my health and weight. I had lots of problems that dont effect me know. Even my acne has gone away. It makes sense that it should work because its just like eating a liquid salad. Why do people say it does not work.

    • ANSWER:
      Double-blind studies have been made on chlorophyll and chlorophyllin--both bioactive constituents present in green leaves.

      Chlorophyll and chlorophyllin are able to form tight molecular complexes with certain chemicals known or suspected to cause cancer, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in tobacco smoke (1), some heterocyclic amines found in cooked meat (2), and aflatoxin-B1 (3). See a computer-generated molecular model of a chlorophyllin-aflatoxin-B1 complex. The binding of chlorophyll or chlorophyllin to these potential carcinogens may interfere with gastrointestinal absorption of potential carcinogens, reducing the amount that reaches susceptible tissues (4). A recently completed study by Linus Pauling Institute investigator Professor George S. Bailey showed that chlorophyllin and chlorophyll were equally effective at blocking uptake of aflatoxin-B1 in humans, using accelerator mass spectrometry to track an ultra-low dose of the carcinogen (C Jubert et al., manuscript submitted).

      For more information about the therapeutic application of chlorophyll, please go to the source webpage listed below.
      ------------------------------------------

      1. Tachino N, Guo D, Dashwood WM, Yamane S, Larsen R, Dashwood R. Mechanisms of the in vitro antimutagenic action of chlorophyllin against benzo[a]pyrene: studies of enzyme inhibition, molecular complex formation and degradation of the ultimate carcinogen. Mutat Res. 1994;308(2):191-203. (PubMed)

      2. Dashwood R, Yamane S, Larsen R. Study of the forces of stabilizing complexes between chlorophylls and heterocyclic amine mutagens. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1996;27(3):211-218. (PubMed)

      3. Breinholt V, Schimerlik M, Dashwood R, Bailey G. Mechanisms of chlorophyllin anticarcinogenesis against aflatoxin B1: complex formation with the carcinogen. Chem Res Toxicol. 1995;8(4):506-514. (PubMed)

      4. Egner PA, Munoz A, Kensler TW. Chemoprevention with chlorophyllin in individuals exposed to dietary aflatoxin. Mutat Res. 2003;523-524:209-216. (PubMed)

  13. QUESTION:
    Can someone help me find ACCURATE AND CREDIBLE journal articles about alternative medicine?
    it is for my biology class i am in college...i cant find any good ones, anything involving alternative medicine as long as its a good journal article not only someones opinion. facts as well thank you !

    • ANSWER:
      I did a simple search on Pub Med using the search string "herbal medicine" alone. (Not even a specific herb, extract or compound, nor any other modality!) This simple search string yields 13,240 results.

      These studies are published in journals such as:
      Int Arch Allergy Immunol.
      J Obstet Gynaecol Res.
      J Ethnobiol Ethnomed.
      Neuroscience.
      Int J Gynaecol Obstet.
      J Gastroenterol Hepatol.
      Pediatr Surg Int.
      Clin Cancer Res.
      J Ocul Biol Dis Infor
      Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry.
      Clin Exp Immunol

      ... You know, these are just a few of the journals which you "skeptics" say must 'de facto' be ridiculous and shammy pseudoscience mags. (Snort!) And you would purport that all 13 THOUSAND (+) are just poorly designed drivel... that major mainstream peer-reviewed scientific journals chose to print? Seriously? Tsk.

      Gentlemen... For shame!!!

  14. QUESTION:
    Is it true that is you eat a lot of orbits you can get cancer?
    Im asking this cause every time i want to buy orbits they warning me cause if I eat alot I can get cancer!
    ORBITS ARE CHEWING GUM!
    They... are my parents DUH!

    • ANSWER:
      If one of the ingredients in this chewing gum is xylitol. Then it might cause cancer. Here is what one website says:

      "Wrigley has made relatively few missteps. One came in the mid-1970's, when it introduced Orbit, a sugarless gum that ran into trouble after its main sweetener, xylitol, was judged a possible carcinogen in a British research study."
      http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE1D6173FF937A15752C1A96E948260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2

  15. QUESTION:
    What is a balanced diet for a freshwater turtle?
    I just recently bought a baby freshwater turtle from a local pet store, and can't seem to get a straight answer of water a balanced diet is for a freshwater turtle. I'm looking for a diet and a list of items I can and should feed him. (I am aware I have to feed him in smaller portions cause he's only a baby) Thanks!

    P.S. Any websites you could also provide to help would be greatly appreciated :~)
    Red Eared Slider

    • ANSWER:
      Turtles are usually opportunistic feeders. In other words, they grab it when they can because they really aren't sure when they might get the chance to eat again. Do not be fooled---turtles will learn to recognize you and any food containers you have. They will quickly have you trained! Overfeeding is one of the most common mistakes in captive care. Keep in mind that they are not always hungry...but they are always looking for a meal because it's how they survive in the wild. They don't know that you are going to feed them routinely, so keep a regular schedule and try not to veer from it.

      As far as a diet goes, you want something high in calcium yet low in phosphorus. Stay away from fatty foods and those with a high carbohydrate and protein content unless the turtle is a strict carnivore. Don't over-feed or under-feed anything; even if it is good for their diet.

      In nature, turtle diet varies wildly by species, locality and season. Sometimes even by gender (i.e.: some map turtles). Alligator snappers, RES, female Barbour’s map turtles ( the latter with considerable mollusk intake and specialized large head with crushing jaws vs males being more insectivorous)…a RES or painted turtle in a lush river backwater vs a poorly vegetated cattle pond…the sparsely vegetated and relatively invertebrate-poor days of early Spring vs the abundance of late Summer…all these factors play important roles. What’s more, temperate locality turtles may have a few months of hibernation, rest periods without eating, and when they emerge cool water and scarce prey and vegetation may extend the effective Winter’s fast. Wild turtles generally have more sun exposure and in theory can thus synthesize more Vitamin D3. There’s more to the issue than nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals). There’s also the question of food’s relative proportions and physical characteristics like fiber/roughage content (as when we read high-fiber diets give humans lower colon cancer risk).

  16. QUESTION:
    What REALLY CAUSES Coronary Heart Disease - Now We Know That Saturated Fat And Cholesterol Absolutely DON'T
    What really causes coronary heart disease?

    Ancel Keys's research has ZERO scientific validity as he LEFT OUT data available from 22 other that CONTRADICTED his theory. Also his false theory was an epidemiological study - which is the LOWEST of the low and is not good enough.

    Most importantly there has not been one tightly controlled clinical intervention trial that has ever shown saturate dfat to increase CJHD mortality or incidence.

    So what REALLY CAUSES CHD?

    • ANSWER:
      Funny video
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rHXXTCc-IVg

      There are many factors that contribute to development of atherosclerosis, but the primary cause is the profound changes that have taken place in the American diet during the past century, particularly:

      1. Imbalance in consumption of essential fatty acids (too little omega-3 as in fish, too much omega-6 as in corn oil, soybean oil, etc.)
      2. Excess consumption of carbohydrates particularly sugars and high fructose corn syrup.
      3. Eating too much (too many calories).
      4. Free radicals in process liquid vegetable oils and trans fatty acids partially hydrogenated vegetable oils.
      5. Nutrient deficiencies.

      The kind of diet that the American Heart Association recomends is contributing to the high rates of cancer, heart disease and stroke. Eat liquid vegetable oils and margarine stay away from saturated fat like butter and coconut oil....blah...blah...blah..
      Has anyone told the AHA that butter and coconut oils are the healthiest fats on the planet.
      http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4668
      They fail to mention that the liquid vegetable oils and tub margarines are rancid oils. Because high heat is used to process these oils and the high heat makes the oils rancid (free radicals) and food companies will deodorize the oils to hide the rancid smell. So all those vegetable oils you see on the shelf that look clean and don't smell bad are really rancid. Unless it says "Cold Pressed" oil it's ok. That means high heat was not used in processing. But you should never cook with vegetable oils because the polyunsaturated fats are very vulnerable to damage. It's safer to cook with the more saturated fats or monounsaturated fats like beef tallow, lard, coconut oil, olive oil, sesame oil... http://www.westonaprice.org/knowyourfats/index.html

      The myths and truths about nutrition:
      http://www.westonaprice.org/mythstruths/mtnutrition.html

      There are two kinds of LDL-cholesterol. The light, fluffy LDL is good. Light fluffy LDL is a building block of lipoprotein, so the fact that it is being increased for repair is probably good.

      The small dense LDL is thought to be bad. One study showed that a lowfat diet in children raises this bad kind of cholesterol.
      Dreon, MD et al, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000 71:1611-1616).

      The typical American diet results in increased production of triglycerides, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol, and a preponderance of small, dense LDL-cholesterol particles, a condition referred to as the atherogenic lipid triad. The increase in the atherogenic potential of LDL arises from the increase in the number of small dense LDL particles, not from the cholesterol content per se. Small dense LDL particles more easily penetrate the arterial wall, initiating atherosclerotic injury, which leads to the development of inflammation and plaque.
      Proc Nutr Soc, 199 Feb:58(1);163-69.

      The development of highly atherogenic small dense LDL particles is thought to be due to high insulin levels and excess triglycerides that result from excessive carbohydrate and caloric intake and from an imbalance of essential fatty acids. Res Commun Moi Pathol Pharmacol, 2003:113-114:87-95 and Prostoglandins Leukot Essent Fatty acids. 1997 Oct;57(4-5):379-85.

      Other factors that contribute to atherosclerosis are smoking, inactivity and stress.

      It is not unusual for those who adopt a healthy low-carbohydrate diet to experience a reduction on Triglycerides and increase HDL by 50 to 75 percent, indicating a dramatic decrease in insulin resistance, inflammation and levels of small LDL particles, and further indicating reduced risk of diabetes, cornorary artery disease and adverse cardiac events.

      http://www.westonaprice.org/traditional_diets/sad_changes_american_standard.html

      http://www.westonaprice.org/moderndiseases/hd.html

  17. QUESTION:
    Did Jacqueline Kennedy ever donate to charities?
    Please give an answer, even if she didn't. That way I'll know she didn't, and I'll stop searching for an answer.
    Thanks, for a report.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes - - -

      Her will says it all // her favorite college and several causes were blessed.... Jacqueline was by nature very giving and sincere in her giving =------

      http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9405E4D9113BF931A35755C0A962958260
      """Onassis Leaves Estate to Charity and Her Children

      Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis' will was filed yesterday in Surrogate Court in Manhattan, and it leaves most of her estate to charity and her two children.

      The will does not specify the estate's value, except to say it is more than 0,000.

      Mrs. Onassis, who died on cancer on May 19, left all of her papers to her children, John F. Kennedy Jr. and Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg, and asked them to respect her wishes for privacy and "take whatever action is warranted to prevent the display, publication or distribution, in whole or in part."

      The will, dated March 22, was executed by Mrs. Onassis' companion, Maurice Tempelsman, and a friend, Alexander Forger, a lawyer.

      Mr. Tempelsman had handled Mrs. Onassis' finances since the death of her second husband, Aristotle Onassis, and is thought to have at least quadrupled the million she secured from his estate. Mrs. Onassis, 64, left him "my Greek alabaster head of a woman."

      Mrs. Onassis left her children 0,000 each as well as the principal of a trust fund left to her by President Kennedy. They will also will receive her Fifth Avenue apartment, two properties on Martha's Vineyard, furniture, rugs, artwork, silver, china, glass and jewelry. Provision for Foundation

      Mrs. Onassis directed that any remaining assets be used to establish the C & J Foundation. The foundation, bearing her children's initials, will make gifts to charities selected by the children and Mr. Tempelsman, but Mrs. Onassis requested that "preferential consideration" go to charities "making a significant difference in the cultural or social betterment of mankind or the relief of human suffering."

      She also directed that the foundation be dissolved after 24 years, with the principal going to her grandchildren. Mrs. Schlossberg has three children, Rose, Tatiana and John.

      To her stepbrother, Hugh D. Auchincloss Jr., she left Hammersmith Farm in Newport, R.I. The farm was left to Mrs. Onassis by her mother, Janet Lee Auchincloss.

      Mrs. Onassis made no provision in the will for her sister, Lee B. Radziwill, because, she said, "I have already done so during my lifetime." ""

      Peace................ o o o p p p o o o p p p po o o

  18. QUESTION:
    IS IT OKAY TO FIDDLE AROUND WITH MY RED EARED SLIDER TURTLE?
    i have a very small RES turtle. and im just so fascinated wid her that i keep on removing her from her tank and letting her walk around my house. i hold her a lot. but im beginning to worry, isit okay to do it or am i hurting her? please tell me. if i am i wil immediately stop. and is it a good idea to keep turtles and goldfishes in the same tank?

    • ANSWER:
      the goldfish would get ate or at least torn up fins from the turtle. turtles in the wild eat fish and yours should be too.

      anything your turtles touches can get salmonella bacteria on it. even if only dirty turtle water touches something, it can leave bacteria. do not put anything fropm the turtle tank in your kitchen sink. clean turtle stuff in laundry room sink if possible. clean sink when done every time.

      also holding it too often will stress it out and it might not eat.

      http://www.austinsturtlepage.com/Care/caresheet-red_ear_slider.htm

      http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm048151.htm

      Salmonella can cause a serious or even life-threatening infection in people, even though the bacteria do not make reptiles or amphibians sick. An example is the 2007 death of a four-week-old baby in Florida linked to Salmonella from a small turtle. The DNA of the Salmonella from the turtle matched that from the infant.

      People infected with Salmonella may have diarrhea, fever, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Symptoms usually appear 6 to 72 hours after contact with the bacteria and last about 2 to 7 days. Most people recover without treatment, but some get so sick that they need to be treated in a hospital.

      Who Is at Risk?
      Anyone can get Salmonella infection, but the risk is highest in

      infants
      young children
      elderly people
      people with lowered natural resistance to infection due to pregnancy, cancer, HIV/AIDS, diabetes, and other diseases
      "All reptiles and amphibians are commonly contaminated with Salmonella," says Joseph C. Paige, D.V.M., a Consumer Safety Officer in the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Center for Veterinary Medicine. "But it is the small turtles that most often are put in contact with young children, where consequences of infection are likely to be severe." Because of this health risk, since 1975, FDA has banned the sale of small turtles with a shell less than four inches long.

      "Young children are ingenious in constructing ways to infect themselves," says Paige. "They put the small turtles in their mouths or, more often, they touch the turtles or dangle their fingers in the turtle tank water and then put their hands in their mouths. Also, sometimes the tanks and reptile paraphernalia are cleaned in the kitchen sink, and food and eating utensils get cross-contaminated."

      Surfaces such as countertops, tabletops, bare floors, and carpeting can also become contaminated with the bacteria if the turtle is allowed to roam on them. The bacteria may survive for a long period of time on these surfaces.

      Health officials found that the strain of Salmonella that caused the outbreak in people was the same strain found on many of the turtles (or their habitats) belonging to those who became ill.

      More recently, frogs were the source of an outbreak of Salmonella infection. As of Dec. 30, 2009, CDC has received reports of infection in 85 people in 31 states due to contact with water frogs, including African dwarf frogs. Water frogs commonly live in aquariums or fish tanks. The outbreak, which affected mostly children, likely began in April 2009, and some infected people needed to be hospitalized.

      Advice for Consumers
      Don't buy small turtles or other reptiles or amphibians for pets or as gifts.
      If your family is expecting a child, remove any reptile or amphibian from the home before the infant arrives.
      Keep reptiles and amphibians out of homes with children under 5 years old, the elderly, or people with weakened immune systems.
      Do not allow reptiles or amphibians to roam freely through the house, especially in food preparation areas.
      Do not clean aquariums or other supplies in the kitchen sink. Use bleach to disinfect a tub or other place where reptile or amphibian habitats are cleaned.
      Always wash hands thoroughly with soap and water after touching any reptile or amphibian, its housing, or anything (for example, food) that comes in contact with the animal or its housing.
      Be aware that Salmonella infection can be caused by contact with reptiles or amphibians in petting zoos, parks, child day care facilities, or other locations.
      Watch for symptoms of Salmonella infection, such as diarrhea, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and headache. Call your doctor if you or your family have any of these symptoms.

  19. QUESTION:
    Is it true that if you have a history of breast cancer on your mother's side, you should avoid soy products?
    My mother is a breast cancer survivor and she told me to not eat too much soy, is this true?
    Good Luck Barney, I hope everything goes o.k. for you.

    • ANSWER:
      I think that's going to have to be a personal decision or something you need to discuss with your primary physician. Some doctors say yes and other say no. I always thought soy reduces your chance of getting breast cancer. I also believe Asian women eat a lot of soy and they have low incidents of breast cancer. When they adopt to the American diet, by eat more red meat (Mickey D), junk food etc, then their chances of getting cancer increase.

      Check it out.

      FAQ - General Soy Questions
      How many servings of soy should I get daily? • How much fat is in soy? ... including postmenopausal women with breast cancer, to eat soy-based foods in ...
      www.hcf-nutrition.org/faq_generalsoy.html - 15k - Similar pages

      Soy/Phytoestrogen Studies Negative & Positive
      They eat the whole food as miso, tofu, tempeh, edamame, etc. ... Breast Cancer Res Treat 1997 pad Chemoprevention in Rats by Dietary Soy ...
      www.annieappleseedproject.org/soyseemtolow.html - 27k - Similar pages

  20. QUESTION:
    What should be the minimum gap between two chest HRCT scans?
    I had HRCT scan performed on Light Speed Ultra 8 slice MDCT scanner using
    0.625mm collimation Axial and Coronal reconstructions at 1mm done on 17/02/11.
    Please advise when it is safe for me to carry out another scan.

    • ANSWER:
      There is no easy answer to your question. Hi-res CT scans expose patients to high levels of radiation. A typical chest CT is equivalent to around 100 conventional chest X-rays of radiation. For comparison, humans are exposed to around 40 r-rays worth of radiation from natural sources. In other words, a chest CT is produces about 2-3x the amount of natural radiation.

      This comparison does not tell the whole picture, however. The amount of damage that an organ suffers depends on both the dose and intensity of the exposure, as well as the target tissue. For instance, 100 X-rays to the whole body is not as harmful as 100 X-rays to a single organ. Similarly, there is a difference between 100 X-rays over a year vs. all at once.

      Certain types of cells are more at risk to develop damage and cancer than others. Organs at higher risk include reproductive organs, bone marrow, and thyroid.

      There is not enough information at present to determine the exact cancer risk due to multiple CT scans. However, people should get as little radiation exposure as possible. If a repeat CT scan is unavoidable, then it would be wise to space it out as long as possible before repeating it.

  21. QUESTION:
    Please help!! How do I get rid of fear of dying for the sake of my one and 5 years olds?!?
    I cannot get the thoughts and fear and sadness out of my mind. I am in therapy, taking medication but nothing helps. Please if anyone has gone through this please let me know how to get out of this!
    Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      It's good that you are in therapy and that you want to change this for your kids, but you also need to change it for yourself.

      We will all die one day, but that's okay, that's what will happen to all of us. I know it is scary to let go of that feeling of control and to just be at peace with that thought, but worrying about it only sucks you of today's joy and sucks the joy of today for your children and loved ones as well. Heaven is all that awaits us when we pass on and what a lovely place to be! If it's your fear of leaving your children, perhaps getting everything in order so that you know they will be taken care of will make you feel better, this Web site can help you do that:
      http://www.findingdulcinea.com/guides.topic__ss_categories_ss_health_ss_End-of-Life-Issues.xa_1.xa_1.html.

      BUT I think that this is more of an anxiety issue, in which case, I think you should read the last lecture by Randy Pausch, who was a professor who died of pancreatic cancer, but before he passed away he gave his "Last Lecture" and in doing so, helped millions of people live a better and happier life by helping them realize and appreciate each day matters and to not take it for granted:
      http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=1&url=http%3A%2F%2Fdownload.srv.cs.cmu.edu%2F~pausch%2FRandy%2Fpauschlastlecturetranscript.pdf&ei=Hf6KSZqkO56DtweMzbmTBw&usg=AFQjCNG8nKiy_jIehTHPtwqTtNQNdG4SnQ&sig2=BAUcHc123jevC2ZoMqP1fw

      God Bless you are in my thoughts and prayers.

  22. QUESTION:
    Who is a recent tragic historical figure?
    I have have history paper due soon and I need to know who to write about, here is the exact question:

    King Saul (I Samuel) is one of the Old Testament's few real tragic characters. In a well crafted essay (2-3 pages in length), discuss Saul's meteoric rise and pathetic fall from grace (i.e. what makes him a "tragic" character.) Compare his story to that of a recent historical figure who met with a similar fate.

    I appreciate all your help, thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Well, I've always thought that California Supreme Court Chief Justice Rose Bird was a tragic figure.

      She was appointed Chief Justice under the administration of Governor Jerry Brown. She was a legal scholar who had no prior judicial experience and very liberal views, among which was a very strong opposition to the death penalty. By all accounts she was a a person of great personal integrity, very ethical in her thinking, with a strong sense of the humane. She was also a respected legal scholar. She was among the first women to be appointed to a high judicial post.

      I can't remember how many death penalty cases came before the court for review during her tenure, but I can remember how many death sentence cases she voted to affirm: zero.

      Her refusal to yield on this issue, as well as some of her other liberal stances, angered a lot of the conservative politicians in California. (Despite our reputation as a very liberal state, California has produced some of the most conservative politicians in the nation-- among them Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan.)

      A recall campaign was mounted against Rose Bird and several of her colleagues in 1986, and she and several of her fellow justices were removed from the court.

      The expectation was that Bird would do something like go on to lecture at a prestigious law school, become a legal columnist, or otherwise stay on the legal scene. Instead, she withdrew from public life and became increasingly reclusive. In 1999 she died of breast cancer.

      She's still villified by the conservative political establishment, but I think she's a woman who had awesome courage and integrity. She opened the doors for a lot of women who have made careers in law and the judiciary.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_Bird
      http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/e/a/1999/12/06/NEWS13041.dtl&hw=birds&sn=004&sc=598
      http://www.paloaltoonline.com/weekly/morgue/spectrum/2000_Jan_5.GUEST05.html
      http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D01E0D9133EF935A35751C1A96F958260

  23. QUESTION:
    Is there a correlation between endometriosis and ovarian cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      From the ERC (www.endocenter.org), posted to their listserv at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/erc:

      Endometriosis-ovarian cancer link 'underestimated'
      Source: Human Reproduction 2006; 21: 1237-42

      Researchers assess the relative risks of individual cancers over a long period of follow-up among women with endometriosis.

      Women with endometriosis appear to be up to twice as likely as the general population to develop ovarian cancer, say researchers.

      Co-existence of endometriosis and cancer has been reported several times. One study showed an overall relative risk of 1.2 in women with endometriosis compared with those without it, and risks for ovarian cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of 1.9 and 1.8, respectively.

      Anna Melin (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden) and colleagues evaluated whether these risk ratios stood in an extended study. They identified women (n = 64,492) who were discharged from a Swedish hospital with a diagnosis of endometriosis between 1969 and 2000, and assessed their incidence of cancer, using the National Swedish Cancer Register.

      Excluding the first year of follow-up, there were 3349 cases of cancer. The overall risk of cancer was no higher than that expected on the basis of the female Swedish population, but ovarian cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.43), endocrine tumors (SIR = 1.36), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SIR = 1.24), and brain tumors (SIR = 1.22) were all more prevalent.

      An even higher risk of ovarian cancer was seen in women with early diagnosed (SIR = 2.01) and long-standing (SIR = 2.23) endometriosis, respectively.

      "This study has shown an increased risk of some types of malignancy, above all ovarian cancer, in women with endometriosis," the researchers conclude.

      "The material indicates that the risk might have been underestimated."

      19 April 2006

      ------------------

      Endometriosis & Malignancies

      We know that Endometriosis can impact every aspect of our lives, from our interpersonal relationships to our careers; from our ability to have children to our ability to get out of bed in the morning. It can change our views on life and how we think about ourselves - and how we think about others. The consequences of Endometriosis touch every part of us, inside and out, prompting some women to refer to their disease as a "benign cancer." Can Endometriosis go one step further and actually turn malignant? Can it even place us at risk for certain cancers and other illnesses? Unfortunately, research shows that for some women, it may.

      Malignant transformation of Endometriosis can and does occur. Some researchers even estimate that approximately 0.7-1.0% of patients with Endometriosis have lesions that will ultimately undergo malignant transformation, and urge consideration of performing bilateral oophorectomy at the time of abdominal surgery in patients with significant disease.(1)

      We have also begun learning of the elevated risks women with the disease have for certain cancers, including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The reasons why remain unclear; however, women with Endometriosis are more likely take certain drugs, such as Progestagens, and are more likely to have had their ovaries or uterus removed, another factor that influences hormone levels and possibly increases cancer risk. One patient undergoing Tamoxifen therapy was discovered to have malignant endometrioid neoplasia arising within her Endometriosis, suggesting to her physicians that the Tamoxifen, as a result of its estrogenic effects, caused proliferative and malignant changes in her disease.(2)

      In a similar study targeting women who had undergone hysterectomy with oophorectomy because of Endometriosis, authors noted that "Endometriosis can undergo estrogen-dependent changes similar to the endometrium and may carry a risk of developing hyperplasia and carcinoma during unopposed estrogen stimulation." The researchers concluded that unopposed estrogen therapy may lead to premalignant or malignant transformation in the residual foci of Endometriosis and encouraged the addition of progestins to estrogen replacement therapy.(3)

      It is also possible that women with Endometriosis may be screened more often certain cancers (i.e., breast) and therefore are more likely to be diagnosed. Endometriosis has also been linked to a lack of physical activity and exposure to the environmental contaminant, dioxin. These two factors may be to blame for the cancer risk, rather than Endometriosis itself.

      Another link being investigated is the role genetic alterations might play in the development and potentially malignant progression of the Endometriotic lesions.(4)

      Age may also be a factor. One study specifically investigating the connection between endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary and Endometriosis in postmenopausal women suggested that ovarian Endometriosis in the postmenopausal patient has the potential to undergo malignant transformation and, when detected, "should be removed surgically."(5)

      Still further overwhelming evidence exists of these malignant transformations and elevated risks. Findings of a survey conducted of over 4,000 Endometriosis patients in the United States and Canada have indicated possible links to other serious medical conditions, including a 9.8% incidence of melanoma, compared with 0.01% in the general population, a 26.9% incidence of breast cancer, compared with 0.1% in the general population and an 8.5% incidence of ovarian cancer, as compared with 0.04% in the general population. Women with Endometriosis who participated in the survey also had a greater incidence of autoimmune conditions and Meniere's disease.(6)

      In a study of 20,686 Swedish women hospitalized for Endometriosis, results showed that the women had a 20% greater risk of developing cancer overall, particularly of the breast, ovaries, blood and lymph cells during an 11-year period. The women actually had a lower risk of cancer of the cervix.(7)

      In another study of 79 patients with Stage I epithelial ovarian cancer at Massachusetts General Hospital, evidence of Endometriosis was found in 22 of the 79 cases (28%), leading researchers to conclude that "Endometriosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of some early stage malignant ovarian epithelial neoplasms."(8) In a similar study,(9) researchers reviewed 147 cases of ovarian Endometriosis to clarify the incidence of malignant transformation. Authors noted that "malignant change in ovarian Endometriosis occurred in 0.7% of this disease."

      While ovarian neoplasms are among the most common malignancies,(10) other sites have been found to undergo malignant changes as well, including clear cell carcinoma arising in an Endometriosis implant in a low abdominal transverse scar,(11) a clear cell carcinoma arising in a cesarean section scar,(12) and even the liver.(13)

      These are just a few examples of such accounts. The increase in such findings should encourage surgeons to excise and biopsy Endometriosis - particularly recurrent disease - as malignant transformation can and does occur.(14)

      These important research findings are not meant to frighten women with Endometriosis, but rather, to make them aware of the true significance and potential impact of the disease. By knowing the risks, patients can take measures to protect themselves; measures such as a change in their diet/nutrition, stopping (or starting) specific medications, getting regularly screened for concerns other than just Endometriosis, and adopting an overall improvement in their lifestyle habits if necessary. Not every woman with Endometriosis is at an elevated risk for other conditions, nor will she develop such malignancies, but every woman with the disease can take steps to help prevent such transformations and opportunistic illnesses from affecting her.

      References:
      1) "Endometrial stromal sarcoma of the vulva arising in extraovarian endometriosis: a case report and literature review," Gynecol Oncol 1998 Nov;71(2):313-6. Irvin W; Pelkey T; Rice L; Andersen W.
      2) "Benign, borderline, and malignant endometrioid neoplasia arising in endometriosis in association with tamoxifen therapy," Int J Gynecol Pathol 2000 Jul;19(3):276-9. McCluggage WG; Bryson C; Lamki H; Boyle DD.
      3) "Malignancy arising in extraovarian endometriosis during estrogen stimulation," Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 1998;19(1):39-41. Gucer F; Pieber D; Arikan MG.
      4) "Increased heterogeneity of chromosome 17 aneuploidy in endometriosis," Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:792-7. Yoshinori Kosugi, MD, Sherman Elias, MD, L. Russell Malinak, MD, Junko Nagata, MD, Keiichi Isaka, MD, Masaomi Takayama, MD, Joe Leigh Simpson, MD, Farideh Z. Bischoff, PhD."
      5) "Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary and endometriosis: the association in postmenopausal women," Gynecol Oncol 1992 Oct;47(1):71-5. De Priest PD; Banks ER; Powell DE; van Nagell JR Jr; Gallion HH; Puls LE; Hunter JE; Kryscio RJ; Royalty MB.
      6) Endometriosis & Cancer: What is the Connection?" 1999; Duczman, Linda & Ballweg, Mary Lou, 8585 N. 76th Pl., Milwaukee, WI 53223.
      7) "Cancer risk after a hospital discharge diagnosis of endometriosis," Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176:572-9. Brinton, Louise A., PhD; Gridley, Gloria, MS; Persson, Ingemar, MD; Baron, John, MD; Bergqvist, Agneta MD, PhD.
      8) "Histologic transformation of benign endometriosis to early epithelial ovarian cancer," Gynecol Oncol 1996 Feb;60(2):238-44. Sainz de la Cuesta R; Eichhorn JH; Rice LW; Fuller AF Jr; Nikrui N; Goff BA.
      9) "Malignant Transformation of Ovarian Endometriosis," Gynecol Obstet Invest 2000 Oct;50 Suppl S1:18-25. Nishida M; Watanabe K; Sato N; Ichikawa Y.
      10) "Ovarian atypical endometriosis: its close association with malignant epithelial tumours," Histopathology 1997 Mar;30(3):249-55. Fukunaga M; Nomura K; Ishikawa E; Ushigome S.
      11) "Clear cell carcinoma arising in extragonadal endometriosis in a caesarean section scar during pregnancy," Gynecol Oncol 1998 Jul;70(1):127-30. Miller DM; Schouls JJ; Ehlen TG.
      12) "Clear cell carcinoma arising in a Cesarean section scar endometriosis: a case report," J Korean Med Sci (Korea 1999 Apr;14(2):217-9. Park SW; Hong SM; Wu HG; Ha SW.
      13) "CT diagnosis of perihepatic endometriosis complicated by malignant transformation," Abdom Imaging 1998 Mar-Apr;23(2):183-4. Weinfeld RM; Johnson SC; Lucas CE; Saksouk FA.
      14) "Vaginal adenosarcoma arising from endometriosis," Gynecol Oncol 2000 Jan;76(1):123-5. Judson PL; Temple AM; Fowler WC Jr; Novotny DB; Funkhouser WK Jr.

  24. QUESTION:
    How to read a birth chart?
    I have no idea what the lines mean or anything. Here is my chart: http://www.astro.com/cgi/showgif.cgi?lang=e&gif=astro_w2at_02_emily_moore_hp.62758.27973.gif&res=63&va=&cid=ueefilefrVKOY-u1310059487

    But how do I decipher it?

    • ANSWER:
      Okay,

      To be able to read a chart you have to learn the following first:
      * Meaning of the planets
      * Characteristics of each zodiac sign
      * Meaning of the houses
      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      For example:

      The First House is the first little box you see in the chart labeled as 1 (from here the wheel chart always starts) The First house represents the House of Self - your mask, your image and how others perceives you (people's first expression of you) Each house has a different meaning.

      We can see that you have Leo Cusp in your first house... people that doesn't know you can perceive you as a Leo person... charismatic, optimistic, creative, talkative, and fun. If it was a Cancer Cusp people would have see you as moody, caring, delicate and family oriented person. Here is the where characteristics of each zodiac sign applies.

      You have the Sun in the 2nd house which means that possession, money and job is important to you. The 2nd house represents possession, money and job. Meanwhile the sun represents our self, our major energy, or ego. So your energy will be applied more on your resources, incomes and possessions. Virgo is the cusp of the 2nd house, Virgo's characteristics are perfectionist, work-alcoholics and analyzers. So you could be picky on your financial matter and work very hard for you money.

      That is how you read a birth chart.
      Learning the characteristics of each zodiac sing
      Learning the meaning of the planets and houses

      You can browse the internet for more information about each house, planet and signs.
      Basically this is the basic stuff.
      Good Luck.

  25. QUESTION:
    What to get a Teenager for christmas?
    What do you get a 16 year old girl. She has an ipod, nintendo wii, computer, etc. I am at a lost. I am looking for something around 0. Anyone have any ideas. She says "I dont know what I want" aaawww

    • ANSWER:
      a GHD iron, its a "straightener" that obviously straightens your hair, and also styles your hair any way you want (curl, wave, flick, tumble etc) and its the BEST present you can buy! it would usually cost between 100 to 130 euro, you could get discounts on the net but the lowest bargain you would most likely get is 90 euro. they have it for sale in salons and places like that, also, limited addition for christmas it comes in pink! if the 16 year old is a real girly girl she'd love this. if you buy the pink one the money goes to breast cancer awareness. the classic colour of the iron is black, which is always on sale and is the same price. check out http://ghdhair.com to read more about all GHDS.
      trust me, a 16 year old girl would LOVE this present. one last thing, theres three types of GHD irons, the original styler, the salon styler, and the mini styler. the original one does all the styles you want and its for normal thinkness of hair. the salon styler is for thick/afro carrabian hair, and the mini styler is mainly for short hair. i'd personally recommend the original one, its the best. hope this helps you! ps.if you choose to get a GHD online BEWARE of Internet scams. they'res been a whole lot of them going around lately, especially on eBay. make sure the person/company you'd buy it from is trust worthy.

  26. QUESTION:
    Which zodiac sign do you get along the most and the less?
    Which are your sun and moon signs?

    • ANSWER:
      I get along with Leo, Aries and Aquarius the best, they are all wh*res and we all know it. So we get along great when I make fun of them. Gotta love somebody who can laugh at themself. Second best would be, Taurus, Virgo and Gemini, they are nice people. Dont like Cancer, Scorpio or Pisces, they are self serving, manipulative lying b*tches, thats also my sign. Dont care for Libras, Capricorns or Sags. I dont think about them.

  27. QUESTION:
    Can you help me understand these 4 factors of climate?
    1. latitudinal variation in sunlight intensity
    2. seasonal variation in sunlight intensity
    3. global air circulation and percipitation
    4. regional, local, seasonal effects on climate

    my professor just showed us slide pictures of each factor. I kind of understand them all except for the first one. Much appreciated!

    • ANSWER:
      1.
      The earth is basically a sphere (it's kind of round). The sun is so far away and so big, that the sunlight is equivalent to parallel light rays of equal intensity.

      The light intensity (in W/m^2) decreases with distance (by 1/(d^2), with d the distance in meters).
      If the light hits a flat surface, like a spotlight hitting a piece of paper, or a wall, the distance of each light ray between the source and the wall is the same, so the light intensity is the same everywhere. Here's a crappy paint picture so get the point : http://desmond.imageshack.us/Himg546/scaled.php?server=546&filename=79890377.png&res=landing
      But in the case of the earth, the size of Each ray depends on which latitude it hits. If you don't take the fact the the Earth tilts on it's side, the closer to the equator, the shorter the light ray, and the closer to either poles, the shorter the ray. Here's another crappy picture to illustrate this : http://desmond.imageshack.us/Himg856/scaled.php?server=856&filename=45384229.png&res=landing

      In other words, if you do not consider the fact the Earth tilts, there is (just slightly) more sunlight at the equator than at the poles. This is just a factor of climate, it doesn't do much really.

      The Earth's diameter is of around 13000 km. The difference of distance between a ray of sunlight hitting one of the poles and one hitting the equator is of around 6500km (thats 6500*10^3m, or 6.5*10^6m). The difference of sunlight intensity received would be of around 2.4*10^-14 W/m^2 , in other words, almost nothing.

      2.
      The Earth is tilted relative to it's orbital plane, and it varies of a couple of degrees.
      This causes the sunlight exposure to be different depending on the position of the Earth on it's orbit.
      The closest point to the sun varies between the two tropics : when it hits the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere, it's winter in the northern hemisphere, when it hits the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere, it's Summer in it.

      The temperature difference is due to the total daylight time in a certain point.
      On this image http://img195.imageshack.us/img195/2968/28608294.png , you can see that the sun hits the north hemisphere. Someone that lives on the Tropic of Cancer (the top red line on the pic), you would have a longer day than someone living on the other tropic (the line is longer).

      This is a major factor in climate, since it is what explains the seasons.

      3.
      Read it on wikipedia : Global air circulation : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_circulation

      Precipitation (the more scientific word for rain and snow) is preponderant in zones with heat and water (like between the tropics). For more info : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precipitation_(meteorology)

  28. QUESTION:
    What is the best herb for breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      My favorite cancer supplements are Artemisinin (best bought on the internet), Graviola (easy to find on ebay), and for breast cancer, perhaps Turmeric capsules(found at Walmart).
      I make no claims on any of these items. I had a buddy who swore by Graviola for uterine cancer.
      Particular word of caution against the Artemisin if radiation is going to be used.
      I recommend researching and talking with doctor before trying.
      Sometimes a gamble is worth it.
      I found out that I could use hormones for my cancer (low stage uterine) and never took the surgery that I was expressly told to have. That was almost 5 years ago. It wasn't the doctor who told me to try the hormones.. in fact, she refused and I had to get another doctor.
      http://www.vitaminarcade.com/graviola.htm
      http://medicineworld.org/cancer/lead/6-2005/turmeric-fights-breast-cancer.html
      http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=2&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.springboard4health.com%2Fnotebook%2Fnutrients_artemisinin.html&ei=DddZR9H0IqiczQSEv-WjCQ&usg=AFQjCNFAVAhRh1PJg35yGHDVhWlHy6DtJg&sig2=Qgrri-1yJmC62BJfzTzIYw

  29. QUESTION:
    What does it mean to have Uranus, Neptune, Saturn and Lilith in 4th house - the house of Cancer?
    http://www.astro.com/cgi/showgif.cgi?lang=e&gif=astro_2gw_01_nathania_young.52520.15073.gif&res=100&va=&cid=r6afileBSM3SX-u1296848906

    I just wondered if there's any significance to it?

    • ANSWER:
      * Most everything in a chart is significant. These outer planets usually do not affect individuals unless they come in contact with the personal planets or as in here, influence a house. In your chart, they all are located in one house so your 4th is a point of interest. All of these guys in one house indicates confusion or many different people with many different influences in the home or early life. Your parents may have been hippies with an alternate lifestyle, or there may have been many different people coming in and out of the home.In your adulthood you may be the one among your friends who provides the hub around which they circulate. Yours may be the house where they gather for Thanksgiving. Also significant are the three planets in Taurus in your 7/8th houses. Although they are not conjunct you have a strong Taurus influence in your personality.

  30. QUESTION:
    what astrology aspect would make someone a geek or awkward and independent?
    like planets to planets aspect (conjunction, sextile etc) i am shy and private and reserved and quite independent person, does my chart show anything like that. http://www.astro.com/cgi/showgif.cgi?lang=e&gif=astro_2gw_01_laurence_mputu.62914.10723.gif&res=100&va=&cid=wnkfilekBObdC-u1307887709

    • ANSWER:
      I don't know that much about the details of astrology, but I think maybe having influences of signs such as Pisces, Cancer, or Capricorn could affect shyness.

      The influence of Aquarius might affect wanting to be independent. I know that your rising sign affects how you come across to the world, so having an ascendant in a "shy" sign could cause you to appear quite quiet/reserved.

      I'm the same, I've always been private/reserved/independent and I'm Pisces Sun/Cancer Rising.

      Sorry I couldn't be of more help!

  31. QUESTION:
    What is the title of this book?
    A few years ago, when I was a little girl my mom read my this great book written by a mother who's young daughter got cancer. In the book the mother describes the pain and happiness she endures with dealing with a sick terminally ill daughter. She describes taking her to disney land and her wearing a red dress. At the end of the book, the daughter dies and the mother goes on to have two more children

    Would anybody know what this book is called!! Any help please

    • ANSWER:
      Hannah's Gift by Maria Housden?
      http://www.amazon.com/Hannahs-Gift-Lessons-Fully-Lived/dp/0553381229/ref=pd_sim_b_1

      Or maybe:
      Notes Left Behind by Brooke Desserich and Keith Desserich
      http://www.amazon.com/Notes-Left-Behind-Brooke-Desserich/dp/0061886394/ref=cm_srch_res_rtr_4

      The second one is from the point of view of the mother and father.

  32. QUESTION:
    if a RES turtle or fish have a disease or something is is possible that is i am in the same room that i could?
    get it too?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, Zoonotic disease you can catch from reptiles:

      Campylobacteriosis
      Edwardsiella tarda
      Salmonellosis

      Diseases acquired from Fish

      Angiostrongyliasis
      Anisakiasis
      Botulism
      Capillaria phillipenensis
      Cholera
      Clonorchis sinensis
      Dioctophyme renale
      Diphyllobothrium latum
      Echinostomiasis
      Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
      Eustrongylides
      Gnathostoma spinigerum
      Heterophyes heterophyes
      Metagonimus yokogawai
      Mycobacteriosis
      Nanophyetiasis
      Opisthorchiasis
      Salmonellosis
      Vibrio infection

      http://www.petdoc.ws/zoonotic_diseases.htm

      Proper Hand washing and hygiene greatly reduces the risk of catching something.

      Fish, frogs, toads, and the water they live in can carry bacteria that may cause illness in people. Some people are more likely than others to get diseases from fish and amphibians. A person's age and health status may affect his or her immune system, increasing the chances of getting sick. People who are more likely to get diseases from fish and amphibians include infants, children younger than 5 years old, organ transplant patients, people with HIV/AIDS, and people getting treatment for cancer. Special advice is available for people who are at greater risk of getting diseases from animals.

      Learn more about aquarium animal-related http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/diseases/salmonellosis.htm

  33. QUESTION:
    How long i have to avoid fatty & oily foods..
    Hi friends..I had heptisis A 3 months ago...Since 3 months i am not eating any oily or fatty foods...Can ay one please tell me when i can start having oliy & fatty foods...I think my billurubin level is become normal..Morning olny ones i can see dark yellow urine...other times its fine..please help me...
    Thank you
    Shabeer.k

    • ANSWER:
      Try taking 30ml of wolfberries juice every morning. You will be amazed at the results.
      Wolfberries are one of the most important traditional medicines in China. Wolfberry fruits have been used since ancient times in China as general tonic, to protect the liver, to improve vision, to strengthen weak legs and to promote longevity.

      Immune system
      Laboratory studies have shown wolfberry fruit improve lymphocyte transformation rate and macrophage phagocytic function.

      Anti-aging
      Wolfberry fruits contain phytochemicals with antioxidant activity and could slow the ageing process. A study by Li Wei et al (Active Lymphocyte Effects Observed after Taking Lycium Barbarum Fruits, Zhong Cao Yao, 1991) showed that wolfberry fruit phytochemicals help to prevent oxidation of DNA and helps to restore damaged DNA.

      Cancer prevention
      Studies suggest that wolfberry extracts could inhibit DNA mutation and stop the growth of cancer cells. Cao GW et all showed in his study (Observation of the Effects of LAK/IL-2 Therapy Combined with Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides in the Treatment of 75 Cancer Patients, Chunghua Chung Liu Tsa Chih, 1994) that regression of many types of cancer could be obtained with patients, treated with LAK/IL-2 and LBP.

      Liver protection
      The phytochemical zeaxanthin dipalmitate showed a hepaprotective effect on liver cells treated with carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity (Kim HP et al, Zeaxanthin Dipalmitate from Lycium Barbarum has Hepatoprotective Activity, Res. Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1997)

      Vision improvement
      Wolfberry fruits have traditionally been used in China to improve vision disorders such as cataracts, retinopathy and macular degeneration. Studies have shown that wolfberry reduce dark adapting time and improve vision under subdued light. This action may be attributed to the phytochemicals lutein and zeaxanthin, which neutralizes the free radicals formed by sunlight.

  34. QUESTION:
    How do i quit smoking ?
    Hi i am smoking from the last 14 years & would like to stop smokeing ?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi,
      If you realy wants to quit smoking then you should know some facts.

      This is for your information pl. that Cigarette smoking kills nearly about 420,000 people a year, making it more lethal than AIDS, accidents, homicides, suicides, drug overdoses, and fire.

      The main risks of smoking are

      1. Heart disease
      2. Cancer
      3. Dementia and neurologic diseases
      4. Lung disease
      5. Female infertility and pregnancy
      6. Male sexuality and reproduction
      7. Behavioural and Social Problems
      8. Effects on bones and joints

      The methods to quit smoking are

      At this time the most effective methods for quitting is a combination of nicotine replacement products and the antidepressant drug bupropion bolstered by counselling.

      1. Nicotine replacement

      Nicotine replacement products provide low doses of nicotine that do not contain the contaminants found in smoke. They are proving to be twice as helpful as other standard quitting methods. Replacement products include nicotine patches, gums, nasal sprays, and inhalers. Side effects of any nicotine replacement product may include headaches, nausea, and other gastrointestinal problems. People often experience sleeplessness in the first few days, particularly with the patch, but the insomnia usually passes. Patients using very high doses are more likely to experience symptoms, and reducing the dose can prevent them. Certain individuals like people with heart disease, pregnant women, small children may need to avoid nicotine replacement products.

      Nicotine patches: Nicotine patches, or transdermal nicotine, can be an effective way to quit smoking. The quit rate for patch users is around 20% after six months. Nicotine patches are available over the counter, but it is best to consult a doctor before using them, particularly people with any medical problems.

      Nicotine gum: Nicotine gum (Nicorette), available over the counter, has also been effective for a number of people. Some prefer it to the patch because they can control the nicotine dosage and chewing satisfies the oral urge. Long-term dependence may be a problem with this method.

      Nicotine inhaler: The nicotine inhaler resembles a plastic cigarette holder. It comes with a number of nicotine cartridges which are inserted into the inhaler. It has some specific advantages over other slower nicotine replacement products:

      Nicotine nasal spray: The nasal spray satisfies immediate cravings by providing doses of nicotine rapidly, and thus may play a useful role in conjunction with slower acting nicotine replacement therapies.

      Nicotine tablet: A nicotine tablet that is held under the tongue is also very useful.

      2. Alternative and ther Methods for Quitting

      Scheduled reduction: One study showed that people who used a systematic withdrawal schedule were twice as likely to quit as those who went cold turkey. The procedure involves the following steps:

      Divide the number of minutes per day awake by the number of daily cigarettes; the result is the minute-long wait between smokes.

      Set up a schedule with time intervals based on this result and using a timer, smoke only at those intervals; if the "cigarette appointment" is missed by more than five minutes, the smoker must skip that cigarette.

      The following week, one-third fewer cigarettes are used and the smoking time is recalculated based on the lower number.

      During the third week the count is again reduced by a third, and the smoker quits in the fourth week.
      Change daily habits:

      Change the daily schedule as much as possible. Eat at different times or eat many small meals instead of three large ones, sit in a different chair, rearrange the furniture.

      Find other ways to close a meal. Play a tape or CD, eat a piece of fruit, get up and make a phone call, or take a walk (a good distraction that burns calories as well).

      Substitute oral habits (eat celery, chew sugarless gum, suck on a cinnamon stick.) Go to public places and restaurants where smoking is prohibited or restricted.

      Set short-term quitting goals and reward yourself when they are met, or every day put the money normally spent on cigarettes in a jar and buy something pleasurable at the end of a predetermined period of time.

      Find activities that focus the hands and mind but are not taxing or fattening: computer games, solitaire, knitting, sewing, whittling, crossword puzzles.

      Avoid heavy drinking of alcohol, caffeine, or other stimulants or mood altering substances.

      Enjoy Life

  35. QUESTION:
    Why cant people with capricorn moon stand me?
    mainly the ones with the moon in th 1st 10 degrees of capricorn, i checked the birth charts of all the people who hate me, & they all have that, isn't it weird?
    here's my chart: http://www.astro.com/cgi/showgif.cgi?lang=e&gif=astro_2gw_01_jhuu.30939.1475.gif&res=100&va=&cid=p7efileZWEvDd-u1208271974

    • ANSWER:
      If they have Moon in the first ten degrees of Capricorn it would mean that their Moon conjuncts your Neptune in the 9th house. While this can lend an idealistic, even intuitive connection, it may also just confuse them. I have a feeling that these Capricorn Moons, being the generally practical people they are, might not 'get' why you do certain things and may find it difficult to pin you. Capricorn generally likes control and Neptune sends things all over the place so your general behaviour may may unsettle their inner selves somewhat.
      Their Moon would also be opposite your Venus in Cancer in the 3rd (as is your Neptune). Once again, in friendships and even in romance, they might not understand why you say the things you say. They might find your method of communicating and your ideas impractical and therefore somewhat infuriating. It's also possible that these people might even find you too needy at times, or the complete opposite - way too removed. I also believe there would be an element of mistrust of eachother on both your parts.

      However I do think that if you were in a closer relationship with these people and both of you wanted to work together for balance and to make something special, there could be quite an interesting romantic connection to be found.

  36. QUESTION:
    can you get cancer in the feet?
    My mom has had breast cancer. And now they'res these tiny little bumps in her feet, like on the top. She got scared that they were cancerous tumors but people say you cant get cancer in your feet. Is this true?

    • ANSWER:
      You can get cancer pretty much anywhere. Especially if you have had one type of cancer and it has moved to another part of the body. It also may have something to do with possibly chemo that she has went through. The reactions or side affects to it or swelling. Have her talk to her doctor.

  37. QUESTION:
    Was Jackie Kennedy Charitable in anyway?
    I'd like to know if she's ever donated to a charity, or maybe started her own. Or maybe even did other charitable things

    it's for a school project

    • ANSWER:
      Yes - - -

      Her will says it all // her favorite college and several causes were blessed.... Jacqueline was by nature very giving and sincere in her giving - - - - - Throughout her life she gave generously to a variety of causes......

      http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9405E4D9113BF931A35755C0A962958260
      """Onassis Leaves Estate to Charity and Her Children

      Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis' will was filed yesterday in Surrogate Court in Manhattan, and it leaves most of her estate to charity and her two children.

      The will does not specify the estate's value, except to say it is more than 0,000.

      Mrs. Onassis, who died on cancer on May 19, left all of her papers to her children, John F. Kennedy Jr. and Caroline Kennedy Schlossberg, and asked them to respect her wishes for privacy and "take whatever action is warranted to prevent the display, publication or distribution, in whole or in part."

      The will, dated March 22, was executed by Mrs. Onassis' companion, Maurice Tempelsman, and a friend, Alexander Forger, a lawyer.

      Mr. Tempelsman had handled Mrs. Onassis' finances since the death of her second husband, Aristotle Onassis, and is thought to have at least quadrupled the million she secured from his estate. Mrs. Onassis, 64, left him "my Greek alabaster head of a woman."

      Mrs. Onassis left her children 0,000 each as well as the principal of a trust fund left to her by President Kennedy. They will also will receive her Fifth Avenue apartment, two properties on Martha's Vineyard, furniture, rugs, artwork, silver, china, glass and jewelry. Provision for Foundation

      Mrs. Onassis directed that any remaining assets be used to establish the C & J Foundation. The foundation, bearing her children's initials, will make gifts to charities selected by the children and Mr. Tempelsman, but Mrs. Onassis requested that "preferential consideration" go to charities "making a significant difference in the cultural or social betterment of mankind or the relief of human suffering."

      She also directed that the foundation be dissolved after 24 years, with the principal going to her grandchildren. Mrs. Schlossberg has three children, Rose, Tatiana and John.

      To her stepbrother, Hugh D. Auchincloss Jr., she left Hammersmith Farm in Newport, R.I. The farm was left to Mrs. Onassis by her mother, Janet Lee Auchincloss.

      Mrs. Onassis made no provision in the will for her sister, Lee B. Radziwill, because, she said, "I have already done so during my lifetime." ""

      Peace................ o o o p p p o o o p p p po o o

  38. QUESTION:
    Why does this person love to lie so much? & he takes pleasure in fooling others?
    http://www.astro.com/cgi/showgif.cgi?lang=e&gif=astro_2gwgw_02_bbbb.48328.8159.gif&res=100&va=&cid=p7efileZWEvDd-u1208271974

    • ANSWER:
      It really depends on what he lies about.

      Looking at the chart, Mars in Capricorn in the 2nd house, opposite Saturn in Cancer in the 8th house, lead's me to believe that if this person were a liar, they quite possibly lie about their status, and their abilities.

      This goes double with Neptune in the 1st house. It's in mutual reception with Jupiter in the 4th, and both planet's aren't known for realism. Neptune in 1st is identity, and Jupiter is their roots. Their sense of self isn't so highly evolved, possibly. They square one another, so there exists a conflict, about where they come from (4th house), and who they are (1st house).

      The Midheaven is at the anaretic degree in Leo. They strive to be noticed, forcefully.

      All combined, if this person is a liar, I would assume it's from low self-esteem, and lieing typically revovles around their identity and abilities.

  39. QUESTION:
    What do these Moon placements suggest about my emotional nature?
    Moon in Libra - 1st house
    Moon Conjunct Ascendant
    Moon Opposition Mars (Aries)
    Moon Square Midheaven (Cancer)
    Moon Square Neptune (Capricorn)
    Moon Square Uranus (Capricorn)
    Moon Trine Saturn (Aquarius)

    http://www.astro.com/cgi/showgif.cgi?lang=e&gif=astro_2gw_01_nathania_young.72479.11180.gif&res=100&va=&cid=r6afileBSM3SX-u1296848906

    • ANSWER:
      It means you need the feeling of harmony, balance and aesthetics to feel secure and emotionally nourished.

      Conjunct the Ascendant would mean you feel comfortable letting that side of you be seen by others whom you just met.

      Opposition Mars might mean some of this is bottled up though and can come out in explosive ways. Mars in Aries is the warrior who's off fighting battles and has no time for codependency.

      Square Uranus and Neptune could mean you're hypersensitive to changes in the environment so you might overreact (Uranus) to them.

      Trine Saturn could point to being able to give structure to those emotions and still express them in a thought-out way.

      Actually your Moon is under quite a lot of pressure to express freely and at the same time is an integral part of your personality (angular, conjunct Asc).

  40. QUESTION:
    medicine DUTA STERIDE & FINA STERIDE working in same way. Is its adverse effect also same ?
    FINA STERIDE is proned to inflict CANCER. DUTA STERIDE also have this same side effect? If so, to what extend?

    • ANSWER:
      Dutasteride (Avodart) and Finasteride (Proscar) both inhibit 5AR for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia. According to Fenter, "Patients treated with dutasteride incurred .50 less per month in medical costs than patients treated with finasteride."

      Dutasteride - adverse effects, from epocrates.com
      teratogenicity to male fetus
      impotence
      decreased semen volume

      Finasteride - adverse effects, from epocrates.com
      severe allergic reaction
      teratogenicity to male fetus
      impotence
      decreased semen volume
      breast size increase
      hypotension

      In the medical literature, see
      -- Fenter TC, Runken MC, Black L, Eaddy M. Finasteride versus dutasteride: a real-world economic evaluation. Am J Manag Care. 2007 Feb;13(1 Suppl):S23-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17295602&query_hl=3&itool=pubmed_docsum
      -- Schmid HP, Engeler DS, Pummer K, Schmitz-Drager BJ. Prevention of prostate cancer: more questions than data. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2007;174:101-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=17302190&query_hl=3&itool=pubmed_docsum

  41. QUESTION:
    who can not say obama has not saved the country as he promised?
    1) obamacare every american/non-resident alien etc.. will have health insurance one way or another regardless of cost
    2) ended all wars
    3) saved jobs
    4) stimulated the economy and the nation is now on the road to recovery
    5) the list is endless

    • ANSWER:
      my turn for a response!

      1)-cost over 2 trillion
      -The government will have real-time access to an individual's bank account and will have the authority to make electronic fund transfers from those accounts
      -Cancer hospital will ration care according to the patient's age.
      -The government will specify which doctors can write an end-of-life order. also, all doctors will be paid the same regardless of profession
      -a government committee will decide which benefits and treatments you will receive, you have no choice
      -government mandates benefit packages for private health insurance companies working with the government
      -businesses not using government healthcare will pay 8% tax on payroll
      -if you're private healthcare does not meet government standards you will pay 2.5% tax
      -rationing your health
      -seniors will be told which treatments they can and cannot receive. no choices.

      2) ended 1 war started 3 more without permission of congress (aka treason)

      3) debatable. obama saved about 450000 government jobs and lost around 1000000 private sector jobs.

      4) unemployment rates have not gone below 7% since obama took office. its at an all time high with the exception of 1982

      5) you mean his list of treason? h. con. res. 107 in congress now. impeachment for treason.
      violations of amendment 1-14, violation of war powers act, heading UN security council, etc. the list goes on.

  42. QUESTION:
    Book a bit like Before I Die but the guy has cancer instead?
    So basically, they're neighbours and live in New York I think. The girl wants to give the guy something before he dies, and seeing as they're both virgins, in their teens, she has sex with him. Throughout the book they begin to fall in love.
    It's a bit like Before I Die, as I said before.. I just can't remember what it's called...

    • ANSWER:
      Never Eighteen by Megan Bostic?
      http://www.amazon.com/Never-Eighteen-Megan-Bostic/dp/0547550766/ref=cm_srch_res_rtr_16

  43. QUESTION:
    What do you think my dominant signs and planets are?
    http://www.astro.com/cgi/showgif.cgi?lang=e&gif=astro_2gw_01_nathania_young.41221.25142.gif&res=100&va=&cid=r6afileBSM3SX-u1296848906

    • ANSWER:
      DOMINANT SIGNS:
      >1.Taurus
      2.Scorpio
      3.Capricorn
      4.Aquarius
      5.Libra
      6.Cancer
      7.Aries
      8.Pisces
      9.Virgo
      10.Leo
      11.Gemini
      12.Sagittarius

      DOMINANT PLANETS:
      1.>Venus (lucky you)
      2.Saturn
      3.Moon
      4.Pluto
      5.Uranus
      6.Neptune
      7.Sun
      8.Mars
      9.Mercury
      10.Chiron
      11.Jupiter
      12.Node

      so your dominant sign is Taurus and your planet is Venus

  44. QUESTION:
    ( Based off thearticle) Can a dog have HIV ?
    A few months ago, someone asked the CDC an embarrassing question concerning dogs and HIV antibodies:

    "Dear CDC, ...

    Why are half of dogs 'HIV'-positive, and if my breeder dog Cerberus, whom I love deeply turns out to be positive (he tested positive, then negative, then positive, then negative again), should I have him put to sleep?

    EG. (Cancer Res 1990 Sep 1;50(17 Suppl):5628S-5630S Studies with canine sera that contain antibodies which recognize human immunodeficiency virus structural proteins. Strandstrom HV, Higgins JR, Mossie K, Theilen GH. College of Veterinary Medicine, Helsinki, Finland):

    Abstract. In a serological survey, using the immunoblotting technique, we found that substantial numbers of dog sera from both normal and diseased dogs, including dogs with neoplasia, reacted with one or more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) recombinant proteins. A total of 144 dog sera were tested, and 72 (50%) of them reacted with one or more HIV recombinant structural proteins. Ten dog sera were also tested for reactivity with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Six dog sera reacted with at least the major core protein of HIV, while one of the dog sera tested reacted with SIV core protein, and there were no reactions with the viral proteins of either FIV or CAEV. Cell extracts from canine peripheral blood lymphocytes cocultivated with human cells and an extract of human cells infected with HIV were immunoblotted against dog sera which previously tested positive or negative on HIV recombinant protein commercially available Western blot strips. Two lymphocyte lysates and the HIV-infected Hut cell lysate reacted with the Western blot strip-positive dog serum; however, no reactions were seen with the Western blot strip-negative dog serum)."

    Incidently, it has also been demonstrated that goats and cows are also known to test positive using the current "HIV" test kits, EG. (Willman et al., Heterophile Antibodies to Bovine and Caprine Proteins Causing False-Positive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Other Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Results. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology, p. 615-616, Vol. 6, No. 4, July 1999)

    Remarkably, the CDC responded soon afterward:

    "Thank you for writing CDC STD/HIVNet.

    Dogs do NOT become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). A dog would not test positive for HIV. HIV is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is a member of the human retrovirus family. All viruses and retroviruses are simple microbes that have no metabolism and cannot function independently of other life forms. They lack the basic machinery for reproduction and must invade other living organisms to reproduce or replicate. In other words, retroviruses and viruses rely on the cells of the host for reproduction to survive. Each retrovirus has a specific host. For example, a human retrovirus, like HIV, requires a human host. So a human retrovirus cannot survive in other animals or insects. Animals, like dogs, have their own retroviruses. These animal
    retroviruses do not affect humans.

    The article (Standtrom et al.) seems to be stating that antibodies (substances produced by the body to fight infection) in a dog's blood reacted to structural proteins of the virus (HIV) and NOT stating that dogs are infected with HIV."

    This answer from the CDC prompted the following thoughts:

    "It seems to me that the really important point to make from this is not just that dogs, cows, sheep, have 'HIV surrogate markers' but never develop 'AIDS'. The more important question I take from the studies you mentioned would be: Why, when antibodies of a dog react to certain proteins manufactured in a lab, is this interpreted as 'antibodies reacting to structural proteins of HIV' but at the same time NOT evidence that '[these] dogs are infected with HIV', yet when antibodies of a human react to exactly the same proteins, this is taken as evidence of 'HIV' infection?

    The CDC's interpretation of Strandstrom et al seems to be an (indirect) admission that simply detecting a certain combination of antibodies to proteins in blood is not sufficient to conclude infection with an exogenous retrovirus. Certainly, they believe felines are capable of such retroviral infection, as I see countless webpages devoted to 'FIV' ('feline immunodeficiency virus'). So, my question to the CDC would be: how do they know that detection of a certain combination of antibodies to proteins indicates infection with an exogenous retrovirus in a human, but not in a dog? An equally reasonable interpretation might be that these combinations of antibodies indicate infection with an exogenous retrovirus in a dog, but not a human. So, how do they know it is one
    case and not the other?

    The only way I can see the CDC can claim infection in one case and not the other, is if some additional validation process had been achieved in

    • ANSWER:
      Dogs do get STDs, but HIV? Not sure - I suggest doing some research or even just calling up a vet and asking.

  45. QUESTION:
    Jade Goody: at the risk of sounding like a completely heartless b1tch but...?
    is anyone else sick of picking up a paper or magazine, and having her crying face on it?

    she has cancer, its awful, its a terrible illness and i wouldnt wish it on my worst enemy. but i think its got to a point now, where i think she is just doing it for the money.

    i would think much more of her if i picked up the paper and seen her promoting cancer research, or jo's trust.

    what do you think?

    • ANSWER:
      I thought she was an utter pig before she had cancer and I'm not going to pretend otherwise now that she does.
      Like you, I don't wish cancer on anyone (in the space of 2 years both my parents died of lung cancer and my brother died of liver cancer) but I'm completely baffled how this foul mouth, ugly, racist imbecile managed to amass a fortune.

      She doesn't have the depth , focus or sincerity to promote cancer res each. If she did... her marketing man/ agent would be behind it pulling the strings.

      Between 3500 and 4000 children starve to death or die from preventable diseases worldwide every single day of the year. Jade Goody is rich enough to take care of herself.

      I'm not sure cancer research would want to attach themselves to a person like her to tell you the truth. Far too stupid and unpredictable. She'd be a liability.

  46. QUESTION:
    Can someone explain the picture in this scientific article?
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.23149/pdf

    That's the article, and the picture I need explaining is Figure 1 part B.
    Could you tell me what's going on like what method their using and what the results mean

    • ANSWER:
      I had a lovely, detailed explanation written out for you, but in clicking from tab to tab, I managed to click on the X and close it out. I forgot yet again the painfully-learned fundamental lesson of computing gained from working with the infamous TRS80 Model IIs (which would reboot at the drop of a volt): "Save early and often, and then save even more." Anyway, as I hate to completely waste good explaining, here's a shorter and less useful answer to your question:
      1. The guys wanted to see if the poorly-known UpStream Promoter (USP) of the P-glycoprotein gene was contributing to multidrug resistance in certain cancers. So, they isolated RNA from a cell line derived from a mdr cancer and also from a bunch of normal tissues. They made cDNA from these RNAs using reverse transcription, and did PCR on the DNAs. Fig 1a shows the maps of the gene pieces involved, with locations of PCR primers and the probes they used. The upshot was that they made a 500bp +/- product from the top bit (Exons -1, including the USP, 1 including the DSP, and 2) and a 100bp +/- product from the lower bit (Exons 6 - 8). They ran the PCR products out on a gel to separate them by size, transferred the DNA pieces in the same relative positions to a papery membrane (making a Southern Blot) and then probed the membrane with several different DNA probes which recognized particular DNA sequences. Probe OLEY1 matched up with the stretch from the last bit of Exon -1 to the first bit of Exon 1, so if the product included that sequence, the probe would bind to it. The same sort of thing goes for the probe they used to detect the presence of Exons 6-8. These probes were labeled in some way, probably using a radioactive Phosphorus atom on the dCTP that they used to build the probe with, so that when they let the probe bind, washed away all the unbound probe and then slapped some XRay film on top and devloped it, there would be a band where the radioactive probes had bound to the matching PCR product. That's what Fig. 1b is. The top piece shows the bands that show up when you probe with OLEY1; these are therefore bands that are copied from the stretch that includes the USP. The second piece show the bands from the stretch that is part of the coding region of the gene, and the third piece just shows the GAPDH gene, which demonstrates that the reverse transcription and PCR reactions worked (indicating that all the components and the RNA were OK). The lanes are all normal tissue except for the NCI/ADR-RES lane, which is a mdr cancer cell line. PBMC is presumably a postive control for the coding sequence probe. They tell you what it all means in the paper, but the upshot was that the increased amount of P-glyoprotein in mdr cancers (at least based on this set of experiments) doesn't seem to be due very much to anything involved with the UpStream Promoter for this gene.

  47. QUESTION:
    Do u know the refences of effects chitosan on histological?
    Do u know the refences of effects chitosan on histological? the journal, the related organs, etc

    • ANSWER:
      Go to pubmed (www.pubmed.com) and put in the words you are interested in-this is an example of a 30 second search.

      1: Prego C, Torres D, Alonso MJ.
      The potential of chitosan for the oral administration of peptides.
      Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2005 Sep;2(5):843-54. Review.
      PMID: 16296782 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      2: Yi H, Wu LQ, Bentley WE, Ghodssi R, Rubloff GW, Culver JN, Payne GF.
      Biofabrication with chitosan.
      Biomacromolecules. 2005 Nov-Dec;6(6):2881-94. Review.
      PMID: 16283704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      3: Ni Mhurchu C, Dunshea-Mooij CA, Bennett D, Rodgers A.
      Chitosan for overweight or obesity.
      Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD003892. Review.
      PMID: 16034912 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      4: Di Martino A, Sittinger M, Risbud MV.
      Chitosan: a versatile biopolymer for orthopaedic tissue-engineering.
      Biomaterials. 2005 Oct;26(30):5983-90. Review.
      PMID: 15894370 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      5: Il'ina AV, Varlamov VP.
      [Chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes: a review]
      Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2005 Jan-Feb;41(1):9-16. Review. Russian.
      PMID: 15810726 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      6: Prabaharan M, Mano JF.
      Chitosan-based particles as controlled drug delivery systems.
      Drug Deliv. 2005 Jan-Feb;12(1):41-57. Review.
      PMID: 15801720 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      7: Shahidi F, Abuzaytoun R.
      Chitin, chitosan, and co-products: chemistry, production, applications, and
      health effects.
      Adv Food Nutr Res. 2005;49:93-135. Review. No abstract available.
      PMID: 15797344 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      8: Kato Y, Onishi H, Machida Y.
      Contribution of chitosan and its derivatives to cancer chemotherapy.
      In Vivo. 2005 Jan-Feb;19(1):301-10. Review.
      PMID: 15796190 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      9: Wang LH, Wu GL, Cheng YY.
      [Applications of chitosan and its derivatives in pharmaceutical industry of
      Chinese medicine]
      Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Apr;29(4):289-92. Review. Chinese.
      PMID: 15706858 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

      10: Mhurchu CN, Dunshea-Mooij C, Bennett D, Rodgers A.
      Effect of chitosan on weight loss in overweight and obese individuals: a
      systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
      Obes Rev. 2005 Feb;6(1):35-42. Review.
      PMID: 15655037 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

  48. QUESTION:
    Without taking my Midheaven into account, what career do you think would be good for me?
    And what placements make you think that? :)

    http://www.astro.com/cgi/showgif.cgi?lang=e&gif=astro_2gw_01_nathania_young.63449.17771.gif&res=100&va=&cid=r6afileBSM3SX-u1296848906
    Oh, because the Cancer Midheaven careers suggestions don't appeal to me ^_^

    • ANSWER:
      Well, you have your Sun and Venus in the 8th house, so you would probably be good at any career dealing with heavy research. I'm not sure about specific jobs, but maybe, for example, something having to do with psychology. You have Mars in Aries in the 6th house; that would indicate that the work you do would need to be fairly active and not something that is monotonous, mindless, and repetitive. Aries needs action and doesn't want to do something it considers boring, and being in the 6th house, those energies will be well expressed in a job that you find interesting enough to put a lot of energy into. Aside from that, it's hard to come up with specifics without looking at the 10th house. Why do you want to exclude the Midheaven? The 6th house will show how you approach things like work and routine, while the 10th house will show you more of what you would find interesting and be happy with in terms of specific careers. It also has to do with any kind of goals in the public eye, not always necessarily being purely about career choices.

      When looking at the Midheaven, you need to look at the sign on the cusp, the aspects that the Midheaven makes within your chart, and any planets that may fall into the 10th house.

      "Oh, because the Cancer Midheaven careers suggestions don't appeal to me ^_^"

      The Midheaven can be interpreted in different ways, so I don't really see a Cancer Midheaven as having a set list of jobs only for them. Anyway, look at some of your Midheaven aspects:

      Moon square Midheaven
      Venus sextile Midheaven
      Uranus opposition Midheaven
      Neptune opposition Midheaven
      Pluto Trine Midheaven

      All of these will modify how your MC is operating within your chart. Skyview has some good interpretations on different aspects to the MC.
      http://www.skyviewzone.com/


cancer res

Cancer Prevention

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What is the best cancer prevention you can recommend?
    Cancer runs all over my family and I want to provide my family with the best chance of prevention.. as a mom and as a wife. What cancer prevention tips do you have? Look for Food, Herbs, General Health tips etc. Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      If the cancer that's running all over your family is the exact same cancer, then you just have to be diligent in your check ups. If it's random types of cancers, the best you can do is eat healthy, exercise healthy, be happy and hope for the best.

      @ Harvey Milk. we all know how to answer a question we got reported for. You'll just keep getting reported.

  2. QUESTION:
    Are these good supplements to take for cancer prevention?
    I already eat an all organic healthy diet, but I wanted something extra to boost my cancer prevention. I have two breast tumors- they are non cancerous as of now, but I still worry. I am taking 3 of Jarrow Formulas antioxidant optimizer and 1 of Source Naturals brand non-fish DHA supplement daily. Are these brands good? Is there anything else I should take?

    - Serious answers only, I have been to the doctor many times they recommend I do nothing but stop consuming caffeine which I have.

    • ANSWER:
      Daily Aspirin Reduced Cancer Deaths
      In one of the new studies, Rothwell and colleagues analyzed data from 51 trials originally designed to examine the impact of daily aspirin on heart attack and stroke risk.

      According to the analysis, taking a low-dose aspirin every day reduced the risk of death from cancer by 37% after at least five years of use.

      Taking a daily aspirin for at least three years reduced cancer incidence by close to 25% in both men and women.

      In a second study, the researchers examined the impact of daily aspirin therapy on cancer metastasis, or spread, by analyzing newly published data from five other large trials.

      Among the findings:

      Over an average follow-up of six-and-a-half years, daily aspirin use was associated with a 36% reduced risk of cancer with distant spread.
      Colorectal cancer patients with localized disease had a 74% reduced risk for having their disease spread when they took a daily aspirin.
      Daily aspirin use was associated with a 35% reduction in cancer deaths among patients with solid tumors, but not blood cancers such as leukemia.
      A third analysis of trials also showed that regular aspirin use seemed to reduce the long-term risk of developing colorectal cancer, as well as cancers of the esophagus and breast.

  3. QUESTION:
    Which year it proved that resveratrol is the cancer prevention?
    Can anyone tell me how that resveratrol got proved is it cancer prevention and also mention the year and scientist who proved it?

    • ANSWER:
      In 1997, Jang reported that topical resveratrol applications prevented the skin cancer development in mice treated with a carcinogen. In vitro resveratrol interacts with multiple molecular targets (see the mechanisms of action), and has positive effects on the cells of breast, skin, gastric, colon, esophageal, prostate, and pancreatic cancer, and leukemia. However, the study of pharmacokinetics of resveratrol in humans concluded that even high doses of resveratrol might be insufficient to achieve resveratrol concentrations required for the systemic prevention of cancer.

  4. QUESTION:
    am i having a side affect from the cervical cancer prevention shot?
    about 4 days ago i got the cervical cancer prevention shot and the day after i started having bloody samon colored discharge and it burns not only when i urinate but all the time down there....does the shot cause vaginal infections or what is this?
    please help!!!!!!!!

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, it is possible that this could be a side effect from the vaccine.

      However, I would recommend letting your doctor know what's going on so that they can evaluate the situation further.

  5. QUESTION:
    What are the 6 most common cancer types diagnosed at male population? Which one kills more?
    I'm interested in cancer prevention. I want to check for the 6 most found types of cancer in male populantion. I'll check-up on regular basis, from now on, until (hopefully) something else kills me. What should I look for? (Of course I'll also see an oncologist, and take his oppinion in consideration, as well).

    • ANSWER:
      Lung cancer (mortality 31%), Prostate cancer (10%), Colorectal cancer (10%), Pancreatic cancer (5%) and Leukemia (4%)
      Most common-prostate cancer (33%), lung cancer (13%), colorectal cancer (10%), bladder cancer (7%) and cutaneous melanoma (5%)

  6. QUESTION:
    What exactly does " may protect/ prevent against cancer" in regard to food mean?
    I have recently sharpened up my diet and have googled the benefits of a few food items . I keep coming across the above term , surely it either does or doesn't protect or prevent .Are these statements based on sketchy research or have genuine links been made between cancer prevention and certain foods and their components, in the real scientific community ( as opposed to a shifty marketing department ) ?

    • ANSWER:
      everyone has cancer cells in their body, food manufactures base their claims from certain research that has already been established, what triggers those cells to grow is anyones guess.

  7. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know if in the state of Wisconsin young girls are vaccinated to prevent cancer?
    I vaguely remember Texas being a state that makes this mandatory, but I wondered if anyone knows if Wisconsin has this: where your daughter must be vaccinated with that cancer prevention vaccine (I forget the initials of it) in order for her to attend school. You know which one I mean? Does Wisconsin do this too?

    • ANSWER:
      No. The vaccine has not been proven safe and will not prevent cervical cancer.

  8. QUESTION:
    What exactly does " may protect/ prevent against cancer" in regard to food mean?
    I have recently sharpened up my diet and have googled the benefits of a few food items . I keep coming across the above term , surely it either does or doesn't protect or prevent .Are these statements based on sketchy research or have genuine links been made between cancer prevention and certain foods and their components, in the real scientific community ( as opposed to a shifty marketing department ) ?

    • ANSWER:
      The operative word is may

  9. QUESTION:
    How far has medical technology come within the last decade?
    I find it kind of sad that "technology" has become synonymous with luxury, materialistic, unnecessary, goods, and not also associated with advancements in fields that are necessary for our health and well being. You're far more likely to hear about an advancement in tv watching than you are to hear of one in cancer prevention, diagnostics, etc. But why? Why does there seem to be such a stagnancy in medical technology a well as almost a neglect in it? Is it because the healthy public doesn't care one ay or the other? There is no funding for it? It's technology that lacks entertainment and thus is pointless? What exactly is missing in society that more attention isn't paid towards it. Imagine if society put as much attention toward advances in cancer treatment and prevention as they do towards cell phones. We probably would have had a cure a decade ago.

    • ANSWER:
      "technology" has become synonymous with luxury, materialistic, unnecessary, goods, and not also associated with advancements in fields that are necessary for our health and well being

      ~According to whom, exactly? Your observations?

      You're far more likely to hear about an advancement in tv watching than you are to hear of one in cancer prevention, diagnostics, etc

      ~Not true. Just yesterday, one of the big stories on the news was the little girl in Mississippi who has been cured of HIV.
      But, news caters to what holds a reader's/viewer's attention. Read better magazines and websites and you'll find all kinds of info in advances in medicine.

      Why does there seem to be such a stagnancy in medical technology a well as almost a neglect in it?

      ~ Again, not true. Lol, not even close. Companies spend hundreds of billions, if not trillions, of dollars trying to find the next big drug or device. In the last few years, the best ankle replacement device came on the market after millions and millions of dollars in testing. Old ones sucked and the new ones are life changing.

      Imagine if society put as much attention toward advances in cancer treatment and prevention as they do towards cell phones.

      ~ We put more money towards penis pills and national defense, BY FAR, than we do towards cancer research.

      We probably would have had a cure a decade ago.

      ~ I wouldn't go that far, but remember, we HAVE come up with a cancer vaccination. Gardisil, the HPV vaccination, prevents certain types of cervical cancer.

      I'm not going to say that we should sacrifice TVs for cancer cures. We can't even sacrifice 'gun rights' for the lives of children. I will say that more focus needs to be on prevention of things like cancer - via diet and exercise. Stronger education, stronger reprecussions, stronger aversions to get people away from "fries for ". Tax the snot out of meat, cheap calorie dense fast food, and cheap processed crap and teach people a REAL food pyramid, not one that requires a chunk of beef, a glass of milk, and a potato for each meal.

  10. QUESTION:
    What's a good name/brand for chocolate with cancer-fighting natural compounds?
    Starting a small business to develop dark chocolate (or soy-based bars) targeted to cancer prevention with evidence-based compounds (3-4 other natural food ingredients or extracts), and trying to get ideas on good/clever/targeted names for either the company or the branded chocolate bars.

    • ANSWER:
      How about "Snake Oil"? What exactly are your so-called evidence-based compounds? There have been no foods ever shown to prevent or fight cancer.

  11. QUESTION:
    Other than the list I mentioned, what other goods things come from a diet filled with vegetables?
    Hello,

    Eating vegetables are great for cancer prevention, lower cholesterol, excellent source of fiber, excellent source of vitamins, reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, reduce risk for stroke and perhaps other cardiovascular diseases.

    Other than that, what other things do vegetables do to the body?
    The more knowledge the better; and I need every bit of information because my parents don't understand why I don't eat meat anymore.

    • ANSWER:
      You can add that when you substitute meat out you have none of the adverse effects of meat such as: high blood pressure, fat intake, hight colestoral, heart disease etc. Also, you wouldn't be getting all the growth hormones and antibiotics they pump into animals on the factory farms. You coud show them youtube videos of factory farms or have them watch the movie earthlings online for free with you. Hope i helped and good for you, just be healthy though.

  12. QUESTION:
    Help- I need to do a picture/poem about volleyball and breast cancer?
    Okay, they sound like a weird pair to match, but this year for my club's annual literary arts contest, we are assigned to incorporate breast cancer prevention/treatmentetc into our pieces. I really want to do a picture where it seems like something volleyball related, maybe two girls jousting or slapping hands, or hitting or something, but their arms or bodies create a ribbon, like the breast cancer ribbon. Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Doing the ribbon in the art is just a symbol about a symbol. Unfortunately volleyball has nothing to do with prevention or treatment. It is a proven fact that in parts of the world where bras are not worn there is lower incidence of breast cancer. It is thought that restricting fluid movement may be a factor. This is why lymph nodes are often involved, the lymphatic system moves fluids around.

      Which brings us to bathing suits, being slim and trim (smaller breasts) and self-examination, but since this is a family show I have no idea what to do with it. If you could introduce a lesbian element maybe the liberals who thought up this strange politically correct assignment might be pleased.

      I don't mean to offend, I'm just not artistic.

  13. QUESTION:
    Can anyone help me with my thesis on cancer and nutrition?
    I have hit a mental block while doing my thesis on cancer and nutrition:
    My headings are as follows: Nutrition and Cancer Prevention (what foods will help prevent cancers and how?) Nutrition during treatment (what foods can help the treatment work effectivly or ease the discomfor of the treatment) and Nutrition and Recovery (what foods aid the recovery process)

    Can anyone give me any websites that will help me?
    Thanks in advance for any help!!

    • ANSWER:
      go to pubmed.com it is the best source of literature

  14. QUESTION:
    What kind of medical jobs are available for someone with these interests?
    I want to be in the medical field, and I enjoy holistic nutrition and health. Blood doesn't bother me, but I don't want to be a surgeon who is in surgery everyday maybe once or twice a week is fine. I want to be able to work with all ages of people and I think it would be fun to help research cancer prevention and cures. I also want to help people like myself with cystic acne that is curable through medications to find healthier approaches to clear skin. Your help is appreciated. Thanks for your time.

    • ANSWER:
      Lola, I am so happy to hear that you are considering pursuing holistic/alternative medicine as a career path. There are so many options, here are a few paths to consider:

      Chiropractic Medicine
      Acupuncture
      Holistic Dietary Guidance
      Massage
      Naturopathy
      Holistic Nurse

      Total Health Institute has a very informative blog that may help you to learn more about this industry:
      http://www.totalhealthinstitute.com/blog

      I wish you luck in your journey, God bless!

  15. QUESTION:
    Do docters ask the parent to leave when they are asking the child about sex?
    This is a shot for Cervical Cancer; prevention.

    • ANSWER:
      If your a minor, under 18 the doctor might ask your parent to stay in the room, but if you don't want your parent/guardian in the room then just mention it to him or her... this way you won't feel embarrassed about certain questions the doctor asks you.. but I would start by talking to your parent. Good luck.

  16. QUESTION:
    Is it ok to be on preventive vitamin supplements while being on the medication for the particular disease?
    Like cancer patient, who is already cured, taking multivitamins (as prescribed by an expert under cancer prevention programme) to prevent recurrence, while being on long term doses of Tamoxifen at the same time. How much effective is that?

    • ANSWER:
      Some supplements and herbals can interact with medications so you should always check with your doctor first. Usually complementaries are fine and can't harm anything. However, there is little evidence available that they will prevent a reoccurence. I've known many cancer patients taking vitamin supplements who have relapsed anyway. But, taking them may help by making you stronger to fight the disease if there is a reoccurence. Who knows.

      Ask your doctor if it is okay and than . . go for it.

      Good luck.

  17. QUESTION:
    Are a lot of moles and reddish scars ugly on a guy?
    I am a 22 yr old male with several moles all over my body. I probably have 20 on both my back and stomach, with several moles on my arms and legs too. I don't like them and have had several removed for skin cancer prevention, and am now left with ugly red scars.

    There's really nothing that can be done to remove them without leaving scars. Is a girl willing to look past these? They really affect my self-confidence. Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      look...character is everything.....a good heart and personality will get you the most attention. scares, bumps and lumps don't make a person...GOODLUCK!!

  18. QUESTION:
    What is graviola supplements used for?
    I take Fish Oil, One-A-Day Multi Vitamin, Hair & Nail Vitamins and MSM Vitamin. I read some great things about Graviola supplements, but would it be pointless for me to take it? I'm not sure if it's bad to take too many vitamins. And I honestly am not sure what Graviola is good for other than cancer prevention. Would love to hear from someone who may know about Graviola vitamins or tea.

    • ANSWER:
      Liz,
      CANCER, but..
      In your case graviola is not necessary, as a matter a fact you should not take it! Yes the fruit is rich in B, and C vitamins but you already have that covered in your multi-vitamin. You also introduce bad compounds by taking this fruit extract: fructose (complex sugars) and Annonacin (caused brain lesions consistent with Parkinson's disease).
      TOO MUCH CERTAIN VITAMINS CAN BE REALLY BAD!
      While we are on a subject of vitamins; your multi-vitamin is junk (especially pills). It is better than not taking them at all, but people think a multivitamin is a good insurance policy, wrong!! It is overrated in every way.. When you pop a pill your stomach doesn't have enough time to dissect it and absorb all the benefits (its like you chewing a big bone trying to get into the bone marrow in limited time). Your urine has more vitamin properties than the multi-vitamin going in!

      Advise: Liquid has greater chance to get absorbed in the stomach, so look for liquid multi-vitamin!
      Please eat more fruits and vegetables! Strawberries also have anti-cancer properties, Vitamin C, spend your money on that (not to mention how delicious it is)

      PS. Sorry I shifted away from your question, but I felt this information is much more helpful than Graviola

  19. QUESTION:
    Why do liberals accept Obamas new mammogram guidelines?
    My concern is why no oncologist or radiologist were not on the panel. How does one restrict cancer prevention without any cancer experts?

    • ANSWER:
      This is the first of MANY examples of government intrusion into our lives and health care rationing via the mantra of "health care for all."

      The "expert" panel was comprised of statisticians and primary care docs who know how to manipulate statistics (when they are "asked to do so by the White House") and know nothing about mammograms and cancer detection.

      Truly an outrage.

  20. QUESTION:
    What are the odds of a dead nerve tooth never needing root canal? Has dentistry ever noted the odds on this?
    This is a fundamental question that can apply to anyone considering RCT root canal treatment!

    I hope for a spirited response!

    Does anyone know of odds or statistics of how long a dead nerve tooth lasts problem free for say 1, 5, and 10 years?

    It appears dental school doesn't teach about odds of natural cure so dentist have little info on this fundamental question; seems similar to how cancer doctors know so little about nutrition's role in cancer prevention.

    So the question is if I just leave the tooth alone, what are the odds that turns out fine? Root canal also has risks, and also fails over time. What are odds of RCT failing in five years? Are there any stats on how long root canal treatment lasts problem free?

    Please clarify, as it seems obvious to leave the tooth alone but also x-ray at dentist every 4 months. Then, RCT if any complications.

    Is calcification of root canal natures way of filling the canal? It's now been six weeks since nerve died.

    Photos of my tooth #20 can be seen at http://tooth.decay.tripod.com

    (ignore the write-up as it is out of date before i understood the root had died).
    The write-up at http://tooth.decay.tripod.com/ is now up to date. I've added it in full here:

    CAN ROOT CANAL BE AVOIDED EVEN WHEN TOOTH HAS A DEAD NERVE?
    last update JAN 27 2013

    The purpose of this website is to foster understanding of dental options for a severely decayed tooth. It is 'wide open' and no longer accumulates debris for decay. I now fastidiously brush and floss, due to 'wake up call' from this decay. I hope to answer simple question - can root canal be avoided?

    2 million years teeth have changed little in mammals. Surely nature can provide a solution, at least sometimes? HOW OFTEN IS SOMETIMES? HOW OFTEN CAN A DEAD TOOTH JUST BE LEFT ALONE WITHOUT ROOT CANAL TREATMENT RCT? What are the odds it will stay problem free for:
    2yrs,
    5yrs,
    10yrs?

    It seems dentistry school doesn't teach this. similar to how cancer doctors learn nothing about nutrition's strong role in curing/preventing cancer.

    Can't a dead nerve fill in natural
    The write-up at http://tooth.decay.tripod.com/ is now up to date. I've added it in full here:

    CAN ROOT CANAL BE AVOIDED EVEN WHEN TOOTH HAS A DEAD NERVE?
    last update JAN 27 2013

    The purpose of this website is to foster understanding of dental options for a severely decayed tooth. It is 'wide open' and no longer accumulates debris for decay. I now fastidiously brush and floss, due to 'wake up call' from this decay. I hope to answer simple question - can root canal be avoided?

    2 million years teeth have changed little in mammals. Surely nature can provide a solution, at least sometimes? HOW OFTEN IS SOMETIMES? HOW OFTEN CAN A DEAD TOOTH JUST BE LEFT ALONE WITHOUT ROOT CANAL TREATMENT RCT? What are the odds it will stay problem free for:
    2yrs,
    5yrs,
    10yrs?

    It seems dentistry school doesn't teach this. similar to how cancer doctors learn nothing about nutrition's strong role in curing/preventing cancer.

    Can't a dead nerve fill in natural

    • ANSWER:

  21. QUESTION:
    How much coffee should I drink?
    They say coffee's good for brain function and cancer prevention. I also here there's a threshold to how much coffee you can consume that will benefit you. So how many cups a day or how many mg and how often? Also is there a way to calculate more accurately based on body weight?
    Thats myth and besides I wouldn't mind being a little shorter.

    • ANSWER:
      I agree, 4 cups max (not to the point where you feel jittery). You wouldn't want to drink too much anyway, it'll stain your teeth.

      Research has proven that coffee does draw a bit of calcium, but it is a very insignificant amount.

  22. QUESTION:
    Hi fellow seniors, how many of you take aspirin on a regular basis?
    The wonders and mysteries of Aspirin have been around for many years. Just by taking a small dose apparently has so many benefits from thinning the blood through to cancer prevention.

    The downside is said to 'maybe' cause internal bleeding.

    I just wonder how many of you have any faith at all in that small cheaply produced pill as I haven't yet made my mind up about it ?

    • ANSWER:
      I have been taking Aspirin in the form of a 75mg tablet
      every day since 2002, when I had my first MI (heart attack)
      Lily.
      I started on the dissolvable tablets which I took in water,
      have now gone over to the Gastro-resistant tablets.

      I have found no incidence of internal bleeding, they seem
      to thin my blood enough to keep my heart 'happy', and if
      I have Angina I sometimes take two tablets on the advice
      of my Cardiologist. Along with Atenolol, Lisinopril, Isosorbide-
      mononitrate, Nicorandil and Atorvastatin they keep me
      ticking over.
      Of course one can only give a personal opinion of how
      Aspirin affects them, everyone is different, people with
      a very sensitive stomach may find that they have problems.
      So it is really a case of "horses for courses".

      Edited to add: due to the childish person
      who is Thumbing Down everyone here
      I have given everyone a Thumbs UP!

  23. QUESTION:
    How much faith should one place in an alkaline diet for cancer prevention?
    My father-in-law was wrongfully diagnosed with cancer of the liver recently. The disturbing episode has had him on edge ever since. In hopes of developing a healthier lifestyle, he is thinking of adopting an alkaline diet. My wife and I would like to know more because we are not completely sold on the idea.

    • ANSWER:
      An alkaline diet is based on the theory that if an individual continuously eats certain foods that leave an alkaline residue in the body, that person could alter their pH balance to the point of slowing down or stopping cancerous tumor growth all together. The diet encourages the consumption of vegetables, slow-sugar fruits, nuts, tubers and legumes. It avoids meat, grains, dairy, alcohol, sugars, fungi and caffeine.

      Advocates believe that strict adherence to an alkaline diet for cancer prevention is feasible. They suggest that cancer, obesity, fatigue and allergies can be eluded on this diet

      There has been some evidence that cancer cells grow more quickly in an acidic solution than in an alkaline one, and that cancer cells cannot survive in an alkaline environment. An alkaline diet may also aide in bone health.

      Educate yourself further and share your misgivings with your father-in-law. As a matter of course, a person should always seek their physician’s input before making any drastic changes to their lifestyle.

      This site http://acidalkalinediet.com has some good information on alkalizing the body.

  24. QUESTION:
    Creative name for chocolate with natural cancer-fighting compounds?
    Starting a small business to develop dark chocolate (or soy-based bars) targeted to cancer prevention with evidence-based compounds (3-4 other natural food ingredients or extracts), and trying to get ideas on good/clever/targeted names for either the company or the branded chocolate bars.

    • ANSWER:
      FDA doesn't regulate nutritional supplements. Any and all claims made have no proven efficacy. FDA does allow you to claim some benefits from oat ingredients.

      Besides, theobromine and falvinoids already have known benefits to humans. Do NOT feed chocolate to your pets.

  25. QUESTION:
    How do I turn off the sparkling?
    So, I smoke cigarettes (or cancer sticks as my father calls them), and they indirectly contain cancer. And I've read that THC will not cure cancer, but it'll work as a cancer prevention, so I smoke some THC every now and then. Anyway, I'm rolling one right now, but some of the crystals got stuck on my fingers and I rubbed it in my eye without realizing my finger were full of THC crystals. At first it hurt and my eye turned red, but now it's sparkling! How do I turn it off?

    • ANSWER:
      i would use viseane eye drops

  26. QUESTION:
    Can someone recommend me a good red wine?
    I'm looking for something a little bit sweet with some body, and I don't like the dryness of most red wines.

    But I definitely want red wine as I'll be drinking it mostly for the beneficial flavonoids it contains, so that I can maintain a healthy cardiovascular system. Here's a paragraph from an article about it:

    According to Frei, "we can now follow the activity of flavonoids in the body, and one thing that is clear is that the body sees them as foreign compounds and is trying to get rid of them. But this process of gearing up to get rid of unwanted compounds is inducing so-called Phase II enzymes that also help eliminate mutagens and carcinogens, and therefore may be of value in cancer prevention...Flavonoids could also induce mechanisms that help kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor invasion."

    Red wine is of course a great source of flavanoids along with cocoa (look for levels of 85% or higher in dark chocolate).
    Some more info about flavonoids:

    "Flavonoids have been referred to as "nature's biological response modifiers" because of strong experimental evidence of their inherent ability to modify the body's reaction to allergens, viruses, and carcinogens. They show anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory[3] , anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity.

    Consumers and food manufacturers have become interested in flavonoids for their medicinal properties, especially their potential role in the prevention of cancers and cardiovascular disease. The beneficial effects of fruit, vegetables, and tea or even red wine have been attributed to flavonoid compounds rather than to known nutrients and vitamins."

    I got it from wikipedia.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavonoid

    • ANSWER:
      I don't normally think of red wines in terms of sweetness because of the tannins. Maybe you want try some red port wines which are around 20 percent alcohol and tend to be a little sweet. I personally like Chianti's which are very drinkable but not overpowering.

  27. QUESTION:
    What is the best green tea pill to take for overall health?
    I need it for:

    alertness
    weightloss
    anti-depressant
    cancer-prevention

    • ANSWER:

  28. QUESTION:
    What are the recent studies and researches for cancer prevention?
    I have to write a research paper about cancer and I need a lot of help.

    • ANSWER:
      Remember that cancer is not just one disease, but over 200, not all of them have preventive actions, but some do.

      Gardasil/Cervarix is a major outbreak, it should prevent about 90% of all cervical cancer cases, which is now the third most frequent cancer in woman, after lung and breast.
      Some genetic testing are also available, in high risk patients they can get tested to asses their likelihood to have certain cancer, depending on the results, they can have surgery (remove both breasts and put an implant in very high-risk patients), or frequent testing (colonoscopy every 6 months in colon cancer). Examples of this are: thyroid cancer, breast ca, ovarian cancer and colon cancer.
      However, genetic-caused cancer is not common, for example less than 5% of all breast cancer cases are directly caused genetics.

      More than preventive, most measures are aimed to do an early diagnose: mammogram, SPA, stool blood, pap smear.

      cdc.gov
      cancer.org
      cancer.gov
      who.org
      Are good sources

      good luck!

  29. QUESTION:
    Where can I find accurate information about the medicinal value of Green Tea as a cancer prevention?
    I am undergoing treatment for prostate cancer and I want to do whatever I can to prevent recurrence

    • ANSWER:
      You can go here and search the medical literature yourself.

      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=PubMed

      I did a search using green tea, prostate as my search terms and another using green tea, prostate, recurrence as my search terms and got hits in each search. Evidently there is quite a bit of speculation that habitual drinking of green tea might help prevent prostate cancer in the first place. less info about it's ability to prevent a recurrence. I do know there is a lot of speculation that drinking green tea regularly might stop you from getting additional skin cancers and supposedly helps repair the broken DNA that allows skin cancer to happen in the first place.

      With all alternative cancer prevention ideas, you have to take them with a grain of salt. Today's miracle remedy might be tomorrow's next no no for the same situation. I will say that I started drinking green tea regularly a few years ago and now look forward to my morning and afternoon green tea. There are also capsules available that contain the extract from green tea that is supposed to slow or prevent cancer growth.
      Green tea is inexpensive and safe so I do not think you could go wrong with trying it. I make a large pot (2 tea bags) in my coffee maker and just store the rest in a pitcher in the refrig so I do not always have to be brewing additional cups. 8 cups or one pot lasts me about 2 days.
      Good luck with the prostate.

  30. QUESTION:
    Which of these sentences is punctuated correctly?
    1. This issue of Newsweek has a great article about cancer prevention.
    2. This issue of “Newsweek” has a great article about cancer prevention.
    3. This issue of Newsweek has a great article about cancer prevention.

    • ANSWER:
      The second sentence is correct because Newsweek is the name of a newspaper so it has to have quotes. The first and third choice are the same by the way.

  31. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know the name of the program that promoted sun-safety to teens through a survey?
    I remember doing it when i was in middle school, and that i got .00 every time i filled out a survey and mailed it back in. I think i was called the Sun-Safe survey, but i cant find anything on the web about it. I am doing a project for college about skin cancer prevention for Teens and this information would be very helpful.

    • ANSWER:

  32. QUESTION:
    What guidance would you provide to someone to meet the goal of reduced risk of breast cancer?
    What guidance would you provide to someone to meet the goal of reduced risk of breast cancer recurrence and prevention of osteoporosis?

    • ANSWER:
      Eat healthy, don't get fat and pray for luck!

      Mulatto sounds like a very gullible teenager.. We don't eat cloned animals and gerson??? Please, better hope you never get cancer and decide to try it to cure yourself...

  33. QUESTION:
    Do young people benefit from antioxidants?
    There is a lot of talk about antioxidants in relation to free radicals, cancer prevention, and anti aging. These issues are typically marketed towards older people. Do antioxidants help young people like children or teenagers? or is there no effect?

    • ANSWER:
      Antioxidants obtained from food sources are much more helpful to the human body than antioxidant supplements. Regardless of what you might read from the vitamin salespeople, neither type antioxidant will help prevent cancer if someone has another dominant risk factor for cancer like an extensive smoking history, toxic environmental exposure, genetic error or excessive UVA exposure.

      Antioxidants are helpful for everyone of all ages - but they are not a magic bullet cure-all because cancer is way too complex of a disease process to be treated or cured that easily. However, a diet high in antioxidants and low in junk food will give you strong bones and nice skin along with possibly fewer colds in the winter.

      Intake of antioxidant supplements will interfere with many cancer chemo and radiation treatments because the antioxidants also help the malignant cells survive along with the healthy cells. If doing active cancer treatment you should run a full list of all your supplements by your Dr to make sure there are no negative interactions. I had to stop about ten different supplements for several months.

  34. QUESTION:
    Pictures of children with cancer or cancer survivors?
    Im making a documentary/music video about children - and people in general - with cancer/cancer awareness/cancer prevention. I need a lot of pictures and videos of children and people with cancer and also cancer survivors. Thx!!

    • ANSWER:
      Go to acor.org and join the parent list-servs. Try the leukemia one and the n-blast one. They are both active and the parents would love to show pic of their children and help raise awareness. Post your msg there- you need parent permission anyway so its a two-fer.

  35. QUESTION:
    best oils to use when massaging breasts?
    i am massaging my breasts both for health (toxins, breast cancer prevention, etc) and size reasons.
    i would like to know what kind of massage oil is best for stimulating breasts for optimal growth.

    • ANSWER:

  36. QUESTION:
    Do you think that Americans have it wrong and are too cautious when it comes to Cancer Prevention?
    Although there is no sure fire cure for cancer, I was under the impression that early detection was the key to survival. Why has this changed?

    • ANSWER:
      "too cautious" ?? --

      Absolutely not !!

      In fact, I think it is Impossible to be "too cautious"

      We're in a "PC" society that demands Bike Helmets & Seat Belts & not allowing Adults to make their own decisions...

      ...and they want to reduce our concern for Cancer??

      I understand the argument about "too much" medical tests, etc....

      But, C'mon !!

      We are talking about gambling between Life & Death.

      Let me counsel with my Doctor on "what's next" -- and the Gov't can "Keep the **** out of it"

      This recent report on reducing the concern for Breast Cancer -- is astonishingly Careless, Sterile, Inconsiderate, & Unconscionable!!

      ANSWER -- Why has this changed?

      I really think it's about money (and as outrageous as it sounds -- removing the "weaker" ones from society.)

      "There is no place in Society for the Infirmed" -- Roy Cohn "Citizen Cohn"

      Money has always "out-valued" Human Life in this Country --

      ...and NOW -- It's accelerating!!

      Why is it accelerating? -- Maybe because, this is the "Can Do !!" administration!!

      "Let's take care of all these problems; without even thinking them through --
      ...I mean there is not "time" to really think about it, right ??"

      "Let's nip this one in the bud!!"

      OMG -- We just had Breast Cancer awareness Month!!

      Is the Gov't paying ANY attention to its Citizens' concerns?

      This all makes me sick. -- It's so.... Machiavellian.

      Or else -- This Advisory Panel are just Idiots!!

      They're all "General Practitioners" & "CPAs" -- without a SINGLE "Oncologist" or "Specialist," on-board.
      .

  37. QUESTION:
    why do I feel a slight pain on the mid right side of my rib cage after drinking Green tea?
    The pain is the same kind of pain I feel in the same area after going for a run and not having hydrated properly.

    I'm not a huge fan of tea, but started drinking it because of the cancer prevention benefits. I haven't tried any tea brand other than Celestial Seasonings Green & White Tea Bags with. Honey Lemon Ginseng

    • ANSWER:
      I drink Lipton Superfruit Green Tea. I like the Purple Acai and Blueberry. It seems to taste better than most other green teas, especially if you drizzle a little honey in it.

      Some people can have stomach cramps and digestive upsets with ginseg.

      The area you mention contains your gallbladder, pancreas, liver, and duodenum. It's possible that the ginseg is irritating the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine.

      Try switching teas (the fewer ingredients the better) to see if that helps.

  38. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know anything about the new drug Gardasil? That helps prevent cervical cancer?
    Does it actually work? Does it help outbreaks for women that already have gential warts? Does it really prevent cancer? Will this led to other cancer preventions? Is it available in the U.S.? Does insurance cover it? Has anyone tried it? Do you support it?

    • ANSWER:
      Although Gardasil is a great tool for preventing certain strains of HPV, it does not prevent all of the strains. (there are over 100 strains, and some of the most aggressive strains are not included in the vaccine). It also does not help those who already harbor the virus, or who choose not to be vaccinated, do not complete the series (you have to get all 6 as scheduled) or do not acquire immunity. Also, they do not know what the long-term side effects will be to young women, or how long the immunity will last. Overall, your best bet is to get regular Pap tests, and an HPV test. Those of us who have been diagnosis Cervical cancer for years fear that young women will see this as a "cure". It is not. Please continue to spread the word that cervical cancer is caused by HPV, a sexually transmitted disease, but also encourage them to get regular Pap tests as soon as they become sexually active. The youngest patient I have diagnosed was 10 years old. The average age is 24.

  39. QUESTION:
    Can being on the contraceptive pill cause breast cancer?
    I always heard this was a myth. But today i came across a report on www.preventcancer.com (ran by the cancer prevention coalition) that said that it does increase the risk. It also said this was particularly the case in women who started the pill in their teens or early 20s without having a full term pregnancy first. so what's the truth?

    • ANSWER:
      G'day Prettyinpunkk,

      Thank you for your question.

      Estrogen-based pills have also been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer In rare cases, high estrogen Pills may trigger benign intracranial hypertension. The National Cancer Institute has a factsheet containing an answer to this question.

      " # How do oral contraceptives affect breast cancer risk?

      A woman’s risk of developing breast cancer depends on several factors, some of which are related to her natural hormones. Hormonal factors that increase the risk of breast cancer include conditions that may allow high levels of hormones to persist for long periods of time, such as beginning menstruation at an early age (before age 12), experiencing menopause at a late age (after age 55), having a first child after age 30, and not having children at all.

      A 1996 analysis of worldwide epidemiologic data conducted by the Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer found that women who were current or recent users of birth control pills had a slightly elevated risk of developing breast cancer. The risk was highest for women who started using OCs as teenagers. However, 10 or more years after women stopped using OCs, their risk of developing breast cancer returned to the same level as if they had never used birth control pills, regardless of family history of breast cancer, reproductive history, geographic area of residence, ethnic background, differences in study design, dose and type of hormone, or duration of use. In addition, breast cancers diagnosed in women after 10 or more years of not using OCs were less advanced than breast cancers diagnosed in women who had never used OCs. To conduct this analysis, the researchers examined the results of 54 studies. The analysis involved 53,297 women with breast cancer and 100,239 women without breast cancer. More than 200 researchers participated in this combined analysis of their original studies, which represented about 90 percent of the epidemiological studies throughout the world that had investigated the possible relationship between OCs and breast cancer (2).

      The findings of the Women’s Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences (Women’s CARE) study were in contrast to those described above. The Women’s CARE study examined the use of OCs as a risk factor for breast cancer in women ages 35 to 64. Researchers interviewed 4,575 women who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1994 and 1998, and 4,682 women who did not have breast cancer. Investigators collected detailed information about the participants’ use of OCs, reproductive history, health, and family history. The results, which were published in 2002, indicated that current or former use of OCs did not significantly increase the risk of breast cancer. The findings were similar for white and black women. Factors such as longer periods of use, higher doses of estrogen, initiation of OC use before age 20, and OC use by women with a family history of breast cancer were not associated with an increased risk of the disease (3).

      In a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored study published in 2003, researchers examined risk factors for breast cancer among women ages 20 to 34 compared with women ages 35 to 54. Women diagnosed with breast cancer were asked whether they had used OCs for more than 6 months before diagnosis and, if so, whether the most recent use had been within 5 years, 5 to 10 years, or more than 10 years. The results indicated that the risk was highest for women who used OCs within 5 years prior to diagnosis, particularly in the younger group (4). "

      I would speak to your doctor about it but I wouldn't change my contraception as yet because there is some conflict in the evidence

      I have attached sources for your reference.

      Regards

  40. QUESTION:
    What are some steps to take that significantly reduce our chances of getting cancer?
    Although some of the causes of cancer remain unknown, and some are beyond a person's control, there are still some ways to avoid getting it.

    • ANSWER:
      Protecting yourself from the sun, eating a healthy diet with plenty of fiber and low in saturated fats, getting exercise, not smoking or chewing tobacco, practicing safe sex, performing regular BSEs and TSEs, mammograms, colonoscopy and PSA tests for older people, getting regular checkups, drinking alcohol in moderation, etc.

      http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cancer-prevention/CA00024
      http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/ped_1.asp
      http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/overview/Patient

  41. QUESTION:
    What else is known to lower chances of getting cancer apart from green tea?
    I know that green tea is very good as it is very high in anti-oxidants, but I haven't been able to find of any other simple things that could be incorporated into a daily routine to reduce the chance of getting cancer. All you health experts out there please let me know of any other simple things one can do to reduce the chances of getting this terrible disease. (I already know the basics like exercise, eat well, get enough sleep etc..). Thanks you!

    • ANSWER:
      Brassica family members, especially broccoli, are good for colon cancer prevention because of they contain sulfur compounds.

      Remember that oxidants aren't all bad. The immune system uses them to kill bacteria so don't OD on antioxidants. You need some oxidising compounds to fight infection.

  42. QUESTION:
    What are the types of remedies being developed to help combat cancer?
    my bio teacher is wack! Heres the whole question...
    The timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cellsis highly regulated. The growth of cancer is uncontrolled and can cause disastrous affects in an individual. Research the causes of this uncontrolled growth and summarize them. Breifly summarize the types of remedies that are being developed to help combat cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      There are newer chemotherapies being developed.
      HPV vaccine has been developed. HPV is a virus that causes most cervical cancer.
      Research on foods is helping to deal with cancer prevention. Tumeric is a spice that shows signs of anticancer activity.
      Improved radiation therapy allows more focused attack on cancer cells.

  43. QUESTION:
    What causes prostate cancer and what are the symptoms?
    My father recently died with prostate cancer. He was going to the doctors for years. It was in the advanced stages before it was found. Why didn't the doctors check his prostate before this? He was in pain and agony and it spread to his hips and bones. It really makes me mad I didn't pick up the symptoms and neither did a professional. He wasn't even 70. Life just isn't the same without him.

    • ANSWER:
      I had the same feelings, when I lost my beloved father in 1972. I converted all my deep love and affection to my mother and brothers and sisters. In 1992, I lost my mother for liver cancer and a younger sister predeceased in 1985 for leukemia. I got wild to see the end of cancer.Thereby, I became an expert in cancer diagnosis with "no costs"; that too instantaneously. Acupressure techniques & Indian Natural Remedies are very much handy not only to diagnose, but also to prevent and cure. I am striving to diagnose cancer, HIV through through this wonderful and philanthropic site 'Yahoo Answers'. It has become my life goal. When U lost Ur beloved Dad for 'cancer' I think if U know the causes, with preventive care, U can be "cancer free" for life.

      Why are more and more young people falling victims to the demon- “CANCER”? What are Prime Causes* & Preventive/Curative Measures?
      1. Chronic & severe constipation [+ heavy quantum of accumulated feces in the rectum & the large intestine] with a displaced solar plexus. Bad diet with McDonald’s pizzas, burgers, KFC-deep freeze and deep fried chicken, pork, hot dogs, high rich calorie diets-obesity, etc. As a result, most of the Americans/Europeans are cancer victims due to chronic constipation issues.
      3. Hormonal imbalance.
      4. Heavy exposure to asbestos, pollution from industrial wastes, tobacco consumption and or smoking..
      5. Chronic & Unhealed wounds/injuries caused by bacterial/viral/metabolic syndromes/diseases with blocked energy + toxins in any internal organ.
      6. Sexual promiscuity, Perverted anal/oral sex, hetero-sex, lesbians, homosex amongst transgenders, bad personal hygiene [not washing gonads after coitus] & indiscriminate consumption of birth control pills 'with no' medical supervision by endocrinologist/gynecologist/physician.
      7. Chronic Stress & Strain.
      8. Lack of exercise & ever increasing obese bodies.
      9. Smoking and tobacco/gutka chewing. 90% lung-cancer victims are smokers, an American study reveals; as per Web Med News.
      10. Regular consumption of ‘colas’ with heavy doses of insecticides, freely available in India. Regular & excessive alcohol consumption.
      11. Skin Cancer Exposure to Sun’s rays @ odd hours [90 minutes after sunrise, beyond 60 minutes before sunset and anytime during strong winds] and excessive exposure to radiation emanating from cell phones, transmission towers, etc.,
      . 12. 24/7-- wearing of bra by the modern woman and avoiding breast feeding the child—breast cancer.
      13. Heavy genetic dispositions with more ‘cancer-stricken ancestors’
      14. Facts on Lung Cancer vis-à-vis Smoking:
      Prudent to stop smoking forthwith permanently------Because, out of every 10 lung cancer patients-9 are smokers-An American Research Study published in WebMD.com.

      CANCER/HIV PREVENTION & Cure:--
      1. Beware of Cancer Symptoms: Sudden loss of weight/stamina, anemia, unbearable pains in any organ despite medication, neuralgia, getting extremely tired for a little or no work, loss of appetite, unhealed wound in any part of the body for years together, chronic constipation, chronic hemorrhages, hemoptysis, etc. Cancer may affect from any organ to any organ[s]/system[s].
      2.. Good liquid Diet, green leaf juices + honey, like aloe vera juice, Noni juice, wheat grass powder, fresh fruit [seasonal fruit only] juices sprouted seeds like green gram, horse gram, ground nuts, boiled- after soaking in water for 15 hours-soya beans, etc., raw coconut, raw dates, watermelon, cabbage, yogurt, spinach, helped many a no. of Health conscious people all over the globe.
      3. Acupressure techniques a MUST to ensure faster recovery.
      4. No salt, no baking soda, no cooked food, No chocolates, No Pizzas, No burgers ----to boost-up immunity power to produce antibodies. Say no to Deep freeze and deep fried products from KFC and McDonald, Diet sodas with aspartame and colas made in India, etc.
      5. How to prevent Sunburn*: Expose Ur body and or the affected parts within 90 minutes from sunrise & within 60 minutes before sunset. During strong winds, no exposure please. Any extra exposure shall be @ Ur own peril.
      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

  44. QUESTION:
    How can I prevent my best friend from getting cancer?
    She's pretty great and ever since the movie 50/50 came out I've been pretty concerned she's going to contract AIDS or develop cancer or something. She's pretty much all I have left, so what can I do to prevent her from sickness? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      cancer prevention:
      smoking cessation
      physical activity
      diet modification (more fruit and vegetables)(low fat)
      normal weight
      sun avoidance

  45. QUESTION:
    How long do people live with lung cancer when chemo is not an option?
    I just heard of a man who has lung cancer, in his mid-60's, and his liver is to bad for any chemo to be done. I didn't want to ask his sister, who is the one I know, how long he has but I was curious. Without chemo is lung cancer probably only a matter of a month or two or can one live along time. It is stage 2 lung cancer on a man with severe liver damage as the man has battled alcoholism and also the man has some kidney disease.

    • ANSWER:
      Next best option isto go in for 'target therapy' to prolong life and to have a cure too. Details follow--------------

      *CANCER/HIV PREVENTION & Cure:-- Details Made available ‘free of cost’ right @ Ur door-steps with the aid of Target Therapy.
      Beware of Cancer Symptoms: Sudden loss of weight/stamina, anemia, unbearable pains in any organ despite medication, neuralgia, fatigue-getting extremely tired for a little or no work, loss of appetite, unhealed wound in any part of the body for years together, chronic bloating, chronic constipation, chronic hemorrhages, hemoptysis. etc. Cancer may affect from any organ to any organ[s]/system[s].

      The symptoms cited---------an offshoot of blocked energy + accumulated toxins Brain, Spinal cord, liver, lungs, Thyroid & Parathyroid, lymphatic system, Spleen, hormonal imbalance with a displaced solar plexus.

      ‘Target Therapy’ [Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies] proved to be effective for all types of cancer [including brain tumors, leukemia, melanoma, Crohn’s Disease, bone marrow cancer, breast cancer, etc., ] & all the most dreaded and incurable diseases.

      TARGET THERAPY* It is the God-given therapy communicated to the mankind through THE RIGVEDA, one of the Hindu scriptures.
      Target Therapy---Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies, [comprising Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Bio-chemic salts, Herbal Remedies, Yoga/Meditation, Magneto-therapy, Sidha, etc.,] U can have sizable & perceivable relief in 45-90 days. @ no/affordable costs, No side effects, and No Hospitalization.

      Dr.Vora designed it in such a way that the costs are the least for the survival/rescue of common man and the poor in villages, towns and metropolis on the globe; with NO insurance cover & NO money to bear the costs of chemo. It is most suitable to all the youngsters on this entire globe.
      U may study it, discuss with Ur family members/friends/acquaintances and slowly and steadily implement it for the best results.

      •No side effects and no risk. If it clicks, mostly possible, U shall have a cure. Lest, the therapy keeps mum. No extra risk. It is the most suitable line of treatment even for the terminally ill patients. Cancer cure/prevention is quite possible. U may try it for any incurable disease including cancer of any organ[s], post-surgical recurrence of tumors, Leukemia, HIV/AIDS, Crohn’s Syndrome, Gilbert’s Syndrome, colon cancer, Thalassemia, Alzheimer’s Syndrome, Muscular Dystrophy, Autism, bone TB., Tinnitus, all brain & spinal cord disorders, CLL, Crohn’s Syndrome, endometriosis, etc., ---it should aim @ [3] steps.
      1. Removal of toxins from all internal organs & purging through Normal Drainage systems, feces, urine, skin, lungs, menses [females].
      2. Activating all the internal organs to make each & every organ to function up to optimum levels, by purging out toxins.
      3. Supplying vitamins, nutrients, micro-nutrients, minerals, trace elements for invigorating the entire Immune system to produce antibodies.
      All items for a cure—available in Ur vicinity all over the globe.

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ [Vol.I & II] available in all Indian Languages all over the globe] by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.
      Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

  46. QUESTION:
    What are the chances for stomach leadings to stomach cancer?
    I'm 21 years old and I have stomach ulcer. I recently read about stomach cancer, and I fear that my turn will come in the future.

    Questions:

    1) What are the chances for stomach ulcers to lead to stomach cancer?
    2) Can stomach cancer be prevented for all time and never be diagnosed if taking care of the body?

    If you can answer these questions, I'll appreciate it.
    Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      ***Many of the questioners on this ‘most benevolent Yahoo Answers site’ do not react. If every questioner is benefited and reacts, there shall be more and more enlightened & benevolent souls to help mass visitors.***

      1. Yes, for my younger sister, she had chronic ulcer and ultimately she died of leukemia in 1985.
      2. Not only stomach cancer, but all sorts of cancers can be prevented.
      3. All cancers and all the most dreaded diseases are curable by 'target therapy'. Because, lot of research was made by Dr.Vora and his disciples like me all over the globe.

      Why are more and more young people getting cancer? What are Prime Causes*?
      1. Chronic & severe constipation [+ heavy quantum of accumulated feces in the rectum & the large intestine] with a displaced solar plexus. Bad diet with McDonald’s pizzas, burgers, KFC-deep freeze and deep fried chicken, pork, high rich calorie diets-obesity, etc. As a result, most of the Americans/Europeans are cancer victims due to chronic constipation issues.
      3. Hormonal imbalance.
      4. Heavy exposure to asbestos, pollution.
      5. Chronic & Unhealed wounds/injuries caused by bacterial/viral/metabolic syndromes/diseases with blocked energy + toxins in any internal organ.
      6. Sexual promiscuity, bad personal hygiene [not washing gonads after coitus] & indiscriminate consumption of birth control pills 'with no' medical supervision by endocrinologist/gynecologist/physician.
      7. Stress & Strain.
      8. Lack of exercise & ever increasing obese bodies.
      9. Smoking and tobacco/gutka chewing. 90% lung-cancer victims are smokers, an American study reveals; as per Web Med News.
      10. Regular consumption of ‘colas’ with heavy doses of insecticides, freely available in India..
      11. Exposure to Sun’s rays @ odd hours [90 minutes after sunrise, beyond 60 minutes before sunset and anytime during strong winds] and excessive exposure to radiation emanating from cell phones, transmission towers, etc.,
      12. 24/7-- wearing of bra by the modern woman and avoiding breast feeding the child—breast cancer.
      13. Heavy genetic dispositions with more ‘cancer-stricken ancestors’.
      CANCER/HIV PREVENTION & Cure:--
      1. Beware of Cancer Symptoms: Sudden loss of weight/stamina, anemia, unbearable pains in any organ despite medication, neuralgia, getting extremely tired for a little or no work, loss of appetite, unhealed wound in any part of the body for years together, chronic constipation, chronic hemorrhages, etc. Cancer may affect from any organ to any organ[s]/system[s].
      2.. Good liquid Diet, green leaf juices + honey, like aloe vera juice, Noni juice, wheat grass powder, fresh fruit [seasonal fruit only] juices sprouted seeds like green gram, horse gram, ground nuts, boiled- after soaking in water for 15 hours-soya beans, etc., raw coconut, raw dates, watermelon, cabbage, yogurt, spinach, helped many a no. of Health conscious people all over the globe.
      3. Acupressure techniques a MUST to ensure faster recovery.
      4. No salt, no baking soda, no cooked food, No chocolates, No Pizzas, No burgers ----to boost-up immunity power to produce antibodies. Say no to Deep freeze and deep fried products from KFC and McDonald, Diet sodas with aspartame and colas made in India, etc.
      5. How to prevent Sunburn*: Expose Ur body and or the affected parts within 90 minutes from sunrise & within 60 minutes before sunset. During strong winds, no exposure please. Any extra exposure shall be @ Ur own peril.
      6. Prevention of genetic disorders:- The Indian Mythology says that, the three Gods-the Brahma, the Vishnu, the Maheshwera sit together to ensure prana prathista in the mother's womb through a hole in the middle of the infant's brain and ensure safe passage of Atma into the new-born in the midst of music, praising all three Gods. It applies to all religions of the world. Be it the Christ, the Allah, the Budha, the Vardhaman Mahaveer, etc., etc. Read out respective religious books/scriptures for the benefit of the fetus in the offing in the mother’s womb, throughout pregnancy. No sex from 3rd month onwards until delivery.

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source:
      'Health in Ur Hands' Vol. I & II available in all Indian languages all over the globe- by Dr.Devendra Vora,DSc.,MD.,FRCP, an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India. Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

  47. QUESTION:
    Dermatologist using Fotofinder in San Diego Spring Valley?
    I just moved to Spring Valley from Germany and my dermatologist gave me a CD with micro pictures of my moles for Fotofinder. He said it is internationally the most used program.
    Unfortunately the dermatologists I find on Google don't say anything about it on their websites,

    Do you know any dermatologists in this area that use Fotofinder for Skin Cancer prevention?

    • ANSWER:
      Curt Andrew Vogel
      499 B101
      Encinitas, CA
      (760) 942-1311

  48. QUESTION:
    Is 1 whole raw beetroot bad for you?
    I've read the positive effects that beetroot has on ones health, cancer prevention etc.
    But I also read something online that too much can be bad for the liver because it can over toxify it?
    I'm a little worried now because I hate a whole raw beetroot a moment ago, how much a day is 'an ok' amout, I don't want to over do it if I can help it.

    • ANSWER:
      You're right that beetroots are very good for you, and there is no problem with eating them raw. Indeed, since cooking food generally destroys many of the nutrients, eating beetroots raw is the best way. (See reference 1 below).

      Whether it is possible to eat too much raw beetroot is another matter. Anything in massive doses is bad for you, but I cannot imagine that one beetroot comes into that category. You talk about liver toxicity, but the only reference to that I have heard of is if you have cancer and the beetroot is killing a large number of cancer cells which the liver then has to process. (See reference 2 below). [I have to say that while I am convinced beetroots are very good for you, the idea that beetroot on its own is a cure for cancer seems a bit fanciful].

      I am not a nutritional scientist so this advice is merely that of a layman.


cancer prevention

Cancer Research

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What are some ideas to give to people if they donate to breast cancer research?
    me and my friend are making a donation box for breast cancer research but we want to give people something back if they donate. were doing this campain for a month and each week we're thinking of switching it up, like one week have something they write their names on then get posted on a school wall, but we need more ideas. by the way were only 13, if that helps. anything will help !

    • ANSWER:
      This is a great idea for you and your friend to do :)

      1. Take their picture and put it on the school wall.

      2. Make homemade crafts and give one to anyone who donates.

      3. Let them design a picture to be hung on the school wall.

      4. Purchase something small in bulk from http://www.thebreastcancersite.com site like pins, magnets, jewelry, etc. Every purchase goes to funding breast cancer research, and you can find a lot of great items in the clearance and sales sections.

  2. QUESTION:
    What major should I pick for Cancer Research?
    What biology major is the best one to pick for going into cancer research in college? Someone at a college fair I went to said biotechnology was a good one, but I don't know if it should be biotechnology or biochemistry or what. Can someone help me?

    • ANSWER:
      Hello, I have been in the cancer research field for a number of years. I think the most useful undergraduate major you could choose, short of cancer biology (some universities do offer cancer biology undergrad majors), would be either molecular & cellular biology or possibly biochemistry. Cancer research draws on both of these areas quite heavily. I myself got my degree in biochemistry, with additional coursework in cell biology. I have found both to be incredibly useful. Biochemistry will teach you about the molecular interactions of the proteins within the cancer cells, and your molecular cell courses will teach you more about the DNA and the genetics of cancer. You might consider a major in one and a minor in the other. Best of luck!!!

  3. QUESTION:
    What is the best donation for cancer research?
    My friend's brother has been diagnosed with cancer for the second time, I would like to donate as a Christmas present to the most honerable cancer research place.

    • ANSWER:
      In my opinion the best organization is Cancer Research Institute. It is important to find a charity that puts the highest percentage of your donation toward programs instead of administrative costs.

      You can find information on organizations to donate to at guidestar.org, give.org, and charitynavigator.org. I hope your friend's brother gets well...

  4. QUESTION:
    How much money is spent on cancer research in the United States annually?
    How much money is spent on cancer research in the United States annually?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Feng. The National Cancer Institute is a part of the federal government. They have been receiving .8 BILLION (,800,000,000.00) per year for research from tax payers (as part of the federal budget). See the link below.

      http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/NCI/research-funding

      This number does not include private funding and charitable donations to private cancer research charities. Additional research dollars may be spent by biomedical research companies and/or the pharmaceutical industry.

      Best wishes and good luck.

  5. QUESTION:
    What is the best university in this country for a cancer research student ?
    I'm a junior in high school and I'm starting to look at universities. I would like to work in cancer research and I'm trying to see what schools are the best for me. Any suggestions would help :)

    • ANSWER:
      Cancer research isn't really a major and you probably won't be doing any cancer research as an undergraduate.

      You will want to get you undergraduate degree in biology, biomedical engineering, chemistry, chemical engineering, pharmacy, or biochemistry. Then do a PhD in biochemistry or pharmacy or go to medical school.

      What school you go to depends on what undergraduate you want to do. You will likely go to a different school for your graduate degree.

  6. QUESTION:
    What do cancer research centers do exactly?
    millions of dollars are spent on cancer research yet there have been no major breakthrough yet, i know that cancer is caused by a mutation in the p53 that causes cell growth to go out of control, but how can research help that?

    • ANSWER:
      Agree with "Inverse Mushroom Cloud" and "hunter d"
      There have been many advances for the hundreds of different diseases which are included in the general term "cancers."
      Malignant diseases are far more complicated than just the p53 mutation.
      Over a hundred different mutations in genes have been identified in recent years thanks to cancer research.
      Some of these are being targeted specifically with an increasing number of new monoclonal antibody treatments.
      There are signicant advances almost every month in the oncology medical journals.

      Which of the hundreds of different cancers are you asking about?
      If you are asking about advanced pancreatic carcinomas, you are correct that no major treatment breakthroughs have occurred - yet.

  7. QUESTION:
    What do cancer research centers do exactly?
    millions of dollars are spent on cancer research yet there have been no major breakthrough yet, i know that cancer is caused by a mutation in the p53 that causes cell growth to go out of control, but how can research help that?

    • ANSWER:
      Officially, the research centers are looking into a cure. You said in your question " millions of dollars spent on cancer research", that's the answer, they take in money.

  8. QUESTION:
    What's a reliable cancer/ cancer research foundation to donate to?
    I recently got quite a sum of money and am planning to donate to assist patients with cancer or cancer research. I also want to make sure that the money goes directly into helping the cause, and not into someone's paycheck. Plz help me find the most reliable/ best foundations or let me know what you recommend! Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      You didn't say if you were looking for a specific type of cancer. Try www.charitynavigator.com You can read up on the groups and see what percentage of the budget is spent on overhead, salaries, etc.

      kate - www.aftercancernowwhat.wordpress.com

  9. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know where I can do triathlons do raise money for cancer research in the Bay Area, California?
    I'm interested in raising money for cancer research (preferably teen cancer) by doing triathlons. Does anyone know of any organizations in the Bay Area in California that can get me started?

    • ANSWER:
      Didn't find anything about what might support teen cancer, but here are the events in CA: http://www.findatriathlon.com/state/california.html

  10. QUESTION:
    How do I lock on to the world computer grid system for cancer research?
    I read somewhere that you can lend your computer processing power for cancer research?

    • ANSWER:
      Tap the Power of Your PC to Fight Cancer
      A new Intel-backed program lets you donate your computer's extra power to aid cancer research.

  11. QUESTION:
    What activities can I do at a sorority party for Breast Cancer Research?
    My sorority would like to hold a college party for Breast Cancer Research. We want the activities to be fun (such as shirts/banners like Save the Boobies) to appeal to college kids and really get a good donation. Ideas I've had are "Pretty in Pink" theme, selling pink shot glasses, doing tye dye with Pink and Red tye dye colors. What else can we do?

    • ANSWER:
      I like the new breast cancer slogans..."fight like a girl"..that's cute.

  12. QUESTION:
    How can I get a lot of money really quickly so I can donate it to cancer research?
    What are some good organizations that put money toward cancer research? My mom has/had 3 kinds of cancer.

    I am to young to get a job, Im still in middle school.

    • ANSWER:
      first of all, i am sorry for what have happened, and i really hope that there will soon be cure for cancer, and every other sickness.

      unfortunately, if you are underage, you wouldn't be able to work, nor to claim the prize of lottery, neither.

      i would suggest you to focus at your school work, just do the best you can do, to show your mother that she has a good kid who's doing very well at school (that means a lot to all mothers, and that will sure give them strength and will to fight the sickness and to survive.) let your mother know that you do care about her, and, as new technologies and medical science are getting better each and every day, any thing that is not curable today might be curable tomorrow... so, hang on there and never give up, things will get better for her, for you and every one who suffers.

      you may wanna spend all your spare time with your mother, to make her happy and feeling safe. that is perhaps the best thing you can do at this moment.

      wish your mother, and every mother good health and all the best.

  13. QUESTION:
    What do I need to do to raise money for breast cancer research?
    I want to do something to make myself stand out when I apply to colleges. So I figured I would raise money for breast cancer research and donate it to a nearby hospital or whatever else.
    Do I need to order a "get started" package online?
    For anyone who has done this or something along the lines of, let me know details!
    Thanks! :-)

    • ANSWER:
      Well at least you are honest with the self interest.
      Go out with a large placard with "Helping myself by helping them" written on it.
      You never know it might catch on.
      Use a sealed collection cup from any of the cancer charities
      Don't buy any thing online, put the money in your cup.
      Don't forget to give the cup back.

      Note-- get someone to take a photo or two, add them into your file for college

  14. QUESTION:
    How to go from the london university housing in bloomsbury to the institute of cancer research in chelsea?
    I am an international student and planning to stay in london for 6 months to work at the institute of cancer research in chelsea (the chester betty laboratories). I wanted to know how far is the university of london housing in bloomsbury district from the institute and how long does it take to get there by tube. I also wanted to know if there is a closer university housing to the institute

    • ANSWER:
      the nearest tube station to the Chester Beatty laboratories is South Kensington http://www.icr.ac.uk/contact_us/chelsea/index.shtml on the Piccadilly, Circle and District lines ... see the tube map http://www.tfl.gov.uk/assets/downloads/standard-tube-map.pdf ... I'm not sure where the university housing in Bloomsbury is, but the nearest tube stations are likely to be either Warren Street, Russell Square or Goodge Street ... Russell Square would be the easiest because then it's straight through on the Piccadilly line to South Kensington

  15. QUESTION:
    Where can I buy a Quilt that the proceeds go to cancer research?
    One of my very good friensd is getting married next month, and I am looking to buy a nice warm quilt for a wedding gift. Her mother died of cancer about 10 years ago, and I would love for the proceeds of the quilt to go toward cancer research. Does anyone know where I can get one of these?

    • ANSWER:
      Every year, ebay has a special auction of quilts to honor and benefit breast cancer patients through the Susan G. Koman foundation. Better Homes & Garden puts on the Quilt Pink event and the quilts produced in 2007 are about to be auctioned off this month. You can find more information here:
      http://www.quiltpink.com/about/index.html

      Here is a link to the quilt auction schedule:
      http://auctionwire.ca/quiltpink/viewsched.html

      And this link takes you directly to the auction.
      http://search.ebay.com/_W0QQfgtpZ1QQfrppZ25QQsassZquiltpinkauctions

      This cause is very near to my heart as well, being a quilter, having lost my mother to breast cancer in February 2005 and currently waiting on biopsy results for myself.

  16. QUESTION:
    What should I study in college to get into the cancer research profession?
    I want to get into the field of cancer research and studying cancer. Hopefully find a cure for it. Right now I'm pursuing bioengineering/biomedical engineering, but I'm not sure if that sort of major will get me into cancer research?? Does anyone know what course and steps of study I should follow if I want to get into this field?? Thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      there is already a cure so you are a little too late. Maybe you could help by opening your own alternative medicine clinic? that would accually help people rather than make things worse. I also know they pay you nicely to not listen to a word i just said..

  17. QUESTION:
    How do I go about raising money for cancer research?
    My idea is to raise one million dollars for cancer research, using both highly favored (celebrities) figures, and every state. Our country is so focused on helping everyone else, that I would like to help raise money for the cancer patients right here in the US. I would like to set out a majority of projects, but I do't know where to start? How do I even get started and get celebs and state governments involved?

    • ANSWER:
      Get creative! For the products if you mean just t-shirts, hats, cups, mousepads, pins etc. just go to zazzle.com. You design they make the products.
      Create a website or a myspace page explaining your cause. Set up a paypal account so people can donate money.
      Go to the local children's hospital. Ask the kids to draw you a picture and put those pictures on cards, posters etc.
      There's a million things you can do.
      GOOD LUCK!
      Feel free to e-mail me for more ideas.

  18. QUESTION:
    Where can I find a message board for cancer research professionals?
    My husband is a scientist and was actively involved in cancer research for many years at a hospital and a medical school. He would like to find message boards or other forums that are used by his peers so that he can engage in discussions of what is going on now in his field.. Is there anyone who can please give me the links to these message boards? Thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      You might start with some of the bigger medical centres and the big Medical professional associations who have very elaborate websites.
      Heres an example for neurosurgery:
      http://www.aans.org/

  19. QUESTION:
    does Cancer Research UK own any of the cancer treatment patents?
    surely, if Cancer Research UK (Charity) is doing the research then it should own some of the patents?

    or is the research simply handed over to the drug companies who then get to have the patent?

    are we basically subsidising the drug companies and their patent pipeline?

    • ANSWER:
      As Tarkarri said....there are a lot of joint ventures, so it isn't a simple yes/no answer.

      From the FAQ page of Cancer Research UK:
      "Cancer Research UK supports the appropriate protection and use of patents and other intellectual property rights to maximise the opportunity to benefit patients"

      Sometimes those patents protect researchers who have worked decades, and incredible talent that just got out of school - so don't throw the baby out with the bathwater.

  20. QUESTION:
    How do you get involved with cancer research?
    I'm a prospective life sciences student with a major in biology.
    I was wondering if i applied for the appropriate program if i'm interested in cancer research as a possible career.

    • ANSWER:
      Try talking to some of your professors. Maybe someone at your own college or university does something similar in their lab and is willing to take you on as a research assistant. If they can't, you can apply to REU programs (research experience for undergraduates) at other universities (apply soon, because deadlines are coming up in the next few weeks) but it's a lot easier to get one of those internships if you've already done some research at your own school, so talk to your professors first.

  21. QUESTION:
    How can I get a lot of money really quickly so I can donate it to cancer research?
    What are some good organizations that put money toward cancer research? My mom has/had 3 kinds of cancer.
    I am too young to get a paying job, but I volunteer a lot.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, definitely use fundraisers. You could set up a foundation in your mom's name as well and fight for her cause. Good luck to you and her.

  22. QUESTION:
    Where can I send money that I've raised for cancer research?
    Me and four friends raised money for cancer research today by wearing neon pink tights with our school uniform and I don't know where to send it. I've looked on the cancer research website but can't find an address to send it to. Any help?

    • ANSWER:
      Wow that is so wonderful of you. Contact the American Cancer Society. The Dana Farber Cancer Hospital. If you put in the American Cancer research, or Dana Farber, you should be able to find it. In fact, I'll try for you. You girls are wonderful for doing this God bless you

  23. QUESTION:
    I want to shave my head to raise money for cancer research, but I don't know where to start?
    I really have no idea at all how this works except that every once in a while there are people who go around different communities to set up a booth or whatever.
    Where do I begin? I don't even know of any cancer research centres in my city to contact!

    • ANSWER:
      http://www.stbaldricks.org/
      Start here, they have events all the time, try to find one in your area and sign up to be a shavee. Good luck!
      -Mommy to Conrad, 4-year-old brain cancer smasher!

  24. QUESTION:
    What color should female athletic wear in support of testicular cancer research?
    Professional male athletes, like the NFL, MLB, and PGA wear pink to support woman's breast cancer research. What color should represent testicular and/or prostate cancer worn by women athletes?

    • ANSWER:
      Pretty sure it's purple.

  25. QUESTION:
    How can i convince my parents to let me shave my head for cancer research?
    I am a girl who wants to shave my head in support of cancer research. I have many people in my family who have cancer and have died from cancer, I don't know how to convince them to let me.
    I am a girl who wants to shave my head in support of cancer research. I have many people in my family who have cancer and have died from cancer, I don't know how to convince them to let me. i would raise money for it and give it to charity. i just don't know how not to go against them but i want to do it at the same time

    • ANSWER:
      I just say do it girl! Convince your parents that hair grows back and it is okay to have shaved. Still try your best and know this is your goal to shave your head for cancer.I belive in you. GOOD LUCK!

  26. QUESTION:
    I have healthy breast tissue Im looking to donate to a cancer research facility. Any ideas where I may do this?
    Im a transgender female to male and looking to donate my healthy breast tissue to a cancer research facility in exchange for a masectomy. Any ideas on who I may speak to? The Hospital has to be in New York Or Pennsylvania. Thanx.

    • ANSWER:
      Try http://ww5.komen.org/

      Try reach hospitals, play with google, reach collages. If they can't help maybe they can steer you into the right direction.

  27. QUESTION:
    Apparently cancer research are close to finding a cure to recognise prostate cancer in early stages?
    Is this true? i hope so. my uncle died last year of the disease. i miss him very much. i'm all for cancer research. i wish the government would invest more time in it instead of other things. who else feels like this?

    • ANSWER:
      My Nephew Jamie Bearse
      Is the chief operating officer and member of spotlight, ZERO — The Project to End Prostate Cancer

      http://zerocancer.org/m/U2FsdGVkX19ol2yX1TLFGWMD-EoX24AjY-FzEP0AgUuTseEd75SWAlBlbGRIGhA30b3kPFgOzb8?window_id=1#story1

      http://www.opposingviews.com/i/get-tested-prostate-cancer-deaths-up-17-percent

      http://news.healingwell.com/index.php?p=news1&id=520296

      Sorry about your uncle.

  28. QUESTION:
    Are people going to stop giving to cancer research now?
    Every time a drug is found that cures or helps cancer, the NHS refuses it to patients.So why should we continue to give money to cancer research, if they dont use the drugs they invent.It serves no purpose.

    • ANSWER:
      Cancer research is big business, orchestrated to ensure profit, and not to actually cure cancer. So indeed I agree with you.

  29. QUESTION:
    Why would a church have a fund raiser for cancer research?
    A church in my town put a radio ad out asking people to go to the church and shave their heads and donate money to a hospital for cancer research. Why do they that? I thought the bible has cures for medical stuff and Christians don't like science and evolution.

    • ANSWER:
      Besides, if someone gets cancer, it's God's will, isn't it?

  30. QUESTION:
    Can infectious disease specialists do cancer research?
    I want to sub-specialize in internal medicine and then infectious disease, but I also want to get into cancer research especially ones like lung and breast cancer. Or would I have to be an oncologist for that?

    • ANSWER:
      I don't think so, as cancer has not been proven to be an infectious disease, so I think the two are mutually exclusive, However, there ought to be some kind of happy medium for you, although I don't know what it is.

  31. QUESTION:
    I want to raise money for breast cancer research?
    Is there any way I can organize a "Walk" for breast cancer research? Particpants would get people to sponsor them and all the money would go to B.C.research. Does anyone know how to get something like this started?

    • ANSWER:
      contact the national b/c site and inform them of your intentions and ask for direction in getting plugged into their fund raising department. I know that by just going to their site and clicking on the pink ribbon gets you to view their sponsors page which in turn sends $$ to them. Worth the visit eh? Good Luck.

  32. QUESTION:
    What product ideas go well for cancer Research UK?
    I am designing 6 products for cancer research UK and i want something that will sell well and suit a target audience of teenagers. I am making:
    headphones, phone case, skateboard (maybe) OR jewellery box, makeup bag, cakestand and a watch.
    i was wondering if there would be any other good ideas, and why. Thankyou.

    • ANSWER:
      An oyster card case- nearly every
      teenager uses a bus pass to travel on public transport, affordable, cheap

      Wristbands- can come in different colours glow in dark, an accessory

      Socks
      Purse/wallet
      Pen
      Handheld fan electronic
      Usb stick

      Thats all i can think of, hope i helped :)

  33. QUESTION:
    Can you do cancer research with a biology degree?
    I want to get a biology degree with a concentration in molecular bio and cell bio. Can I do cancer research with that?

    • ANSWER:
      With a BS or BA in biology, you might find a job working as a technician in a research lab. However, if you want to do serious research, you will need a PhD or MD or both.

  34. QUESTION:
    Is Cancer research funded mostly by charitable giving or mostly by the health industry?
    if neither, then who is the primary funder of cancer research?

    • ANSWER:
      In the US the National Cancer Institute through government funding sponsors cancer research. The research is publically funded:

      NCI: Research Funding
      http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/NCI/research-funding

      There are over 200 different types of cancer and not all cancers are treated equally as far as funding goes.

  35. QUESTION:
    How Do You Feel About Little Money Being Spent on Prostate Cancer Research?
    Breast cancer research receives 50 times the amount of money that prostate cancer research receives.

    40,000 women die per year because of breast cancer. Yet, 27,000 men die from prostate cancer.

    Supposedly, dads, sons, and husbands are important to women.

    How do you feel about the way-out-of-proportion amount of money that breast cancer resereach receives even though your dads and sons are just as much at risk of dying from prostate cancer?

    Do you give money to breast cancer research while giving little to prostate cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Early testing is the key to prostate cancer.
      It's that simple.
      Prostate cancer is highly treatable in its early stages.
      This goes for testicular cancer as well.
      This isn't so with breast cancer.
      However, heart disease is still the #1 killer!
      tc

  36. QUESTION:
    Where does money raised for cancer research go and what progress has been made in the last decade?
    It seems like billions have been raised for cancer research but you never hear of medical breakthroughs.

    • ANSWER:
      There are few breakthroughs, only incremental improvements usually.
      Here are some to consider:
      1) Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for chronic myeloid leukemia: Major breakthrough here, just ask most anyone with CML how important this drug has been to their lives
      2) 4 new drugs in the treatment of colorectal cancer, which has basically tripled survival on average
      3) 3-4 new drugs which actually improve survival in kidney cancer, having basically little before then
      4) 4 new drugs and treatments in myeloma, which have probably doubled life expectancy at least
      5) Cervical cancer vaccine and hepatitis B vaccination which are making/will make difference in prevention
      6) Herceptin, which cuts recurrence risks in half for those women who have Her2+ breast cancer

      The reason it takes billions is because all of these cancers are different: they have different causes, different genetics, different protein issues, different responses to agents, etc. It is much more complicated than most people realize. To treat a problem you have to understand it- that takes millions in basic science research and may take decades. Then one has to accidentally discover or genetically engineer medications, which takes more money. then one has to go through mounds of legal/governmental issues to get clinical trials done to actually show a drug works, and unfortunately after spending 10s-100s millions so far, most drugs fail here.

      Blessings

  37. QUESTION:
    Is it true that Cancer Research UK only give certain drugs to those who can pay for it?
    My Mother in law is adamant that she found out recently that Cancer Research UK have certain life saving drugs that are reserved only for those who can pay for them. I'm certain this can't be true but I needed to ask the question! Can anyone enlighten us?

    • ANSWER:
      They don't offer treatments for cancer. They fund research. Participating as a patient in research is (and should be) free. But you have to meet specific criteria to be eligible. Those criteria vary from study to study, but ability to pay is not one of them.

      Perhaps your mother is confusing eligibility with ability to pay. And "life saving drugs" with "drugs under investigation. The whole point of investigating drugs is to test if they are as effective as hoped for.

      Another thing they do is to translate results of research into layman terms. And I think they are quite good at it.

      ETA:
      Perhaps the speculation is a result of not understanding how and why treatments needs to be tested before they can be applied as standard treatment. If that is the case, I highly recommend reading this: http://www.testingtreatments.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/TT-interactive.pdf

  38. QUESTION:
    how does running a marathon support cancer research?
    I always hear of someone running a marathon for cancer research. How does that help?

    • ANSWER:
      The marathon runners have sponsors who give money for each mile completed. If one marathoner has 10 sponsors who are each sponsoring him at a rate of per mile and he completes the 25-mile course, that's ,500. So multiply that times hundreds of runners and that's a nice chunk of change for cancer research.

  39. QUESTION:
    Why do people think there is a big conspiracy in cancer research ?
    Why indeed ? How big would it have to be, you think ? All researchers and their graduate students ? Why not include their families too ?
    How much money do you think a scientist makes in cancer research ? Much less than a BSc in computer engeneering, that I know !
    Why do I suddenly feel stupid working in this field and want to quit for computer science ?

    • ANSWER:
      Perhaps its the purple mohawk that does it.

  40. QUESTION:
    I want to start a club supporting cancer research and organize events for kids with cancer. I need ideas.?
    I am a freshman in college right now, and I am starting a club to support cancer research and organize events for kids with cancer. First I need a name. I was thinking of something with Bobcats since that's my college mascot. Like Bobcat Heros etc.. I want it creative but I can't think of any. What are some suggestions/ideas for the club? This is one of my dreams and I want to make it an organization in the long run, I have strong feelings for this cause and I will do my best to help. I would appreciate any ideas that you guys think would be good for the cause.
    Thank you so much!

    • ANSWER:
      That would be a full time job. Why don't you join the local Cancer society and work with them.

  41. QUESTION:
    I kind of want to become a cancer research doctor?
    I'm going into my senior year of high school, and I kind of want to become a cancer research doctor after school. I don't really have talents so I figured I could at least do something good. However, my grades through high school have not been great by any means. Does this mean I'm screwed?

    • ANSWER:
      well yes and no, If you averaged like a 2.0 GPA through high school then yes you will have troubles finding a college to accept you. I dont know how it works for that field but to become a Doctor you need to obtain a 4 year degree and then advance on to premed. but if you really kick it in gear and start volunteering at a hospital maybe you could find yourself a free ride to college

  42. QUESTION:
    Is there a group on the internet where cancer researches and doctors talk about there research?
    Is there a group or web site where cancer researches and doctors discuss there cancer research.Compare ideas and theories about treating cancer and discussing methods of treating cancer
    There should be a group like that.Where can i share my cancer research then.

    • ANSWER:
      i'm afraid not (unfortunately), because the researchers need to publish their results and theories to get recognized, so they may not want to share insight before the publication. It's a shame especially in this country (USA).

  43. QUESTION:
    I set up a website taking donations for cancer research and for a scholarship. Do I have to pay taxes on?
    Part of the donations received will go toward cancer research. The other part will go to a poor student in need of a college scholarship. Do I need to report this as income and pay taxes on it?

    • ANSWER:
      If you haven't set it up as a Not For Profit organization, or received a Tax Exempt Status letter, then you will need to pay taxes.

      However, unless your website specifically states what portion is going to cancer research, and what portion is going to pay for college, this could be considered fraud.

  44. QUESTION:
    Latest Breast Cancer Research links to bioinformatics field?
    Hi,
    Anyone have the latest Breast Cancer research links or article that can link to the bioinformatics fields.
    Can I have a link or website of that article?
    Thanks a lot for your advise and sharing.

    • ANSWER:
      Here you go. www.cancer.iu.edu/research/breast

      la,press.com/breast-cancer-basic-research

      biotech-online.com
      There are so many sites out there. Just put in the words bionformatics field/breast cancer research. That's how I got these. Hope it helps

  45. QUESTION:
    Cancer Research Graduate scheme - any tips of websites similar to the numerical tests given?
    I have applied to the cancer research graduate scheme, and have been given a numerical tests to complete.
    Does anyone know of any useful websites or online numerical packages to buy which are similar to the test given on cancer research website?
    It is a numerical test without a calculator

    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      Numerical tests are in many applications if it can help you go online onte web www online oractice tests choose your qualification if you see others too they are almost similar.

  46. QUESTION:
    what are the requirements and design criteria for a cancer research centre in india- architectural and design?
    planning and design requirements for a cancer research centre in india - for architectural design and construction purpose?

    • ANSWER:
      Needs to have a reliable power supply
      Needs to be energy efficient, as self-reliant as possible
      Possibly needs to be weather-hardened during monsoon season
      Needs to provide laboratory spaces
      Needs to accomodate the human traffic flow generated by workers' needs to visit each other, collaborate / conference with others, etc.
      Needs to provide office space for workers
      Possibly needs to provide space for patients under treatment -- both before, during and after treatment
      Possibly needs to provide access to rehab and test facilities related to physical condition of patients
      Possibly needs to support remote workers accessing resources from off-site
      Needs a "prestige" element -- something that reaffirms to the people working there that they are part of a state-of-the-art facility. This element can be an architectural, cultural or artistic statement, or similar.

  47. QUESTION:
    PARENTS-if your child dyed their hair pink for cancer research what would you do?
    Hey, I'm ambaa 13 and I'm on a mission to raise as much money as I can for cancer research -one of the ways I am planning to do this is to dye my dark brown hair a light pink.i have sponsors already and I am planning to dye my hair next week .i have confirmed it all with cancer research and the sponsors are flying in:)

    Only I'm not telling my mom. Until it's dyed pink. I'm going to come back from a friends house with my hair pink then explain that it was for cancer and here are the sponsors........w

    What would you say and do? Would I be in trouble?

    • ANSWER:
      I would give them a high five :)

  48. QUESTION:
    What should I call my charity? I'm doing all sorts of fundraisers to raise money for cancer research...?
    So I started this thing, we make jewlery, bake, and have car washes. Then we donate the money to cancer research. What is a catchy name that I can call this fundraiser? Make it rhyme! ;P

    • ANSWER:
      CAN-CURE RHYMES WITH CANCER

      CAN-CURE CANCER


cancer research

Uterus Cancer Symptoms

The term prolapse means "fall out of place". Prolapse is the condition where organs such as uterus slip out of place. Uterine prolapse is the condition of sliding and falling of uterus from its actual position in the pelvic cavity into the vaginal canal. A spinal disc herniation is also sometimes known as "disc prolapse".

Uterine prolapse usually occurs in females and sometimes it does occur in animals also. Uterine prolapse generally occurs after an immediate delivery due to maximum force of contractions. Spontaneous abortion can cause serious uterine prolapse. Some types of prolapses are as follows -

Mitral Valve Prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a valvular heart disease defined as the dislocation of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.

Rectal Prolapse

It is that situation where the entire walls or part of the rectum walls slip out of place, the rectum may stick out. Symptoms of a rectal prolapse can be -

1. Stool leakage
2. Protruding of tissues from the rectum

To secure the part of the large intestine a surgeon may operate through the belly. Sometimes surgeon removes the affected part of the intestine.

Female genital prolapse

Uterine prolapse is also known as female genital prolapse which occurs when the uterus falls out of the normal position. It is very common in women of all ages especially in those who have delivered large babies.

Causes

Uterine prolapse occurs when the uterus falls out of the place. The uterus is held in position in pelvis supported by the muscles, special ligaments and other tissues. The uterus prolapses into the vaginal canal when the muscles, ligaments and tissues weaken. It also happens in women who have delivered large babies. Frequent abortion can also cause this problem.

Signs and symptoms

Some symptoms are mentioned below -

1. Shortness of breath
2. Fatigue
3. Dizziness
4. Cough problems
5. Backache
6. Inability to control urination
7. Protruding of cervix
8. Pain and vaginal bleeding, etc

Treatment

A pelvic examination is performed to determine the organs involved. This is usually done without full bladder. There are also several methods of surgical treatment which are performed to cure this problem. Vaginal estrogen cream helps to improve vitality of vaginal epithelium. Non surgical treatment such as exercises can strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the pelvic floor which in turn helps to combat against uterine prolapse. Herbal remedies along with exercises are very helpful in this condition.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What are the signs and symptoms of uterine cancer and vaginal cancer?
    And can someone please give some of the ailments pertaining to the uterus or vagina whether they are fatal or not. Thank you. :)

    • ANSWER:
      Any cancer can be fatal.
      The most common symptom of uterine cancer is abnormal bleeding.
      Vaginal cancer Is rare and the most common symptom is discharge and bleeding.

  2. QUESTION:
    What are the alternative treatments available in India on Breast cancer?
    I am treating my wife with the help of an experienced Naturopath with mainly 'wheat grass' juce as main ingradient for last three months since she had been dignosed for the cancer. Though it has not spread anywhere in the body, it is quite under controll. I want to know is there other remedy which will add to fast recovery. We are working on the way shown by Ann Wigmore. Will anybody from this group will suggest any thing else from Wheat Grass therepy?

    • ANSWER:
      Alternatives treatments take time, they are slow and cure to the grassroot level.

      Here is a natural cure for Cancer,

      CANCER

      The word ‘cancer ‘ comes from the latin "carcinoma" meaning crab. It is the most dreaded disease and refers to all malignant tumors caused by the abnormal growth of a body cell or a group of cells. It is today the second largest killer in the world, next only to heart ailments. The term covers more than 200 diseases.

      The majority of cancers occur in the age group 50-60. Sex does not affect the incidence of the disease. It, however, affects the site of growth. In men, cancer is usually found in the intestines, the prostate and the lungs. In women, it occurs mostly in the breast tissues, uterus, gall bladder, and thyroid.

      Symptoms
      The symptoms of cancer vary according to the site of the growth. The American Cancer Society has prescribed seven signs or danger signals in general which may indicate the presence of cancer. These are: a sore that does not heal; change in bowel or bladder habits; unusual bleeding or discharge; thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere; indigestion or difficulty in swallowing; obvious change in a wart or a mole, and a persistent and nagging cough or hoarseness. Other symptoms may include unexplained loss of weight, particularly in older people, a change in skin color, and changes in the menstrual periods, especially bleeding between periods.

      Causes
      The prime cause of cancer is not known. Certain cancer- causing substances, known as carcinogens, however, increase the chances of getting the disease. About 80% of cancers are caused by environmental factors, 40% of male cancers in India are linked with tobacco, a known cancer-causing agent. The consumption of pan, bettlenut, tobacco, and slaked lime has been linked with lung and throat cancers. Heavy consumption of alcoholic drinks can cause esophageal, stomach, and liver cancers. Occupational exposure to industrial pollutants such as asbestos, nickel, tar, soot, and high doses of x-rays can lead to skin and lung cancers and leukemia. Other factors contributing to cancer are vital infections, trauma, hormone imbalance, and malnutrition. Many well-known biologists and naturopaths, however, believe that a faulty diet is the root cause of cancer. Investigations indicate that the cancer incidence is in direct proportion to the amount of animal protein, particularly meat, in the diet. Dr. Willard J. Visek, a renowned research scientist explained recently a link between excessive meat eating and cancer. According to him, the villain is ammonia, the carcinogenic by-product of meat digestion.

      Treatment
      The effective treatment of cancer consists of a complete change in diet, besides total elimination of all environmental sources of carcinogens, such as smoking and carcinogenic chemicals in air, water and food. There has recently been a surge of popular interest in the concept that diet is not just a minor, but rather a major factor in both the development and the prevention of cancer. The disease can be prevented and even treated by dietary programs that include ‘natural foods ‘ and the use of megavitamin supplements.

      As a first step, the patient should cleanse the system by thoroughly relieving constipation and making all the organs of elimination - the skin, lungs, liver, kidneys and bowels - active. Enemas should be used to cleanse the colon. For the first four or five days, the patient should take only juicy fruits like oranges, grapefruits, lemons, apples, peaches, pears, pineapples and tomatoes. Vegetable juices are also useful, especially carrot juice.

      After a few days of an exclusive fruit diet, the patient may be given a nourishing alkaline-based diet. It should consist of 100 per cent natural foods, with emphasis on raw fruits and vegetables, particularly carrots, green leafy vegetables, cabbage, onion, garlic , cucumber, asparagus, beets, and tomatoes. A minimum requirement of high quality protein, mostly from vegetable sources such as almonds, millet, sesame seeds, sprouted seeds and grains, may be added to the diet.

      Dr. Ann Wigmore of Boston, U.S.A., the well-known naturopath and a pioneer in the field of living food nutrition, has been testing the effect of a drink made of fresh wheatgrass in the treatment of leukemia. She claims to have cured several cases of this disease by this method. Dr. Wigmore points out that by furnishing the body with live minerals, vitamins, trace elements, and chlorophyll through wheatgrass juice, it may be able to repair itself.

      Johanna Brandt, the author of the book ‘The Grape Cure‘ has advocated an exclusive grape diet for the treatment of cancer. She discovered this mode of cure in 1925, while experimenting on herself by fasting and dieting alternately in the course of her nine-year battle with cancer. She claimed to have cured herself by this mode of treatment. She recommends a fast for two or three days so as to prepare the system for the change of diet.

      After the short fast, the patient should have a grape meat every two hours from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. This should be followed for a week or two even a month or two, in chronic cases of long standing. The patient should begin the grape cure with a small quantity of 30, 60, to 90 grams per meal, gradually increasing this to double the quantity. In course of time, about 250 grams may safely be taken as a meal.

      Recent researches have shown that certain vitamins can be successfully employed in the fight against cancer and that they can increase the life expectancy of some terminal cancer patients. According to recent Swedish studies vitamin C in large doses can be an effective prophylactic agent against cancer. Noted Japanese scientist, Dr. Fukunir Morishige, and his colleagues who have been examining the healing potential of vitamin C for the last 30 years, have recently found that a mixture of vitamin C and copper compound has lethal effects on cancer.

      According to several studies, vitamin A exerts an inhibiting effect on carcinogenesis. It is one of the most important aids to the body’s defense system to fight and prevent cancer. Dr. Leonida Santamaria and his colleagues at the University of Pavia in Italy have uncovered preliminary evidence suggesting that beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A may actually inhibit skin cancer by helping the body thwart the cancer-causing process known as oxidation.

      Recent studies from all over the world suggest that a liberal use of green and yellow vegetables and fruits can prevent cancer. The 20-years old, ongoing Japanese study found that people who ate green and yellow vegetables every day had a decreased risk of developing lung, stomach, and other cancers. A Harvard University study of more than 1,200 elderly Massachusetts residents found that those who reported the highest consumption of carrots, squash, tomatoes, salads, or leafy green vegetables, dried fruits, fresh strawberries or melon had a decreased risk of cancer.

      The other useful measures are plenty of rest, complete freedom from worries and mental stress and plenty of fresh pure air.

  3. QUESTION:
    What are the symptoms of cervical cancer? I understand it sometimes has no symptoms. But does it ever?
    Is it painful? The doc says I have cysts on my uterus and ovaries as well as my liver and pancreas and in my breasts. I'm getting an endoscopic ultrasound soon but wanted to know from others' experience.

    • ANSWER:
      the most important thing to do when you are at risk for cervical cancer is to get your regular annual pap smears....EVERY YEAR! This documents abnormal changes in your cervical cells. Your doc could also do some blood tests that actually test for cancer. Good luck.

  4. QUESTION:
    Please let me know about the BEST and SAFEST way for removing the UTERUS?
    Hi,
    My Mom is having initial symptoms of "Uterus Cancer". Doctor has suggested to remove the Uterus.
    I heard that there are different types of operation to remove it. But which one is less painful and safest?? She is 52yrs old and having no other diseases.....
    Please help us....

    • ANSWER:
      You're very sweet to be so concerned for your mom. Your best bet, though, is to leave the medical decisions up to the doctors. They will know the best route of treatment for your mom.

      That being said, it never hurts to get a second opinion and see another doctor or a specialist just so you both are well informed and are aware of ALL the options. Then your mom and her doctor can determine what would be the best treatment for her condition/situation.

      Good luck! I hope your mom gets better soon!

  5. QUESTION:
    How did you find out you had cervical cancer?
    For those who have had cervical cancer please tell me your experience finding out, dealing with it, etc. I'm about to get a biopsy and I would like to hear others stories about having cancer. DId you have symptoms? Did you find out from your yearly pap smear? What stage was it? How did they treat it? As much info as possible would be great. Thanks so much :)
    I dont need personal details, just how they caught it is all. I want to know if what I'm going through is normal and what to think about it.

    • ANSWER:
      What are Cervical cancer symptoms and signs?
      The slow-growing cervical cancer is one of the diseases that may not be discovered until the patient undergoes medical tests.

      At first, there is no apparent cervical cancer symptom. The patient may have pelvic pain or bleeding from the vagina. It takes several years for normal cells in the cervix to turn into cancer cells. Abnormal cells can be found by doing a Pap test, which an examination from the cervix under a microscope.

      What is a cervical cancer?
      A cervical cancer is a severe cancer of the cervix, the lower part of the uterus. It is caused by several types of a virus called Human Papillomaviruses (HPV). Most women's bodies are able to fight HPV infection. But sometimes the virus leads to cancer.

      Cervical cancer's prevention :
      The Pap smear test is one the most efficient preventive mean for the cervical cancer. It is responsible for greatly reducing deaths from cervical cancer. In fact, getting regular Pap smear test can substantially decrease chances of getting cervical cancer. But even if you develop cervical cancer, the chances of a cure are as high as 90 percent — if discovered early.

      The Pap smear screening is the best tool to prevent you from cervical cancer, by detecting it in its earliest stage.

      You are also advised to quit smoking in order to reduce the risk of cervical precancer and cancer.
      I hope this info helps you.

      Regular Pap tests and pelvic exams can treat and find mutating cells before they turn into cancer.

      Other Cervical cancer symptoms and signs:
      Advanced cervical cancer symptoms may include : loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, pelvic pain, back pain, leg pain, single swollen leg, heavy bleeding from the vagina, leaking of urine or feces from the vagina.

  6. QUESTION:
    Whats the difference between an ovarian cyst and ovarian cancer?
    My sister has an 'ovarian cyst' 15 cm i n width..... The average cyst rarely exceeds 5 cm...... can a cyst turn into cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Ovarian cyst is:

      An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary. Many cysts are completely normal. These are called functional cysts. They occur as a result of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary). Functional cysts normally shrink over time, usually in about 1 to 3 months. If you have a functional cyst, your doctor may want to check you again in 1 to 3 months to make sure the cyst has gotten smaller. In certain cases, your doctor may want you to take birth control pills so you won't ovulate. If you don't ovulate, you won't form cysts.

      If you are menopausal and are not having periods, you shouldn't form functional cysts. If you do have a cyst, your doctor will probably want you to have a sonogram so he or she can look at the cyst. What your doctor decides to do after that depends on your age, the way the cyst looks on the sonogram and if you're having symptoms such as pain, bloating, feeling full after eating just a little, and constipation.

      Ovarian Cancer:

      Recognizing ovarian cancer symptoms

      Ovarian cancer often shows no obvious signs or symptoms until late in its development. Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:

      General abdominal discomfort and/or pain (gas, indigestion, pressure, swelling, bloating, cramps)

      Nausea, diarrhea, constipation, or frequent urination

      Loss of appetite

      Feeling of fullness even after a light meal

      Weight gain or loss with no known reason

      Abnormal bleeding from the vagina

      These symptoms may be caused by ovarian cancer or by other, less serious conditions. It is important to check with a doctor about any of these symptoms.

      To help find the cause of symptoms, a doctor evaluates a woman's medical history. The doctor also performs a physical exam and orders diagnostic tests. Some exams and tests that may be useful are described below:

      Pelvic exam includes feeling the uterus, vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bladder, and rectum to find any abnormality in their shape or size. (A Pap test, a good test for cancer of the cervix, is often done along with the pelvic exam, but it is not a reliable way to find or diagnose ovarian cancer.)

      Ultrasound refers to the use of high-frequency sound waves. These waves, which cannot be heard by humans, are aimed at the ovaries. The pattern of the echoes they produce creates a picture called a sonogram.

      CA-125 assay is a blood test used to measure the level of CA-125, a tumor marker that is often found in higher-than-normal amounts in the blood of women with ovarian cancer.

      Lower GI series, or barium enema, is a series of x-rays of the colon and rectum. The pictures are taken after the patient is given an enema with a white, chalky solution containing barium. The barium outlines the colon and rectum on the x-ray, making tumors or other abnormal areas easier to see.

      CT (or CAT) scan is a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine.

      Biopsy is the removal of tissue for examination under a microscope. A pathologist studies the tissue to make a diagnosis. To obtain the tissue, the surgeon performs a laparotomy (an operation to open the abdomen). If cancer is suspected, the surgeon performs an oophorectomy (removal of the entire ovary). This is important because, if cancer is present, removing just a sample of tissue by cutting through the outer layer of the ovary could allow cancer cells to escape and cause the disease to spread.

      If the diagnosis is ovarian cancer, the doctor will want to learn the stage (or extent) of disease. Staging is a careful attempt to find out whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to what parts of the body. Staging may involve surgery, x-rays and other imaging procedures, and lab tests. Knowing the stage of the disease helps the doctor plan treatment.

  7. QUESTION:
    What is the difference between a pollup and cancer in one's colon/anus?
    What is the difference between a pollup and cancer in one's colon/anus?

    • ANSWER:
      A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue (tumor) projecting from a mucous membrane. If it is attached to the surface by a narrow elongated stalk it is said to be pedunculated. If no stalk is present it is said to be sessile. Polyps are commonly found in the colon, stomach, nose, sinus(es), urinary bladder and uterus.

      Colon polyps are uncommonly associated with symptoms. Occasionally rectal bleeding, and on rare occasions pain, diarrhea or constipation may occur because of colon polyps. Colon polyps are a concern because of the potential for colon cancer being present microscopically and the risk of benign colon polyps transforming with time into colon cancer

      Most cases of colon cancer begin as small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called adenomatous polyps. Over time some of these polyps become colon cancers.

      Polyps may be small and produce few, if any, symptoms. Regular screening tests can help prevent colon cancer by identifying polyps before they become cancerous

  8. QUESTION:
    Has anyone taken herbal oestrogens do they work?
    I am getting symptoms of menopause like night sweats, aches fuzzy head dizzy spells etc, that point to a drop in oestrogen levels, I thought about trying the natural herbal oestrogen replacements, but there are so many. Has anyone taken them and did they actually work?

    • ANSWER:
      No.

      In the UK, a recent national guideline from Clinical Knowledge Summaries states that "CKS does not recommend the use of complementary therapies". The reasons include:

      * They have not been shown convincingly to work very well.
      * There is very little control over the quality of the products available, which may vary.
      * Some of these treatments (ginseng, black cohosh, and red clover) have oestrogenic properties and should not be used in women who should not take oestrogen (for example, women with breast cancer).
      * Long-term safety (for example, effects on the breast and lining of the uterus) have not been assessed.
      * Some may have serious side-effects. For example, severe liver damage has been reported with black cohosh and Java. Kava has been withdrawn from the UK market because of concerns over safety.
      * Dong quai and some species of red clover contain chemicals called coumarins, which make them unsuitable if you take anticoagulants (such as warfarin).

      A consensus statement from the British Menopause Society also states ...

      "This guidance regarding alternative and complementary therapies is in response to the increased use of these strategies by women who believe them to be safer and more ‘natural’. The choice is confusing. Evidence from randomised trials that alternative and complementary therapies improve menopausal symptoms or have the same benefits as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is poor. A major concern is interaction with other treatments, with potentially fatal consequences. Some preparations may contain estrogenic compounds, and this is a concern for women with hormone-dependent diseases, such as breast cancer. Concern also exists about the quality control of production."

      For night sweats you could try Clonidine. You need to have a chat with your GP really.

  9. QUESTION:
    Do you have any symptoms after having a partial hysterectomy?
    I'm just having my uterus removed (it's enlarged and prolapsed and is causing alot of issues...I'm not having any bleeding problems etc,) my tubes and ovaries will be left alone. I know I won't get a period any longer, but since I won't be needing hormones, I should be OK, right? No mood swings or any other symptoms I'm hoping. I'm not going through menopause, I've been tested via bloodwork and also a uterine biopsy.

    • ANSWER:
      It all depends...you will feel moody and will still feel like you normally did at your "time" of the month for a while and I do still 23 years later. I had a partial and then years later ended up having the rest removed. I'm 48 and now am "going through the change". It isn't as bad as people say. I cannot take hormone replacement therapy because I've had cancer. You will have some mood swings but you'll be able to work through them, trust me. If you cannot, talk to your Dr. Good luck. You are always in my thoughts and prayers.
      Peace & Love :)

  10. QUESTION:
    What are the chances of a 17, almost 18, year old having ovarian cancer ?
    I've looked at a few different sites with symptoms of ovarian cancer and I have many of them it seems like. My mom has had problems with her ovaries. She's only 40 and already has had a partial hysterectomy. So what are the chances of a 17 year old having ovarian cancer?
    Thank you to all who answer.

    • ANSWER:
      1. Hysterectomy is a surgical method, not a diagnose. In ovarian cancer it would be the wrong surgical method because it is the removal of the uterus, not of the ovar, which has to be removed together with surrounding lymph nodes in ovarian cancer.. Hysterectomy can have some other cancer as reason but also myoma, which are non malignant, descending uterus, dilatation (e.g. after the 10th delivery) and many more other reasons. It is therefore very likely that your mother doesn't have ovarian cancer at all and more likely that you also don't have it. In the age of 17 it would be a (negative) miracle. Nearly all patients are in the late 30s, early 40s, which doesn't make anything better.
      2. Chances: Ovarian cancer is the most ugly and nasty cancer on this planet.. Depending on the definition of "survival" it might look optimistic that in literature 50% of the patients survive the first 5 years after diagnose. In real life the chances are zero. Therapy can only extend life for a little bit of time.

  11. QUESTION:
    What could happen if you take Premarin for longer than 5 years?
    My girlfriend went to the ob/gyn today and the Dr was very upset that she's been on Premarin for over 8 years now (prescribed by her primary care doctor for hot flashes.) She's scheduled her for a sonogram to check her uterus to make sure it's ok.
    What can happen if you're on this medication for longer than 5 years?

    • ANSWER:
      nothing much other than increased risk to develop cancer of the breasts, and the hot flushes will come back when she stops premarin as it has only postponed the symptoms of menopause.

  12. QUESTION:
    How do I know if I am going through Early Onset Menopause?
    The only real symptom I have is a screwed up menstrual cycle. I work with menopausal women that say I am about to go through the change. I am only 42. No night sweats, in fact I am always cold.

    • ANSWER:
      You should talk to your doctor but here's some information.
      http://www.epigee.org/menopause/early.html

      Early and Premature Menopause

      When we hear the word menopause, we usually think of older women above the age of 60. Very rarely do we ever think of ourselves. However, menopause is not a stage necessarily relegated to elderly women. Early or premature menopause is more common than most women realize - it affects about 1% of women between the ages of 15 and 45. Early or premature menopause can occur for a variety of reasons, but in the end it leaves an imprint on the lives of all of the women it affects.

      What are Early and Premature Menopause? Early onset menopause is often confused with premature menopause, but actually the two are different things. These terms hinge on the age of the woman involved; if menopause occurs before the age of 45, it is considered early menopause; if menopause occurs before the age of 40 it is considered premature menopause.

      Because doctors are finally beginning to recognize the symptoms of menopause in younger women, more and more women are being diagnosed with early or premature menopause. As a result, women who are experiencing infertility or are dealing with menopause symptoms at a young age no longer have to wonder why.

      What Causes Early and Premature Menopause
      More often than not, doctors are unable to determine a cause for menopause in younger women. This can be very frustrating for women as it makes it difficult to accept and deal with this new stage of life. Sometimes though, there are very obvious causes of premature or early menopause.

      Premature Ovarian Failure (POV): Premature ovarian failure is another name for naturally-occurring premature menopause. Women with POV have ovaries that aren’t functioning properly. Either they stop producing eggs or no longer produce the hormones needed to ovulate. POV can occur for a variety of reasons. Autoimmune disorders are responsible for more than 65% of POV cases. With these disorders, the body sees itself as an invader and develops antibodies to its own products, including ovum and menses. Genetic factors may also be involved in POV. Five per cent of women seem to follow in their mothers’ footsteps, entering into menopause early. Some women are born with irregularities in their X chromosomes, interfering with egg production before menopause should begin. Other women are just born with very few eggs, causing menopause to occur years before it should.

      Surgical Menopause
      Surgical menopause involves the conscious decision of forcing women into menopause for specific health reasons. Women who suffer from endometriosis, polyps, or ovarian cancer may have to undergo an oopherectomy (removal of the ovaries) or a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and sometimes ovaries). These surgeries dramatically cut off ovarian function causing estrogen levels to drop suddenly and forcing the woman into menopause.

      Menopause Caused by Cancer Treatment
      Menopause can be caused by chemotherapy or radiation cancer treatments. Chemotherapy and radiation kill cancer cells but, unfortunately, they also kills healthy cells. Hair cells, digestive cells, and ovarian cells are particularly at risk. Some women who have undergone cancer treatment temporarily enter menopause, while others permanently enter menopause.

      Infection
      Infection is also linked with premature menopause. Infections such as the mumps and tuberculosis can infect the ovaries, affecting your hormonal balance. This is extremely rare, however.

      Early Menopause Symptoms
      Premature menopause symptoms are essentially the same as those of natural menopause. Women commonly suffer from night sweats, hot flashes, insomnia, headaches, and joint or muscle pain. Body shape changes are also common, causing you to put on weight around the abdomen. Additionally, water retention and menopause commonly go together.

      Menopausal women can experience emotional ups and downs, including anxiety, depression, cravings, and forgetfulness. All of these symptoms are triggered by the fluctuation of hormones in the body during menopause. In particular, estrogen levels reduce dramatically during the onset of menopause, causing a variety of changes in the body’s functions.

      Early and premature menopause tends to be associated with more severe symptoms than menopause occurring after the age of 45. Because early menopause is often due to illness, surgery, or genetic issues, there is a rapid decline in the amount of estrogen (known as "estrogen crash") in your body. This causes you to enter menopause more quickly than other women. Estrogen crash can cause extreme hot flashes, fatigue, mood swings, and depression in some women. In a survey of early menopausal women, 100% of women who experienced surgical menopause experienced a number of menopause symptoms in quick succession. 90% of these women complained that their symptoms were severe and lasted more than 8 years.

      Treatment Options
      Unfortunately, there are no menopause cures. Menopause treatment has progressed by leaps and bounds over the years, though. It is suggested that most women who have undergone early or premature menopause seek out hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Menopause symptoms will be very sudden and severe, especially after surgery, and can be lessoned by taking appropriate doses of estrogen. If oral medication is too difficult to take directly after surgery, estrogen patches that release hormones through the skin can be used to help lessen symptoms.

      A good support network is also recommended to help you through the difficult times. You may be unprepared for such an immediate entry into menopause and friends, family, and other menopausal women can really help you see the light at the end of the tunnel. Living life after menopause isn’t so bad – in fact, it can be a very rewarding time when you have the right support.

  13. QUESTION:
    What is causing lower left abdominal cramping?
    This is the second day I've had it. This is gross, but there is a lot of gas associated with the pain as well. My lower left back hurts as well.

    I recently went off the pill 2 weeks ago. Could this be premenstrual symptoms? I forgot what they were like. It's been 7 years since I've had a real period.

    Thanks in advance for your help!

    • ANSWER:
      Abdominal/pelvic pain that is similar to that of period cramping may indicate a problem in a reproductive organ (like the pain around your ovaries or uterus).

      This includes conditions such as endometriosis (when tissue from the uterus is displaced to somewhere else like the pelvic wall or ovaries), uterine fibroids (thick bands of muscular and fibrous tissue in the uterus), ovarian cysts, ovarian cancer (rare), or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) infection of the reproductive organs, usually from a sexually transmitted disease.

      If you have pain in your ovary area, you might have an ovarian cyst. I have experienced that same type of pain whenever I have had an ovarian cyst. I was also diagnosed with endometriosis last year which caused me severe pelvic pain and intense and painful period cramping.

      If a gynaecological reason cannot be found for the pain you are experiencing, then it could be a gastroenterology problem which could be caused by excessive gas, chronic constipation, viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu), IBS (Irritable bowel syndrome), heartburn or indigestion, gastroesophageal reflux, ulcers, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder) with or without gallstones, appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix), diverticular disease, including inflammation of small pouches that form in the large intestines (diverticulitis), bowel obstruction (in addition to pain, this causes nausea, bloating, vomiting, and inability to pass gas or stool), food allergies, food poisoning (salmonella, shigella), hernia, kidney stones, UTI’s (urinary tract infections), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) or dissecting abdominal aortic aneurysm (bleeding into the wall of the aorta).

      Based on your symptoms and what you wrote, I would recommend that you should see your doctor/gynaecologist, and if nothing is found that you see a gastroenterologist just to rule out any serious GI causes.

      Good luck :)

  14. QUESTION:
    How can you tell if You have Breast cancer ?
    My Breast hurt and I wanted to know Symptoms or if you can even tell I don't want. To give my mom a scare so any answers would be Nicee ....

    • ANSWER:
      BREAST CANCER*:
      Signs and symptoms of breast cancer may include:
      •A breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue
      •Bloody discharge from the nipple
      •Change in the size or shape of a breast
      •Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling
      •Inverted nipple
      •Peeling, scaling or flaking of the nipple or breast skin
      •Redness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange
      •Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare, fast-growing type of cancer that often causes no distinct lump. Instead, breast skin may become thick, red, and may look pitted -- like an orange peel. The area may also feel warm or tender and have small bumps that look like a rash.
      •Free & Instant Diagnosis/Prevention/cure of Breast Cancer and Breast related issues right @ Ur door-steps----with the aid of acupressure maps. Dr.Vora designed the diagnostic procedures, with the aid of acupressure techniques, so simple that even the poorest of the poor in remote villages/hamlets, all the youngsters [the future of this mother “EARTH”] ‘with no income to spend for mammogram’ with little knowledge & serious efforts, can know instantaneously @ no costs all over the globe.
      Please, study the instructions carefully, discuss with Ur family members and friends and then find out to Ur satisfaction, if U/anybody for that matter is affected by ‘breast cancer’.

      With the help of maps published herein, hard press these points with Ur thumb and middle finger and find out if all/most of acu points are tender.

      Remote control acupressure points to diagnose Breast Cancer, hiv/AIDS, or any disease-Point Nos.1-10 -----1 [brain], 2 [Mental Nerves], 3 [Pituitarygland], 4 [Pineal gland], 5 [Head Nerves], 6 [Throat], 7 [Neck], 8 [Thyroid & Parathyroid], 9 [Spine], 10 [piles-constipation], , Point Nos.11-16, No.11 [Prostrate gland], 12 [Penis], 13 [Vagina], 14. Testes & Ovaries], 15 [Uterus], 16 [Lymph], 37 [spleen].

      For Treatment and perceivable relief, hard-pressure is to be applied on & around these points with Ur thumb and middle finger, as if U r pumping out air from these affected tender points..
      Palms/soles:
      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2304961665160.2103840.1282822997&type=1&l=0a6bb63dd0
      Dorsal side of Palms & soles:

      1. Diagnosis--In the middle of dorsal side of Ur palm, the remote control point for the breast is given in the acupressure maps published hereunder.. On hard pressing by Ur thumb and middle finger, if it hurts, U may feel that U/she have/has blocked energy in the breast.
      If point no. 16 [lymph] and no.8 [thyroid] are also painful on hard pressure by Ur thumb---then it is confirmed that she has breast cancer.
      If the pain is severe on all these points, it means that the tumor is well grown, ripe for surgical interference..

      2. *Prevention & Cure--If U press the surrounding area on both sides of palms, soles, wrists and ankles regularly three times a day and then breast cancer shall not grow further. Side benefit is that Ur menses cycles are regulated.Acupressure & Indian Natural Remedies can cure breast cancer safely & totally in 45-90 days. T & C apply.

      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2306802071169.2103895.1282822997&type=1&l=38eadce9df

      In Ur case, target therapy is helpful to have total cure.
      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse ‘Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.
      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ Vol. I & II--- by Dr.Devendra Vora, D.Sc.,M.D.,F.R.C.P.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India. Available all over the globe in all Indian languages. Dr.Vora, cured and caused to cure more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

      Latest recorded documentation on cure for ‘breast cancer’-live case.
      1. A diabetic patient aged 62 years from Hyderabad. Mastectomy of left breast in 2005 and recurrence of tumors in the left chest in 2011. Metastases/Secondaries spread to sternum and complained of breathing problems, constipation, insomnia, severe pain edema in the left chest. Chemotherapy is fraught with severe reactions & doctors refused to treat her due to advancing age & extremely weak constitution. On 01102011 Doctors @ Image Hospitals, Hyderabad predicted, in the light of prognosis, metastases, etc., that she would live for a month. Patient shifted to Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies on 17102011. Feed back Dated 01012012-sleeping well, edema and pain subsided substantially and no problem of breathing on passing very stinking stools on 15122011. Again the patient approached us for further treatment and the domiciliary treatment is commenced on 25042012 and she is getting on well. Her son made a phone on 12052012 and told that her appetite improved, constipation issues solved, sleeping well. Excepting that she has severe sciatica pain, for which we suggested them to contact an Acupuncturist @ Hyderabad.

  15. QUESTION:
    Why is ovarian cancer so very hard to detect?
    My neighbor was diagnosed with ovarian cancer at stage 2, which means that the cancer did not spread widely, but slightly beyond where it started from.

    On July 9, 2012, she had surgery to remove both of her ovaries, and her uterus. She subsequently began chemotherapy, and radiation, and successfully finished treatment on December 12, 2012. Other friends say that her doctors think they got rid of her cancer, but she is in remission meaning there is no detectable cancer.

    How did she get detected if ovarian cancer is harder to detect than other cancers?

    • ANSWER:
      Ovarian cancer can go undetected as it frequently shows no symptoms in early stages or the symptoms can be easily dismissed.

      Her cancer may have been showing symptoms, a suspicious mass may have been felt at a routine pelvic exam or it may have been detected during testing for something unrelated.

  16. QUESTION:
    Could menstual cramps that are way worse than normal be a sign of an std?
    I had a condom slip off once during sex, and duing my next period I had worse cramps than normal. Is this a possible sign of an std? If so, which ones?

    You don't need to tell me to get tested, I am planning on it. But I was just wondering if you know this to be a symptom or if there could be another cause.

    • ANSWER:
      Painful period cramps that are worse than normal may indicate a problem in a reproductive organ. This includes conditions such as endometriosis (when tissue from the uterus is displaced to somewhere else like the pelvic wall or ovaries), uterine fibroids (thick bands of muscular and fibrous tissue in the uterus), ovarian cysts, ovarian cancer (rare), or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is an infection of the reproductive organs, usually from a sexually transmitted disease.

      The key is to know when you must seek medical care right away. In many cases you can simply wait to see whether it goes away in a few days or call your doctor at a later time if the symptoms persist. I would recommend however that if it doesn't go away within a couple of days you have to go see a doctor or a nurse at a clinic for further evaluation.

      I experienced the same painful menstrual like cramps before, during and after my period and 3 weeks ago through a laparoscopy found out that I have endometriosis.

      Good luck :)

  17. QUESTION:
    How did you feel after your hysterectomy?
    I had really bad post partum depression after my kids were born. It started about 3 days after their birth. I think it probably had to do with hormonal changes after the birth.I am worried if they remove my ovaries and uterus, it will cause me to be depressed from hormone loss. Did you have anything like this and should I be worried?

    • ANSWER:
      You will be having your ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes removed in what is called a Total hysterectomy with salipingo-oophorectomy. Following removal of the ovaries, in particular, you will experience menopausal symptoms. Some women will opt for hormone therapy, whereas others will turn to alternative medicine. Deciding whether or not to follow hormone therapy may not be an easy choice. Some researchers recommend this therapy to relieve menopausal symptoms as well as prevent osteoporosis, whereas others issue warnings about the increased risk of breast cancer and heart disease related to its use. What are the short-term risks and complications of a hysterectomy?
      All surgery is not without its risks. Therefore, a list of the main risks and complications that could occur following hysterectomy includes:

      serious infections that may require a woman to return to the hospital and be treated with antibiotics;
      urinary problems, from a kidney or bladder infection to urinary incontinence (this risk is greater for radical hysterectomies);
      hemorrhaging that may require blood transfusions;
      severe reactions to the anaesthesia; and
      intestinal problems if the intestines were damaged during surgery–some women may have to undergo another operation to remove any adherence* obstructing (blocking) their intestines.
      *Adherence: Scar tissue that attaches organs together or can end up in an organ, blocking it and disturbing its function.

      Regardless of the type of surgery you will undergo, make sure that you are aware of all the possible risks and complications. You have the right to clear answers to your questions.

      What are the long-term risks and complications of a hysterectomy?
      The main risks and complications that may occur after hysterectomy are:

      Prolapse, which means the descent of an organ downwards. When the uterus is removed, other organs, such as the intestines and bladder can descend towards the bottom and lead to problems of constipation and/or urinary incontinence (problems or inability to control one's bladder). These types of prolapse can also lead to pain during penetration with a penis, finger or object into the vagina.
      Menopause. When the ovaries are removed during hysterectomy, the quantity of hormones circulating in the blood drops sharply. Following this type of surgery, women who are not menopausal will become so. It is what is known as “surgical” or “sudden” menopause. Menopausal symptoms are then felt. The main symptoms of menopause are:
      heat flashes;
      vaginal dryness (lubrication problems);
      fatigue;
      night sweats;
      irritability;
      insomnia;
      migraines, and
      increased risk of osteoporosis and heart disease.
      Even if the ovaries are not removed, some women may be menopausal following the operation. In these cases, menopause is caused by a decrease in the amount of blood being fed to the ovaries. This prevents the ovaries from producing enough hormones. Sadness/mourning. To some women, losing their uterus is a sad and upsetting event. Their self-image as women may be affected following the operation. Some women may become depressed and experience a period of mourning, especially if they had wanted to become pregnant one day. The emotions experienced after a hysterectomy can also have a physiological cause. Removing the ovaries causes a drop in the hormone levels, which can provoke behavioural changes: irritability, crying fits, insomnia, etc. If this is your case, support from friends, family, a health professional or a support group can help you go through this period of change and adaptation. It is important to mention that, for some women hysterectomy will be a positive experience since the benefits far outweigh the complications from the operation.

  18. QUESTION:
    How long can someone live with diognosis pseudomyxoma peritonei?
    This is a rare form of cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Here is what I found online...

      Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

      Here is some information from two UK websites on the sugarbaker procedure and prognosis…

      "The (sugarbaker) procedure

      Indications

      Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare, borderline malignant, slowly progressing tumour. It arises from the appendix or bowel and spreads throughout the peritoneal cavity, producing a large amount of mucus. Most patients will develop symptoms due to the bulk of the tumour. Most patients will eventually die of this condition, but they often survive for several years.

      Standard treatment for this condition is surgical debulking, in which the surgeon attempts to remove as much tumour as possible. Recurrence is common, and therefore repeated debulking operations may be needed.

      Patients with pseudomyxoma peritonei may be treated using a ‘watch and wait' policy, using surgery only when unacceptable symptoms or life-threatening complications, such as intestinal obstruction, arise.

      Outline of the procedure

      The Sugarbaker technique combines complete surgical tumour removal (complete cytoreduction) with intraoperative heated chemotherapy, and is followed by postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy The operation takes around 10 hours and includes:

      ·removal of the right hemicolon, spleen, gallbladder, greater omentum and lesser omentum
      ·stripping of the peritoneum from the pelvis and diaphragm
      ·stripping of the tumour from the surface of the liver
      ·removal of the uterus and ovaries in women
      ·removal of the rectum in some cases

      Efficacy

      No controlled studies were found. The studies were of poor quality. One of the studies including 385 patients found 5-year survival to be 86% for those with less malignant pathology (adenomucinosis) and 50% for those with more malignant pathology (mucinous adenocarcinoma). However, not all patients in this study were followed up for 5 years, and it is not clear how survival was calculated. Another study found overall 5-year survival to be around 74% in the 98 out of 321 patients who underwent repeat cytoreductive surgery. For more details, refer to the sources of evidence (see Appendix). "
      http://www.nice.org.uk/page.aspx?o=94765

      Re: debulking surgery with concomitant sugarbaker procedure or IPEC (Intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy survival rates: “patients median survival is 6 years..with 50 to 70% surviving 5 years and 10-32% for 10 yrs” (see link below for the article)
      http://cinahl.com/cexpress/hta/summ/summ807.pdf (about IPEC or sugarbaker procedure and survival rates…have to hit options button and click on minimize popup first and play around with it to read it..set the type size from 40% to about 80% and click on the pages at the left side..kinda tricky to read it..but need adobe reader first)

      Here are some links to info and clinical trials for the disease..

      Pseudomyxoma Peritonei

      http://www.rarediseases.org/search/rdbdetail_abstract.html?disname=Pseudomyxoma%20Peritonei (NORD…scroll down for related support organizations and click on those)
      http://www.pmppals.org/ (PMP Pals..for pseumyxoma peritonei and appendiceal cancer)
      http://www.pmppals.org/trialsandresearch.htm (clinical trials and research links for Pseudomyoma peritonei and appendiceal cancer)
      http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/help/default.asp?page=5534 (PMP information and overview)
      http://www.thedoctorsdoctor.com/diseases/pseudomyxoma_peritonei.htm (a complicated study of PMP patients and prognosis)
      http://www.cancer.gov/Templates/db_alpha.aspx?CdrID=44256 (definition of PMP..from NCI)
      http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/search;jsessionid=6596A6E31E3541D7E5EB65FCF6FBB0AB?term=Pseudomyxoma+Peritonei&submit=Search (clinical trials for Pseudomyxoma Peritonei )
      http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/p/pseudomyxoma_peritonei/trials.htm#trial (list of current and past clinical trials for pseudomyxoma peritonei)
      http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/info/resources (introduction to clinical trials)
      http://www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/finding/treatment-trial-guide (how to find a cancer treatment trial)

      3 books on disease symptoms and treatments

      you could also get these books on ebay or amazon or a half price book store. (last two are very similar)..
      1.Oxford Handbook of Clinical Medicine
      2.Handbook of Diseases (Lippencott)
      3.Professional Guide to Diseases (Springhouse)

  19. QUESTION:
    What is the best way to go about finding out if i have Endomitriosis?
    X-ray? Blood work? I recently visited the health department and described a few problems i have been having.They say that it could possibly be this disorder.I have looked up symptoms online, but they are pretty vague.For those of you who do not know...Its tissue that's supposed to grow in your uterus, that grows outside the uterus.This can eventually cause cysts, various kinds of pain all over your body, and could lead to cancer AND infertility..scary..for those of you who no nothing at all...its not an std lol.

    • ANSWER:
      Visit a qualified Gynecologist and describe your symptoms. They will know what tests (if any) to order.

  20. QUESTION:
    How often should women get a mammogram?
    I have a family history of cancer specifically breast and bone cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Once in a year. Since, U have familial history, the following relevant information may help U to be cancer free for life.

      BREAST CANCER*:
      Signs and symptoms of breast cancer may include:
      •A breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue
      •Bloody discharge from the nipple
      •Change in the size or shape of a breast
      •Changes to the skin over the breast, such as dimpling
      •Inverted nipple
      •Peeling, scaling or flaking of the nipple or breast skin
      •Redness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange
      Instant Diagnosis of Breast Cancer with the aid of acupressure maps.
      Please, study the instructions carefully, discuss with Ur family members and friends and then find out to Ur satisfaction, if U/anybody for that matter is affected by ‘breast cancer’.

      With the help of maps published herein, hard press these points with Ur thumb and middle finger and find out if all/most of acu points are tender.

      Remote control acupressure points to diagnose Breast Cancer, hiv/AIDS, or any disease-Point Nos.1-10 -----1 [brain], 2 [Mental Nerves], 3 [Pituitarygland], 4 [Pineal gland], 5 [Head Nerves], 6 [Throat], 7 [Neck], 8 [Thyroid & Parathyroid], 9 [Spine], 10 [piles-constipation], , Point Nos.11-16, No.11 [Prostrate gland], 12 [Penis], 13 [Vagina], 14. Testes & Ovaries], 15 [Uterus], 16 [Lymph], 37 [spleen].

      For Treatment and perceivable relief, hard-pressure is to be applied on & around these points with Ur thumb and middle finger.
      Palms/soles:
      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2304961665160.2103840.1282822997&type=1&l=0a6bb63dd0

      Dorsal side of Palms & soles:

      1. Diagnosis--In the middle of dorsal side of Ur palm, the remote control point for the breast is given in the acupressure maps published hereunder.. On hard pressing by Ur thumb and middle finger, if it hurts, U may feel that U/she have/has blocked energy in the breast.
      If point no. 16 [lymph] and no.8 [thyroid] are also painful on hard pressure by Ur thumb---then it is confirmed that she has breast cancer.
      If the pain is severe on all these points, it means that the tumor is well grown, ripe for surgical interference..

      2. Prevention & Cure--If U press the surrounding area on both sides of palms, soles, wrists and ankles regularly three times a day and then breast cancer shall not grow further. Acupressure & Indian Natural Remedies can cure breast cancer safely & totally in 45-90 days. T & C apply..

      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2306802071169.2103895.1282822997&type=1&l=38eadce9df
      •PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse ‘Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ Vol. I & II--- by Dr.Devendra Vora, D.Sc.,M.D.,F.R.C.P.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India. Available all over the globe in all Indian languages.
      •Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases---Dr.Devendra Vora has analyzed that pressure applied on certain points located on the palms and soles helps to stimulate all organs of the body, prevents disease and assists in maintaining good health. Acupressure also helps to diagnose, prevent and cure diseases like common cold, Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, Migraine, Paralysis, and even cancer, HIV/AIDS. Autism, Thalassemia, Muscular Dystrophy, all brain and spinal cord affected diseases.
      *Latest updates of Miracles of Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies. A diabetic patient aged 62 years from Hyderabad. Mastectomy of left breast in 2005 and recurrence of tumors in the left chest in 2011. Metastases/Secondaries spread to sternum and complained of breathing problems, constipation, insomnia, severe pain edema in the left chest. Chemotherapy is fraught with severe reactions & doctors refused to treat her due to advancing age & extremely weak constitution. Patient shifted to Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies on 17102011. Feed back Dated 01012012-sleeping well, edema and pain subsided substantially and no problem of breathing on passing very stinking stools on 15122011.

  21. QUESTION:
    When a female dog is spayed, is only the uterus removed?
    Are the ovaries left inside? If the ovaries are removed, does the dog experience hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause? Do dogs get uterine and ovarian cancer? Are there any "cons" to having a dog spayed?

    • ANSWER:
      no

  22. QUESTION:
    What is a fibroid? I went to the er cause i was having a lot of pain & they told me i had one in my uterus?
    The paper they gave me said i have a (masslike lesion) along my endomertium and a fibroid inmy uterus. Im going to the doctors right now to see whats going on but does anyone know some who has this too? im so confused.

    • ANSWER:
      What are fibroids?

      Fibroids are muscular tumors that grow in the wall of the uterus (womb). Another medical term for fibroids is "leiomyoma" (leye-oh-meye-OH-muh) or just "myoma". Fibroids are almost always benign (not cancerous). Fibroids can grow as a single tumor, or there can be many of them in the uterus. They can be as small as an apple seed or as big as a grapefruit. In unusual cases they can become very large.

      Why should women know about fibroids?

      About 20 percent to 80 percent of women develop fibroids by the time they reach age 50. Fibroids are most common in women in their 40s and early 50s. Not all women with fibroids have symptoms. Women who do have symptoms often find fibroids hard to live with. Some have pain and heavy menstrual bleeding. Fibroids also can put pressure on the bladder, causing frequent urination, or the rectum, causing rectal pressure. Should the fibroids get very large, they can cause the abdomen (stomach area) to enlarge, making a woman look pregnant.

      Can fibroids turn into cancer?

      Fibroids are almost always benign (not cancerous). Rarely (less than one in 1,000) a cancerous fibroid will occur. This is called leiomyosarcoma (leye-oh-meye-oh-sar-KOH-muh). Doctors think that these cancers do not arise from an already-existing fibroid. Having fibroids does not increase the risk of developing a cancerous fibroid. Having fibroids also does not increase a woman's chances of getting other forms of cancer in the uterus.

  23. QUESTION:
    What is this pelvic pain - constant period like cramps?
    I've been getting period like cramps constantly for about 5 weeks now. I am really unsure what it could be but it is worrying me a little. I have done internet searches which come up with pelvic inflammatory disease. I don't think it is this as it isn't chronic pain. I don't really have any other symptoms apart from occasional dizziness. My periods are normal. It is just like mild period pains.

    • ANSWER:
      Abdominal/pelvic pain that is similar to that of period cramping may indicate a problem in a reproductive organ (like the pain around your ovaries or uterus).

      This includes conditions such as endometriosis (when tissue from the uterus is displaced to somewhere else like the pelvic wall or ovaries), uterine fibroids (thick bands of muscular and fibrous tissue in the uterus), ovarian cysts, ovarian cancer (rare), or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) infection of the reproductive organs, usually from a sexually transmitted disease.

      If you have pain in your ovary area, you might have an ovarian cyst. I have experienced that same type of pain whenever I have had an ovarian cyst. I was also diagnosed with endometriosis in 2007 which caused me severe pelvic pain and intense and painful period cramping.

      If a gynaecological reason cannot be found for the pain you are experiencing, then it could be a gastroenterology problem which could be caused by excessive gas, chronic constipation, viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu), IBS (Irritable bowel syndrome), heartburn or indigestion, gastroesophageal reflux, ulcers, cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder) with or without gallstones, appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix), diverticular disease, including inflammation of small pouches that form in the large intestines (diverticulitis), bowel obstruction (in addition to pain, this causes nausea, bloating, vomiting, and inability to pass gas or stool), food allergies, food poisoning (salmonella, shigella), hernia, kidney stones, UTI’s (urinary tract infections), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) or dissecting abdominal aortic aneurysm (bleeding into the wall of the aorta).

      Based on your symptoms and what you wrote, I would recommend that you should see your doctor/gynaecologist, and if nothing is found that you see a gastroenterologist just to rule out any serious GI causes.

      Good luck :)

  24. QUESTION:
    How likely is it that a bladder fistula is cancerous? Should I worry?
    I had never even heard of one and had no sense of urgency when I started showing symptoms. Embarrassing... but for other women who should know to contact the Dr...passing air when urinating is Dr warranted. I finally called the Dr thinking it just isn't normal and she skipped the office visit and set an appt. with a urologist. I don't have Crohn's disease and I haven't had any recent surgeries. Just by process of elimination I've really narrowed down the possible reasons. Ovarian, Uterine, and colon cancers run in my family. Is it a pretty high chance that it is cancer? Should I pack my bags for the next life or is it pretty common and easily taken care of? Is surgery the next step?
    I am waiting to see a urologist. So, I am going to see a Dr. My mind is just going nuts and thought maybe someone had some knowledge while I wait.

    • ANSWER:
      Pneumaturia (passing air through the urethra while voiding) can be caused by three general things. 1. Recent instrumentation of the bladder (e.g. having a catheter) - this usual on lasts a most a few hours; 2. An infection with gas forming bacteria; and, 3. a fistula to the bladder.

      For there to be air in the bladder, the fistula need to connect to a structure that normally contains air. This makes the bowel the most likely cause. Although the uterus and vagina are possible; it is pretty ruled out be lack of total incontinence. Ovarian cancer would be unusually. But possible. It could set up a fistula involving colon and urinary tract.

      In my experience the most common possible cause of an entrovesical fistula is diverticulitis (an inflammatory disease of the colon - most in those older the 45). The second most common in my experience is a surgical mishap such a hysterectomy. There are many other benign causes of entrovesical fistulas. An example of a usual cause is called Fraley Syndrome; this occurs when a stone in the appendix (usually inflamed) digs its way into the bladder.

      Colorectal cancers are well known to cause enterovesical fistulas. It needs to be considered in the diagnosis - but inflammatory causes are more common.

      It is also possible to have a fistula between the gut and upper ureter. This is rare, in my career I may not seen this.

      In answer to your final question - do not pack your bags. It is fairly common and most the time is easily treated (obviously depends on what the cause is). The step(s) are to see what is going on. The first steps frequently include a urine analysis and culture, plus a CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis. A cystoscopy is also needed. Other tests based on the findings from the above include colonoscopy, barium enema or a charcoal swallow.

      Good luck!

  25. QUESTION:
    What are the signs and symptoms of endometriosis?
    What are the side effects without treatment, and what is the treatment, and how do they diagnose it. Does it always affect fertility.

    • ANSWER:
      From the Endo Research Center (www.endocenter.org):

      "About Endometriosis:

      With Endometriosis, tissue like that which lines the uterus (the endometrium) is found outside the womb in other areas of the body. Normally, the endometrium is shed each month through menses; however, with Endometriosis, these implants have no way of leaving the body. The implants still break down and bleed, but result is far different than in women and girls without the disease: internal bleeding, degeneration of blood and tissue shed from the growths, inflammation of the surrounding areas, and formation of scar tissue result. In addition, depending on the location of the growths, interference with the normal function of the bowel, bladder, intestines and other areas of the pelvic cavity can occur. Endometriosis has also been found lodged in the skin - and even the brain.

      Symptoms include chronic or intermittent pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation is not normal!), infertility, miscarriage(s), ectopic (tubal) pregnancy, dyspareunia (pain associated with intercourse), nausea / vomiting / abdominal cramping, diarrhea / constipation (particularly with menses), painful bowel movements, painful or burning urination, urinary frequency, retention, or urgency; fatigue, chronic pain, allergies and immune system-related illnesses are also commonly reported complaints of women who have Endo. It is quite possible to have some, all, or none of these symptoms. Endo symptoms are varied and often nonspecific, so they can easily masquerade as several other conditions, including adenomyosis ("Endometriosis Interna"), appendicitis, ovarian cysts, bowel obstructions, colon cancer, diverticulitis, ectopic pregnancy, fibroid tumors, gonorrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, ovarian cancer, and PID.

      Despite today's age of medical advances, researchers remain unsure as what causes of Endometriosis. There is NO CURE, despite the continued propagation of such myths by the uninformed who still mistakenly believe that hysterectomy, pregnancy and/or menopause can "cure" the disease. Invasive surgery remains the gold standard of diagnosis, and current therapies continue to remain extremely limited, often carrying side effects.

      Mistakenly minimized as "painful periods," Endometriosis is more than just "killer cramps." It is a leading cause of female infertility, chronic pelvic pain and gynecologic surgery, and accounts for more than half of the 500,000 hysterectomies performed in the US annually. Despite being more prevalent than breast cancer, Endometriosis continues to be treated as an insignificant ailment. Recent studies have even shown an elevated risk of certain cancers and other serious illnesses in those with the disease, as well as malignant changes within the disease itself.

      Research has shown that genetics, immune system dysfunction, and exposure to environmental toxins like Dioxin may all be contributing factors to the development of the disease. Endometriosis knows no racial or socioeconomic barriers, and can affect women ranging from adolescence to post-menopause. The disease can be so painful as to render a woman or teen unable to care for herself or her family, attend work, school, or social functions, or go about her normal routine. It can negatively affect every aspect of a woman's life; from her self-esteem and relationships, to her capacity to bear children, to her ability to be a contributing member of society.

      The disease can currently only be diagnosed through invasive surgery, and the average delay in diagnosis is a staggering 9 years. A patient may seek the counsel of 5 or more physicians before her pain is adequately addressed.

      Once diagnosed, it is not unusual for a patient to undergo several pelvic surgeries and embark on many different hormonal and medical therapies in an attempt to treat her symptoms. None of the current treatments are entirely effective, and virtually all synthetic therapies carry significantly negative side effects; some lasting far beyond cessation of therapy. The exception to this is excision; see www.centerforendo.com to learn more about excision as the leading treatment.

      Though Endometriosis is one of the most prevalent illnesses affecting society today, awareness is sorely lacking and disease research continues to remain significantly under funded. For instance, in fiscal year 2000, the National Institutes of Health planned to spend .5 billion on research. Of that funding, only .7 million was earmarked for Endometriosis - amounting to approximately $.40/patient. This is in stark contrast to other illnesses such as Alzheimer's and Lupus, which received approximately 5.00 and .00 per patient, respectively. American businesses lose millions of dollars each year in lost productivity and work time because of Endometriosis. The cost of surgery required to diagnose the disease in each patient alone adds greatly to the financial burden of both consumers and companies alike.

      Once erroneously believed to be a disease of “Caucasian career women who have delayed childbearing,” we know that in fact, Endometriosis affects women of all ages, races and
      socioeconomic status. Endometriosis also can and does exist in the adolescent female population. Far from the “rare” incidence once believed, studies have found that as many as 70% of teenagers with chronic pelvic pain had Endometriosis proven by laparoscopy. Other reports indicate that as many as 41% of patients experienced Endometriosis pain as an adolescent. The illness can be quite disruptive and cause significant dysfunction, especially at a time in life when self-esteem, school attendance and performance, and social involvement are all critical. Many adolescents with Endometriosis find themselves unable to attend or participate in classes, social functions, extracurricular activities, and sports due to significant pain and other symptoms of Endometriosis. Sometimes, teens and young women lack support and validation from both the home and the school; told the pain is “in their head,” that they are “faking it,” that their debilitating cramps are “normal” and “a part of womanhood,” that they are merely suffering from “the curse,” or that they should just “grin and bear it.” Their symptoms may also be dismissed as a sexually transmitted disease, which Endometriosis absolutely is not. Failure to acknowledge and address symptoms early in the disease process can lead to significant delays in diagnosis and necessary, subsequent treatments. Lack of support from family and loved ones can also add to the patient’s pain and fear - at any age.

      Recent studies have also shown that Endometriosis may in fact have an even bigger impact on younger patients than older women. One such study discovered that in patients under 22 years of age, the rate of disease recurrence was
      double that of older women (35% versus 19%). The study also revealed that the disease behaves differently in
      younger women; leading some researchers to believe it is a
      different form of Endometriosis altogether. Surgery, considered necessary to accurately diagnose and
      effectively treat the disease, is often withheld from younger patients based on the injudicious belief that early surgery somehow negatively influences a young woman’s fertility. Extensive, cumulative research has shown this concern to be unfounded. What can impact fertility, however,
      is neglecting effective treatment of the disease. Some
      researchers also feel that symptomatic, adolescent-onset
      Endometriosis is most often a lifelong problem that will
      progress to severe fibrotic disease.

      While it is possible to become pregnant with Endometriosis, the key is to obtain early, effective treatment such as that offered by specialty treatment centers like the Center for Endo Care (see www.centerforendo.com to learn about the success of excision as treatment). Hysterectomy is not a cure for Endometriosis. Any disease left behind by the surgeon (whether by design because he or she 'couldn't get it all' or accident because they don't recognize the disease in all manifestations) will continue to thrive and cause pain and symptoms. It does not matter if the ovaries are removed or if HRT is withheld; Endo produces its own estrogen-synthesizing enzyme known as aromatase. Thus, it enables it's own vicious life cycle and sustains the disease process. You would be better off getting all disease truly excised from all locations at a specialty center like the CEC (www.centerforendo.com).

      Due in part to the efforts of foundations like the ERC, research is ongoing in some places as to the causes of Endometriosis and potential cures for the disease. Our organization will continue to push for more widespread research into the many facets of the disease, and ultimately, a cure.

      For more information:

      http://www.endocenter.org/

      Endo Self Test:

      Not sure if you have Endometriosis? While pelvic surgery is the only current way to definitively diagnose it, symptoms can lead you and your doctor to suspect the disease. Review the following and consider if any of these common symptoms apply to you. Review your answers with your gynecologist for further discussion.

      Do you experience so much pain during or around your period that you find yourself unable to work, attend school or social functions, or go about your normal routine? _____YES / _____ NO

      Do you have any relatives diagnosed with Endometriosis? _____YES / _____ NO

      Do you find yourself with painful abdominal bloating, swelling or tenderness at any time in your cycle? _____YES / _____ NO

      Do you have a history of painful ovarian Endometriomas ("chocolate cysts")? _____YES / _____ NO

      Do you have a history of miscarriage, infertility or ectopic pregnancy? _____YES / _____ NO

      Do you experience gastrointestinal symptoms during your cycle, such as nausea or vomiting and/or painful abdominal cramping accompanied by diarrhea and/or constipation? _____YES / _____ NO

      Do you have a history of fatigue and/or a lowered immunity (i.e., "sick and tired" all the time)? _____YES / _____ NO

      Do you have a history of allergies, which tend to worsen around your periods? _____YES / _____ NO

      If sexually active, do you experience pain during sexual activity? _____YES / _____ NO

      Do you suffer from autoimmune diseases or other conditions (i.e., thyroid disease, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, chronic migraines)? _____YES / _____ NO

      Have you ever undergone pelvic surgery like a laparoscopy, in which Endometriosis was suspected but not definitively diagnosed?
      _____YES / _____ NO

      If you have answered "yes" to one or more of these questions, you may have Endometriosis. Talk to your doctor about getting an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment today. Dull aching and cramping can occur during menstruation in many women and teens, due to uterine contractions and the release of various hormones including those known as prostaglandins. However, period pain that becomes so debilitating it renders you unable to go about your normal routine is not ordinary or typical! Pain is your body's way of signaling that something is WRONG. If you are suffering from pelvic pain at any point in your cycle, an Endometriosis diagnosis should be considered.

      Know the Facts:

      - Endometriosis can affect women and teens of all ages, even those as young as 10 or as old as 85!
      - Hysterectomy, menopause and pregnancy are NOT cures for Endometriosis; in fact, there is no definitive cure!
      - Delayed childbearing is NOT what causes Endometriosis; in fact, no one really knows for sure what causes the disease, but research points to multi-factorial origins like heredity, immunology and exposure to environmental toxicants!
      - Endometriosis can only be accurately diagnosed via surgery; diagnostic tests like MRIs and ultrasounds are not definitive!
      - GnRH therapies like Lupron should never be administered in those patients younger than 18 yrs. of age or before a surgical diagnosis!
      - You CAN live well in spite of Endometriosis. WE ARE HERE TO HELP!" ~ www.endocenter.org

  26. QUESTION:
    How do I know when my cat is in heat? What are the symptoms? is it good to let them have at least one litter?
    She is 12 1/2 months of age, she is an indoor cat. She is starting to get in other areas outside her litter box and spraying.

    • ANSWER:
      she'll start acting like a slut. Her butt up in the air, the tail off to one side presenting herself for mounting. She'll roll around and meow and beg for attention. A lot of people who don't know what heat is, often fear their cat is in pain, they aren't, but they are extremely uncomfortable with all those hormones surging around in her body.

      No, it is actually harmful to your cat to allow her to even go into heat, let alone have a litter. Increased rates of mammary cancer are shown in cats who have gone through heat cycles. If you continue to allow her to remain in tact, she'll be at increased risk of uterine cancer, as well as an infection of the uterus.

      Also being pregnant and giving birth is very dangerous for the cat. cats can die from it (it is rare, but it does happen) even if everything goes right, it is VERY draining on a cat, and the cat should be several years old before breeding to ensure her proper health. I've watched too many young cats - practically kittens themselves give birth, and it is heart breaking to watch them turn into skin and bones nursing their kittens.

      not to mention (oh wait, I am) the fact that there are too many cats in the world as it is, and millions are put to sleep every year because there are not enough homes.

      Please, get your cat spayed asap!!

  27. QUESTION:
    What will happen after they take out my ovaries?
    I have already had a partial hyst. were they took out my uterus for very complicated reasons. I was 29. Now I am 31 and it seems they will need to also take out my ovaries. I realize that this will create hormonal issues but I'd rather have those than cancer. With that in mind, what can I expect and any suggestions on how to treat those effects? Thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      Firstly, good luck with your op - I hope everything goes well for you :)
      I think you will need HRT (hormone replacement therapy) primarily to replace the oestrogen which is no longer being produced as it is produced by the ovaries. One of the main reasons for that is to prevent early onset of the menopause but seeing as you have already had your uterus removed it wouldn't make a difference to that. However, oestrogen is really important in building up bone density in females and seeing as you're young you may need oestrogen replacement to prevent problems such as osteoporosis from weakened bones. I think there are other reasons too but bone density is the main issue regarding oestrogen.
      Also, you may need testosterone replacement because that too is produced by the ovaries. I don't know what the symptoms of lack of testosterone are (possibly muscle porblems?) But your doctor will talk to you about that.
      Your doctor will talk you through what s/he thinks you will need regarding HRT and it will depend on your body what you will have.
      That's all the stuff I really know about it but I just googled 'HRT for hysterectomy' and it came up with a load of helpful looking sites.

      Good Luck and I hope I have been of some help :)

  28. QUESTION:
    At what age does a cat come into heat and can become pregnant?
    I have a 9 month old kitten that has all the symptoms of being pregnant.

    • ANSWER:
      Some kittens can come into their first heat around 4 months! This is why the veterinarian's association is now recommending that females & males get "fixed" between 3-5 months of age.

      A female under the age of 1 year is too young to SAFELY have a litter. Their bodies aren't equipped to be able to support the "drain" that a litter will put on them.

      If your KITTEN has not been spayed, talk to your vet and see if he will spay / abort this litter, NOW. Then, your kitten will live a longer, healthier, HAPPIER life........no "drama" of the heat cycles, no "trauma" of the mating.....AND......a LOWER RISK of developing CANCER of the uterus & mammary ( breast ) glands in the future.

      So.......for the sake of your KITTEN'S HEALTH.......take her to the vet and see what he'll do...ASAP.
      Good luck.

  29. QUESTION:
    What were your experiences with an ectopic pregnancy?
    Symptoms?
    type of bleeding and how heavy?
    hormone level?
    pain?

    • ANSWER:
      At 7 weeks I started having light brown spotting/bleeding. I had some cramping and my hCG count was only 125. I was diagnosed as having a threatened miscarriage and my hCG level was monitored every 48 hours and it would rise a little and then fall again. An U/s showed an empty uterus at 8 weeks, but they failed to see the adnexal mass (the pregnancy in my left tube). The bleeding got more red and heavier and the cramping more severe and localized to the left side of my abdomen. At 9 weeks I was bleeding heavy bright red blood and in so much pain that vicodin was a joke. Right before I went into the ER for the third time crying the pain was so bad that I was laying at home in the fetal position on the floor because my tube had ruptured and I was bleeding internally. I have never experienced a pain like it since and I have given birth to two children and suffer from kidney stones. They finally realized what was going on later that night, the next morning actually, and performed emergency surgery to remove the pregnancy (my first and very much wanted and loved) and my left fallopian tube.

      General: Methotrexate works by attacking rapidly dividing tissue (which is basically what cancer is- a rapidly growing abnormal tissue mass) and it attacks an early pregnancy the same way because in the beginning stages it is, basically, a mass of cells that is rapidly dividing and growing. Methotrexate is giving to treat an ectopic pregnancy when it is caught in the early stages and careful follow up is done after to make sure the treatment worked. If an ectopic is caught too late for the drug to work effectively, or the drug was administered and did not work, then surgery is performed to remove the misplaced, non-viable pregnancy.

  30. QUESTION:
    Can you get pregnant after ovarian cancer?
    I am 21 years old and i was just told that i have ovarian cancer, being so young i have a great concern that i will not be able to get pregnant in the future. If it is caught in time and im fine, will i be able to get pregnant in the future?

    • ANSWER:
      The root cause for the onset of any cancer is 'hormonal imbalance. In most of the females it is linked to menses irregularities.

      1. Menses can be regulated with the aid of acupressure techniques. No medication/steroids required.
      2. Ovarian cancer be cured/treated with the aid of 'target therapy'.
      3. Then the chances of getting pregnant in a healthy and cancer-free body shall increase by leaps and bounds. Details to cure ovarian cancer are appended here under--------------------------------

      CANCER/HIV PREVENTION & Cure:--
      1. Beware of Cancer Symptoms: Sudden loss of weight/stamina, anemia, unbearable pains in any organ despite medication, neuralgia, getting extremely tired for a little or no work, loss of appetite, unhealed wound in any part of the body for years together, chronic constipation, chronic hemorrhages, etc. Cancer may affect from any organ to any organ[s]/system[s].
      The symptoms cited---------an offshoot of blocked energy + accumulated toxins in ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, thyroid, lymphatic system, hormonal imbalance with a displaced solar plexus

      ‘Target Therapy’ [Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies] proved to be effective for all types of cancer [including brain tumors, leukemia, melanoma, Crohn’s Disease, breast cancer, etc., ] & all the most dreaded and incurable diseases.

      TARGET THERAPY* It is the God-given therapy communicated to the mankind through THE RIGVEDA, one of the Hindu scriptures.
      Target Therapy---Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies, [comprising Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Bio-chemic salts, Herbal Remedies, Yoga/Meditation, Magneto-therapy, Sidha, etc.,] U can have sizable & perceivable relief in 45-90 days. @ no/affordable costs, No side effects, and No Hospitalization.

      Dr.Vora designed it in such a way that the costs are the least for the survival/rescue of common man and the poor in villages, towns and metropolis on the globe; with NO insurance cover. It is most suitable to all the youngsters on this entire globe.
      U may study it, discuss with Ur family members/friends/acquaintances and slowly and steadily implement it for the best results.

      •No side effects and no risk. If it clicks, mostly possible, U shall have a cure. Lest, the therapy keep mum. No extra risk. It is the most suitable line of treatment even for the terminally ill patients. Cancer cure/prevention is quite possible. U may try it for any incurable disease including cancer of any organ[s], post-surgical recurrence of tumors, Leukemia, HIV/AIDS, Crohn’s Syndrome, Gilbert’s Syndrome, colon cancer, Thalassemia, Muscular Dystrophy, Autism, bone TB., Tinnitus, all brain & spinal cord disorders, CLL, Crohn’s Syndrome, endometriosis, etc., ---it should aim @ [3] steps.
      1. Removal of toxins from all internal organs & purging through Normal Drainage systems, feces, urine, menses [females], skin, lungs.
      • 2. Activating all the internal organs to make each & every organ to function up to optimum levels.
      3. Supplying vitamins, nutrients, micro-nutrients, minerals, trace elements for invigorating the entire Immune system to produce antibodies.

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.
      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ [Vol.I & II] available in all Indian Languages all over the globe] by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.
      Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

  31. QUESTION:
    What does it mean if I was told I have level one mild dysplasia? Is it really cancer?
    How much time after being diagnosed do I have before I have full blown cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      Cervical dysplasia is a term used to describe the appearance of abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix, the lowest part of the uterus. These changes in cervical tissue are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. While dysplasia itself does not cause health problems, it is considered to be a precancerous condition. Left untreated, dysplasia sometimes progresses to an early form of cancer known as cervical carcinoma in situ, and eventually to invasive cervical cancer.

      It can take 10 years or longer for cervical dysplasia to develop into cancer. Dysplasia can be detected from a Pap smear, the single most important step that a woman can take to prevent cervical cancer.

      Mild dysplasia is the most common form, and up to 70% of these cases regress on their own (i.e., the cervical tissue returns to normal without treatment). Moderate and severe dysplasia are less likely to self-resolve and have a higher rate of progression to cancer. The greater the abnormality, the higher the risk for developing cervical cancer.

      Detecting and treating dysplasia early is essential to prevent cancer. For this reason, most physicians quickly remove suspicious cervical lesions and require frequent Pap smears to monitor for recurrences.

      Incidence and Prevalence
      Every year, between 250,000 and 1 million women in the United States are diagnosed with cervical dysplasia. While it can occur at any age, the peak incidence is in women between the ages of 25 to 35. Most dysplasia cases can be cured with proper treatment and follow-up. Without treatment, 30% to 50% may progress to invasive cancer.

      Risk Factors

      Risk factors increase the frequency of occurrence. Several risk factors have been linked to dysplasia including multiple sexual partners, early onset of sexual activity, cigarette smoking, and sexually transmitted diseases, especially human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV infection.

      HPV Infection
      Eighty to ninety percent of women with cervical dysplasia have an HPV infection. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of more than 80 different viral strains. About one-third are sexually transmitted, and some types cause genital warts. HPV infects about 25 million people in the United States, and most of the viral strains are harmless.
      However, the NIH Consensus Conference on Cancer of the Cervix and the World Health Organization (WHO) have concluded that several strains of HPV cause cervical cancer. The strains found most frequently in precancerous lesions and in cervical cancer are types 16 and 18. Other strains with high malignant potential include 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 68, and together, they account for almost 90% of cancerous lesions and dysplasia in HPV infections.

      Most HPV infections resolve within 6 months and many women develop immunity. HPV often does not cause symptoms. One study found that nearly one-half of the women infected with HPV had no symptoms and a person may not even know that they are infected. Untreated HPV can result in recurrent and persistent cervical dysplasia and many experts believe that HPV is the main cause for changes in cervical cells that result in dysplasia.

      HIV Infection
      Women who are infected with HIV are at a greater risk for developing dysplasia. The risk appears to increase as the number of CD4 cells (cells that play a critical role in immune responses) decreases. HIV-positive women also have a higher rate of persistent HPV infections and may be infected with the strains that are associated with severe dysplasia and cervical cancer. Women whose immune systems are suppressed for other reasons, such as by drugs that prevent rejection of organ transplants, are also at greater risk. This suggests that women with weakened immunity are more likely to be infected with HPV and to have a persistent infection that does not resolve on its own.

      Smoking
      Nicotine and cotinine, chemicals produced from tobacco, have been found in the cervical cells of women who smoke. Men who smoke also excrete these chemicals in their semen, which comes in contact with the cervix during sexual intercourse. Tobacco chemicals may cause alterations in the cells that lead to dysplasia.

      High-risk sexual behavior
      Having multiple sex partners, having sex with a man who has had multiple sex partners, and engaging in sexual intercourse before the age of 18 are linked to cervical dysplasia. Women in these categories have a greater chance of being infected with HPV or HIV, especially if they do not use a barrier contraceptive such as a condom. These infections put them at higher risk for developing cervical dysplasia.

      DES Exposure
      Between 1938 and 1971, approximately 5 million pregnant women were prescribed diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen thought to help prevent miscarriage. Its use was discontinued when researchers found it to be ineffective and dangerous. The daughters of women who took DES have a higher risk for developing rare cancer of the vagina or cervix, called clear cell adenocarcinoma, and abnormalities of the cervix, vagina, and uterus.

      Poor Nutrition
      There is growing evidence that certain vitamins, such as folic acid, play a role in cervical health. A poor diet may also cause the immune system to weaken, decreasing the body's ability to fight viruses such as HPV.

      Oral Contraceptives
      Some research shows that women who use oral contraceptives may be at a higher risk for developing cervical dysplasia. However, it is not clear if the risk is directly attributable to the contraceptives themselves. One reason may be that oral contraceptives interfere with folic acid metabolism in the cells around the cervix, and folic acid may help prevent or improve cervical dysplasia. Another reason may be that women using this method of birth control may have increased exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, compared to those who rely on a barrier method such as a condom.

  32. QUESTION:
    My mother has been diagnosed with endometrial cancer. She has had symptoms for 2 yrs, how bad is this?
    My mother has just been diagnosed with endometrial cancer and I am worried sick. She has had the symptoms for almost 2 years but her doctor told her nothing was wrong. How long does it take for this type of cancer to spread?

    • ANSWER:
      I’m sorry, but you are not giving enough information to be able to answer your question. 97% of patients with endometrial cancer have vaginal bleeding. If the patient is postmenopausal with vaginal bleeding she should be considered to have endometrial cancer until proven otherwise. Most endometrial cancers spread by direct extension and about 75% are diagnosed when the cancer is confined to the uterus (stage 1). I can only hope in your mother’s case she has had tests and the cancer was not evident until now making it likely to still be confined to the uterus.

  33. QUESTION:
    I have a pain at my lower left side just above the pelvic bone, what is it? Is it serious?
    I am frequently constipated and our family has a lineage of colon cancer deaths. Doctor's please help.

    • ANSWER:
      Hard to say. A lot depends on your age, your gender, and your past medical history.

      Female - young: Could be caused by a problem in your ovaries, uterus, urinary bladder, abdominal muscles/hernias or possibly your colon (namely irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease like Crohns or Ulceratvie colitis).

      Female - older: same as above but throw in the most usual cause for left lower quadrant pain...Diverticulosis or diverticulitis.

      Men don't usually have pain from ovaries and uteri (unless you include problems with their wives) so it's usually colonic or abdominal muscles/hernia.

      My guess, if you're over 40 and you have a long history of constipation you're a setup for diverticulosis/diverticulitis (look it up on the web).

      Cancer? Could be, but people usually encounter other symptoms before they start having pains, most often bleeding. If you're really concerned about cancer see if you can get your insurance agent to pay for a colonoscopy. Let them know that you're high risk because of your family history. A colonoscopy is a very low risk, easy procedure that will answer the colon cancer question as well as the diverticulosis question...and most importantly put your mind at ease.

      Of course, it could be a turd (pardon my french) working its way through.

      Hope this helps.

  34. QUESTION:
    Can they detect Cervical Cancer when you have a laparoscopy?
    I'm 24 and my doctor refuses to give me a smear test until I'm 25, I have been suffering with the symptoms of cervical cancer for years and had a laparoscopy last year, my question is can doctors see if you have cervical cancer when doing a laparoscopy or can it only be detected by a smear test?

    • ANSWER:
      Holly - First, let's clear up some terms and then better understand cervical cancer. A laparoscopy is a surgery that uses a thin, lighted tube put through a cut (incision) in the belly to look at the abdominal organs or the female pelvic organs FROM ABOVE the uterus.. Laparoscopy is used to find problems such as cysts, adhesions, fibroids, and infection. Tissue samples can be taken for biopsy through the tube (laparoscope). So, I am sure that what you had last year at your age of 23 was NOT a laparoscopy, but rather a culposcopy which is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva. Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions in these areas have discernible characteristics which can be detected through the examination. At the time of the laparoscopy ALL doctors normally take a smear of the cervix from any suspicious areas. Such smear or Pap tests are routinely done starting with the first year of sexual activity with any partner to check for any infections or suspicious changes. So, it's hard to imagine a doctor not taking a smear of the cervix from any adult woman from her teens on. The Pap smear can detect suspicious cervical changes years before cancer develops. Do you need to visit another GYN physician now?

  35. QUESTION:
    why was synthetic oestrogen bad to give to pregnant mothers?
    And also, how could it have triggered breast cancer?
    did the oestrogen trigger undeveloped cells in the baby?

    • ANSWER:
      "was" LOL still is!

      Extra estrogen in the mother will cause her female child to have significantly lower reproductive viability (meaning, the woman's daughter will have a hard time having children later on).

      The female child may reach menarche (the beginning of menstruation) early (significantly before age 12) and will likely hit menopause early as well. This puts the girl at higher risk for osteoporosis much earlier in life.

      The girl-baby's uterus and ovaries may be malformed - for instance, the ovarian ducts (fallopian tubes) may not be properly connected, the uterus may be bicornate or even unicornate (partly divided or completely divided down the center, lopsided, etc), and the girl's eggs have a higher chance of malforming or causing trisomy in her later offspring. In some studies with mice, up to ONE THIRD of the female babys' eggs were malformed with exposure to high levels of the synthetic estrogen Bisphenol-A (known as BPA lately).

      In male children, an overexposure to estrogen is known to cause a reduced testosterone level, which can cause underdevelopment of the testes, late maturation, impaired sperm production (though this is not as severe as the flaws in a girl-child's eggs, since the eggs actually develop while the baby girl is in utero.)

      A boy's penis and testes may not develop properly. During development, all fetuses start off female. At some point, the Y chromosome in boys kicks in and causes the labia to fuse, project forward, etc to form the penis and urogenital system of a male. High estrogen exposure during that time can cause malformation of the penis and testes, and in extremes may cause the child to be developed as a hermaphrodite (have a penis, with a vaginal opening) This is typically corrected with plastic surgery shortly after the child's birth.

      Many theorize that boys who are exposed to such high levels of estrogen, particularly at critical points in fetal development, may have "gender-bending" symptoms, having difficulty with their own sexual identities.

      It is unknown if boys who were exposed in-utero to high levels of excess estrogens are at increased risk for prostate or testicular cancer, but girls are known to be at higher risk for breast, endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancers.

      Uhhh

      .... I just realized I wrote a treatise... Does that answer your question?

      Please don't cut-and-paste. ;) You can email me if you need clarification! :D

  36. QUESTION:
    What are advantages of the birth control pill besides it being used for birth control?
    For instance, I heard that it was good for your bones (the hormones that are in it). Anything else? I am not sexually active, so getting pregnant is not an issue, but I would like to know the advantages to taking the pill. Thank You.

    • ANSWER:
      It can regularize your periods and make menstruation shorter and lighter. It may decrease cramping and other PMS symptoms.

      It may decrease acne and abnormal hair growth.

      It cuts down on yoru chances of ovarian cysts, ovarian cancer, and cancer of the uterus. It reduces your risk of anemia due to heavy periods.

      It may or may not reduce your risk of osteoporosis. Studies have been inconclusive about this.

      On the flip side, it can cause mood problems, weight gain, and lower libido. Different pills affect women differently, and you may have to try several before you find one you can tolerate. It may raise your chances of breast cancer, and it causes blood clots in rare cases, which can lead to a stroke. Your stroke risk is higher if you are over 35 and smoke.

      It usually takes your system about three months to adjust to the pill, and in the meantime, you may have breakthrough bleeding. Your periods might not come until the end of a pack at first, too.

  37. QUESTION:
    How to get emergency biopsy in canada?
    was told I need to wait 6 months to see a dermatologist in order to have a white patch on my penis head examined. What If it is cancer why should I have to wait 6 months to treat it? Makes no sense at all to me.

    • ANSWER:
      ***Many of the questioners on this ‘most benevolent Yahoo Answers site’ do not react. If every questioner is benefited and reacts, there shall be more and more enlightened & benevolent souls to help mass visitors.* **

      Instant Diagnosis*of any Disease and or the affected organ[s]---even Cancer, HIV/AIDS or any Incurable Disease/Syndrome with the aid of acupressure maps.
      Dr.Vora designed the diagnostic procedures, with the aid of acupressure techniques, so simple that even the poorest of the poor in remote villages/hamlets, all the youngsters [the future of this mother “EARTH”] with little knowledge & serious efforts, can know instantaneously @ no costs all over the globe.

      U may study the details, discuss with Ur family members and friends and understand the concept of ‘Acupressure’ and confirm for Urself, if U or anybody else has cancer/hiv and the affected organs.

      Any Cancer, lupus, HIV/AIDS, Kaposi’s Sarcoma, etc., —Common Symptoms:
      Sudden loss of weight/stamina, anemia, unbearable pains in any organ despite medication, neuralgia, FATIGUE-getting extremely tired for a little or no work, loss of appetite, unhealed wound in any part of the body for years together, chronic constipation, chronic hemorrhages, etc. Cancer may affect from any organ to any organ[s]/system[s].

      Remote control acupressure points to diagnose Cancer, hiv/AIDS, or any disease- Point Nos.1-10 -----1 [brain], 2 [Mental Nerves], 3 [Pituitarygland], 4 [Pineal gland], 5 [Head Nerves], 6 [Throat], 7 [Neck], 8 [Thyroid & Parathyroid], 9 [Spine], 10 [piles-constipation], , Point Nos.11-16, No.11 [Prostrate gland], 12 [Penis], 13 [Vagina], 14. Testes & Ovaries], 15 [Uterus], 16 [Lymph], 37 [spleen].

      Diagnosis--With the help of maps published herein, hard press these points with Ur thumb and middle finger and find out if all/most of acu points are tender. If all these or most of these points are very painful on thumb pressure, it means one has cancer/hiv/dreaded disease[s].
      Suppose, point no. 11 [prostate] along with no.8 [thyroid, 16 [lymph], then it is prostate cancer.

      If point no. 27 [stomach] along with point no.8, 16, then stomach cancer/ulcer, etc.,
      Point Noa. 1-6, 8, 11-16, 26 and 37—skin cancer.
      Point Nos. 8, 16, 37, 27, 29, 30 & 37---Leukemia.
      Point Nos.8, 11, 12 [penis],14[testes], 15, 16, 37—Penile/Testicular cancer.
      Note—In every cancer, 8 [thyroid], 16 [lymph] are tender as a precondition.
      Prevention & Cure: Remote control Acupressure points given by the God. For Treatment and perceivable relief , hard-pressure is to be applied on & around these points with Ur thumb and middle finger.
      Palms/soles:
      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2304961665160.2103840.1282822997&type=1&l=0a6bb63dd0

      Dorsal side of Palms & soles:
      In the middle of dorsal side of Ur palm, the remote control point for the breast is given. On hard pressing by Ur thumb and middle finger, if it hurts, U may feel that U/she have/has breast cancer. If U press the surrounding area on both palms regularly three times a day and then breast cancer shall not grow further. Acupressure & Indian Natural Remedies can cure breast cancer safely & totally.

      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2306802071169.2103895.1282822997&type=1&l=38eadce9df
      Cure is available by Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies.

      PS:If satisfied/benefited with, U may inform others to browse ‘Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ [Vol.I & II] available in all Indian Languages all over the globe] by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India. Dr.Vora, cured and caused to cure more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases

  38. QUESTION:
    Can you get severe fatigue or breathlessness during the onset of the menopause?
    I had a hysterectomy in December. I still have my ovaries,but lately, my hair seems drier and thinner. I also have this overwhelming tiredness during the day, and breathlessness.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi!

      I hope you'll check with your health care provider about these symptoms. While they may be related to a surgically induced menopause, they may also be a symptom of another condition or conditions. As women enter menopause, they may begin to experience several symptoms typically associated with the changes that are taking place in their bodies. These symptoms include:

      Hot flashes. This is a feeling of warmth in the face, neck or chest that ranges from mild to severe. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), about 85 percent of women approaching or going through menopause have hot flashes.

      Night sweats (evening versions of “hot flashes”) and difficulty sleeping. Lack of sleep can contribute to women feeling tired, stressed or tense.

      Changes in vaginal tissue, including thinning, dryness, itchiness or burning. In some cases, sex may become painful (dyspareunia) due to decreased vaginal secretions.

      Thinning of bones. Known as osteoporosis, this condition can lead to a reduction of bone mass that reaches 20 percent in some women. As a result, menopausal and postmenopausal women are susceptible to fractures of the hip, spine, wrist and other bones. In some cases, osteoporosis can lead to loss of height.

      Abnormal vaginal bleeding or “spotting.” This is a common sign of menopause. However, women who have not had a period for 12 consecutive months should see a physician if they experience spotting, as this can sometimes be a sign of other conditions, such as:

      Cancer

      Side effects of using birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy

      Hormonal imbalance

      Noncancerous growths in the lining of the uterus, such as fibroids

      Mood changes. These changes can include mood swings, depression and irritability. Some researchers believe these emotions are a result of changes in the brain caused by a decrease in estrogen. Others think menopausal symptoms such as sleep problems, hot flashes and fatigue cause the feelings. Still others maintain that a combination of these factors is probably responsible.

      Urinary problems. These may include leaking, burning or pain when urinating (dysuria) or urgency. Leakages may also occur during sneezing, coughing or laughing. An increase in urinary tract infections (UTIs) is also associated with menopause as a result of a thinning of the urethra that happens at this time.

      Other symptoms may occur, also. You can read more about them at this medically-reviewed site - an excellent one!

      http://obgyn.health.ivillage.com/menopausehrt/menopause.cfm

      Feel better : )

  39. QUESTION:
    From a strictly physical standpoint, are there any negative health repercussions to having an abortion?
    Again, I'm only asking about the physical aspect. Please do not tell me about spiritual or emotional consequences, and please provide quantifiable facts if you are able.

    Btw, I'm not trying to prove any kind of a point, I just want FACTS.

    • ANSWER:
      Hemmorage

      Sometimes women bleed during an abortion or a few days afterwards. With a medical abortion, bleeding lasts 13-15 days or more. Occasionally it is necessary to receive a transfusion to replace the lost blood. Sometimes a second curettage procedure or a hysterectomy is needed to stop the bleeding.

      Infection

      The uterus is susceptible to infection after an abortion especially if parts of the fetus or placenta are accidentally left inside of you. Infections are even more of a risk if you have Chlamydia or Gonorrhea. Symptoms are pain and fever. This is generally treated with antibiotics, but sometimes another curettage procedure must be used. If untreated, a very serious infection can develop and could result in infertility.

      Perforation

      Sometimes the tools of an abortion are accidentally pushed through the wall of the uterus during an abortion. If the instrument damages one of your internal organs, it may be necessary to do major surgery to repair the damage. This complication can cause extensive bleeding.

      Effects on Later Pregnancy

      Injury to the cervix may cause the early loss of future pregnancies. Scarring, which blocks your fallopian tubes, may also occur. This can keep you from becoming pregnant in the future. The risk of miscarriage in later pregnancies is higher if a woman has had two or more abortions.

      Continued Pregnancy

      The fetus may be growing in your fallopian tube rather than in your uterus. An abortion procedure would miss this. The continued growth of the fetus in your tube is dangerous and potentially fatal.

      Breast Cancer

      Twenty-seven worldwide studies have independently linked induced abortion with breast cancer. Abortion interrupts the natural process of breast development abruptly stopping cell growth, leaving the breast with extra cells at can become cancerous.

      Death

      Death has occurred after an abortion, although this is rare. When abortion is done after the first three months of pregnancy, the risk of death increases. The cause of death by abortion is usually from heavy bleeding or from complications with the drugs used for pain.

      hope his helps!x

  40. QUESTION:
    How risky is Hormone Replacement therapy?
    I am 45 and had a hysterectomy with one ovary removed when I was 41. I took a low dosage of HRT for two years and slowly reduced and stopped it. I am having severe menopause symptoms again and am miserable.Considering trying low dosage HRT again but worried about breast cancer risks. I am confused and weighing my options. What do you think about the risks versus the benefits of HRT?

    • ANSWER:
      It's actually not that risky. And there are benefits to HRT that offset the risk of the HRT. And in the biggest study of HRT, done by the WHI in the early 2000s, they found that women who take premarin plus provera (Prempro):

      For every 10,000 women taking Prempro, each year:

      8 more will develop breast cancer
      7 more will have a heart attack or other coronary event
      8 more will have a stroke,
      and 8 more will have blood clots in the lungs

      That's probably the thing you've been hearing about. BUT!!!!! they also found:
      "After careful consideration of the data, NIH has concluded that with an average of nearly 7 years of follow-up completed, estrogen alone does not appear to affect (either increase or decrease) heart disease, a key question of the study. At the same time, estrogen alone appears to increase the risk of stroke and decrease the risk of hip fracture. It has not increased the risk of breast cancer during the time period of the study."

      You are not taking provera, because you do not have a uterus. You are only taking estrogen. And estrogen alone does not appear to increase risk of breast cancer!

  41. QUESTION:
    What are the remedial measures to prevent intraocular pressure from increasing?
    Indicate some dietary measures, exercises etc. How can it be controlled and even reduced?

    • ANSWER:
      The intraocular pressure in the eye is maintained by the aqueous fluid, which brings nutrients to the cornea, iris and lens, and helps the eye maintain its shape. About 4cc of aqueous fluid are produced each day; too much or too little produced or drained from the eye changes the pressure inside the eye and can damage vision, according to VisionRX.

      Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/70904-intraocular-pressure-symptoms/#ixzz23R7wf3qw

      The symptoms cited---------an offshoot of blocked energy + accumulated toxins in brain, spinal cord, thyroid, optic nerve, eyes, lymphatic system, hormonal imbalance with a displaced solar plexus

      Prevention* & Cure* of any Disease/Syndrome/Disorder: ---
      In any ailment [acute as well as chronic] and emergencies, Acupressure techniques come to Ur rescue, not only for instant diagnosis, but also for giving some prevention of any disease[s] and perceivable relief/cure.
      Acupressure techniques--- Utility—Blocked energy + toxins shall be moved from all Ur internal organs to purge in the normal drainage system, i.e., urine, feces, sweat, cough, menses[ladies], vomiting and all the organs shall function up to optimal levels.
      Utility—Blocked energy + toxins shall be moved from all Ur internal organs to purge in the normal drainage system, i.e., urine, feces, sweat, cough, menses[ladies], vomitting and all the organs shall function up to optimal levels
      Acupressure Techniques—NO MEDICATION. NO SIDE EFFECTS. NO HOSPITALIZATION. NO COSTS. IT IS SAFE ALSO.
      With Ur thumb, press ur/his/her palms and soles, wrists and ankles on both sides. Suppose pain is felt while pressing a particular point in the palm/sole, u have to press the surrounding area—just like u r pumping out air from that painful point. The blocked energy in any internal organ, be it lungs, heart, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, liver, etc., shall be released along with toxins if any. As a last point u must press middle part of each palm/sole; so that toxins, if any, shall be excreted/purged through urine without affecting the kidneys.
      It should be done in an empty stomach or 2 hours after meals. With this, all the endocrine glands and their hormonal secretions shall be regulated. All internal organs shall function up to optimal levels. Ur entire immune system gets invigorated to produce antibodies.

      Remote control Acupressure points given by the God. For Treatment, hard-pressure is to be applied on & around these points with Ur thumb and middle finger.
      Palms/soles:
      Point Nos.1-10 -----1 [brain], 2 [Mental Nerves], 3 [Pituitarygland], 4 [Pineal gland], 5 [Head Nerves], 6 [Throat], 7 [Neck], 8 [Thyroid & Parathyroid], 9 [Spine], 10 [piles-constipation], , Point Nos.11-16, No.11 [Prostrate gland], 12 [Penis], 13 [Vagina], 14. Testes & Ovaries], 15 [Uterus], 16 [Lymph], 17 [Hip], 18 [Urinary Bladder], 19 [intestines], 21 [appendix-front side], and 21 [allergy-back side]; 22[gall bladder], 23 [liver], 24[Shoulder], 25[Pancreas], 26[kidney], 27[Stomach], 28[Adrena gland], 29[Solar Plexus-Nabhi Chakra-Umbelicus], 30[Lungs], 31[Ear], 32[Energy], 33[Nerves of ear], 34[Cold], 35[Eye], 36[Heart], 37 [spleen]. 38[Thymus].

      If the particular point is tender on pressure by Ur thumb, U can note that that particular organ[s] is/are affected. U can indulge in instant diagnosis of any disease and or the affected organ[s].
      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2304961665160.2103840.1282822997&type=1&l=0a6bb63dd0

      Dorsal side of Palms & soles to diagnose & treat ailments of eyes, spine, breast cancer, etc., :

      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2306802071169.2103895.1282822997&type=1&l=38eadce9df .

      If U note any perceivable relief, after a month, U may try ‘target therapy’ for a total cure.
      God bless You.

      TARGET THERAPY* It is the God-given therapy communicated to the mankind through THE RIGVEDA, one of the Hindu scriptures.
      Target Therapy---Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies, [comprising Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Bio-chemic salts, Herbal Remedies, Yoga/Meditation, Magneto-therapy, Sidha, etc.,] U can have sizable & perceivable relief in 45-90 days. @ no/affordable costs, No side effects, and No Hospitalization.

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ Vol.I & II available in all Indian Languages all over the globe---by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.

  42. QUESTION:
    Is aching ovaries a symptom of ovarian cancer?
    I have found a little change in my cycle also I have some pain in both my ovaries and bad back ache on the right side of my back. What can this be?

    • ANSWER:
      My mother died from ovarian cancer.
      In the beginning, there are very few apparent signs that anything is wrong.
      She did not actully have pain in her ovaries, but she became slightly swollen over her abdomen and also was not able to eat a lot.
      She had the feeling of fullness after only a few bites of food.
      Unfortunately, by the time she was diagnosed, it has spread and this is usually what happens to most women with ovarian cancer.
      The disease has spread by the time it is diagnosed because the symptoms are so vague in the beginning.
      There are actually not very good tests that can determine the early stages of this cancer, altho, they can do ultrasounds and blood tests but, even these are not conclusive.

      More than likely you do not have ovarian cancer and your symptoms are due to possibly a cyst or fibroids on your ovaries or uterus.And you didn't specify your age, but this cancer usually does not happen to younger women.
      You should definitely see your gynocologist and tell him/her your symptoms and fears.
      Please take care

  43. QUESTION:
    How and where do I get birth control pills from?
    I want to get birth control pills not only for the reason of safe sex and not getting pregnant but for the fact that it lowers the amount of periods I have. But do I have to get my mom to get them or what? Cause I don't really want to ask her... Where do I get them? How do I get them? Please help!

    • ANSWER:
      Hello Charlie,

      How Do I Get Birth Control Pills?
      How Much Do Birth Control Pills Cost?

      First, you’ll need to get a prescription. Visit a Planned Parenthood health center, a clinic, or a private health care provider for a prescription. Your health care provider will discuss your medical history with you, check your blood pressure, and give you any other medical exam that you may need. If you need an exam, it may cost about –0.

      Birth control pills may be purchased with a prescription at a drugstore or clinic. They cost about – a month.

      Planned Parenthood works to make health care accessible and affordable. Some health centers are able to charge according to income. Most accept health insurance. If you qualify, Medicaid or other state programs may lower your health care costs.

      Call your local Planned Parenthood health center to get specific information on costs.

      What Are the Benefits of Birth Control Pills?

      Taking the pill is simple, safe, and convenient. It does not interfere with having sex. Many women say it improves their sex lives because it helps them feel more spontaneous.

      Women who do not need birth control often choose to take the pill for the other benefits it offers. Combination and progestin-only pills

      reduce menstrual cramps
      make periods lighter

      The combination pill offers many other benefits, including some protection against

      acne
      bone thinning
      breast growths that are not cancer
      ectopic pregnancy
      endometrial and ovarian cancers
      serious infection in the ovaries, tubes, and uterus
      iron deficiency anemia
      cysts in the breasts and ovaries
      premenstrual symptoms, including headaches and depression
      bad cramps
      heavy and/or irregular periods

      Combination pills can be used to control when and how often you have your period. Some pills are specially packaged for women to have only a few periods a year. Other pills can also be used continuously to prevent having periods. With these pills, women take an active pill every day to keep from getting their periods. It is normal for them to have spotting or bleeding the first 6 months. It may get less over time. Some stop having any bleeding at all. This is normal and will not harm your body. But it’s a good idea to get tested if you think you might be pregnant.

      What Are the Disadvantages of Birth Control Pills? Some women may have undesirable side effects while taking birth control pills. But many women adjust to the pill with few or no problems.

      Some of the most common side effects usually clear up after two or three months. They include

      bleeding between periods (most often with progestin-only pills)
      breast tenderness
      nausea and vomiting
      Nausea and vomiting may be helped by taking the pill in the evening or at bedtime. But do not stop taking the pill because you feel sick to your stomach — you will be at risk of pregnancy if you do.

      The hormones in the pill may change a woman’s sexual desire.

      It’s important that you find a method that won’t make you feel sick or uncomfortable. If you continue to experience side effects after taking the pill for three months, talk with your health care provider about changing your prescription.

      After stopping the pill, it usually takes one or two months for a woman’s periods to return to the cycle she had before taking the pill. Once in a while, a woman may have irregular periods or no periods at all. This may go on for as long as six months after stopping. This is more likely if her periods were irregular before starting the pill.

      Serious Side Effects of the Pill
      Many women have concerns about the possible risks of taking birth control pills. Serious problems do not occur often. And progestin-only pills have a lower risk of serious side effects than combination pills.

      The progestin in YAZ, Gianvi, YASMIN, Ocella, Syeda, and Zarah, Beyaz, and Safyral may be linked to a higher risk for blood clots than other birth control pills. It can also raise potassium levels in your blood. This could cause heart and health problems.

      Combination pill users have a slightly greater chance of certain rare, but serious, problems than nonusers. These problems, that may be fatal in very rare cases, include heart attack, stroke, having a blood clot in the legs, lungs, heart, or brain, or developing high blood pressure, liver tumors, gallstones, or yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice).

      The risk for these problems increases if you

      are age 35 or older
      are very overweight
      have certain inherited blood-clotting disorders
      have diabetes
      have high blood pressure
      have high cholesterol
      need prolonged bed rest
      smoke

      The Pill and Breast Cancer
      You may have heard claims linking the pill to breast cancer. The most recent medical literature suggests that the pill has little, if any, effect on the risk of developing breast cancer.

  44. QUESTION:
    Can cancerous cells be detected in a blood test?
    Can someone be sure that they have cancer from a blood test?

    • ANSWER:
      A simple blood test can't reveal. However, here is a way out to diagnose any cancer in 5 minutes; after proper training or study and discussion.

      Instant Diagnosis*of any Disease and or the affected organ[s]--- even Cancer, HIV/AIDS or any Incurable Disease/Syndrome with the aid of acupressure maps.
      Dr.Vora designed the diagnostic procedures, with the aid of acupressure techniques, so simple that even the poorest of the poor in remote villages/hamlets, all the youngsters [the future of this mother “EARTH”] with little knowledge & serious efforts, can know instantaneously @ no costs all over the globe.

      U may study the details, discuss with Ur family members and friends and understand the concept of ‘Acupressure’ and confirm for Urself, if U or anybody else has cancer/hiv and the affected organs.

      Any Cancer, lupus, HIV/AIDS, Kaposi’s Sarcoma, etc., —Common Symptoms:
      Sudden loss of weight/stamina, anemia, unbearable pains in any organ despite medication, neuralgia, FATIGUE-getting extremely tired for a little or no work, loss of appetite, unhealed wound in any part of the body for years together, chronic constipation, chronic hemorrhages, hemoptysis, etc. Cancer may affect from any organ to any organ[s]/system[s].

      Point Nos.1-10 -----1 [brain], 2 [Mental Nerves], 3 [Pituitarygland], 4 [Pineal gland], 5 [Head Nerves], 6 [Throat], 7 [Neck], 8 [Thyroid & Parathyroid], 9 [Spine], 10 [piles-constipation], , Point Nos.11-16, No.11 [Prostate gland], 12 [Penis], 13 [Vagina], 14. Testes & Ovaries], 15 [Uterus], 16 [Lymph], 17 [Hip], 18 [Urinary Bladder], 19 [intestines], 21 [appendix-front side], and 21 [allergy-back side]; 22[gall bladder], 23 [liver], 24[Shoulder], 25[Pancreas], 26[kidney], 27[Stomach], 28[Adrena gland], 29[Solar Plexus-Nabhi Chakra-Umbelicus], 30[Lungs], 31[Ear], 32[Energy], 33[Nerves of ear], 34[Cold], 35[Eye], 36[Heart], 37 [spleen]. 38[Thymus].

      Diagnosis--With the help of Acupressure maps published herein, hard press these points with Ur thumb and middle finger and find out if all/most of acu points are tender. If all these or most of these points are very painful on thumb pressure, it means one has cancer/HIV/dreaded disease[s].
      Suppose, point no. 11 [prostate] along with no.8 [thyroid, 16 [lymph], then it is prostate cancer.

      If point no. 27 [stomach] along with point no.8, 16, then stomach cancer/ulcer, etc.,
      Point Nos. 1-6, 8, 11-16, 26 and 37—skin cancer/melanoma/basal cell carcinoma..
      Point Nos. 8, 16, 11-15 and 37 –Lymphoma.
      Point Nos. 6, 8, 11-15, 16 & 37—Mononucleiosis. In mono tonsils are also affected.
      Point Nos. 8, 16, 37, 27, 29, 30 & 37---Leukemia.
      Point Nos 1-10, 11-15, 22.23 &37---HIV/AIDS/STDs.
      Point Nos.8, 11,14[testes/ovaries], 15,16, 37—Testicular/Ovarian cancer.
      Point Nos. 1-9 11-16, 22, 23 & 37---Skin Cancer/Melanoma.
      Note—In every cancer, 8 [thyroid], 16 [lymph] are tender as a precondition.
      Prevention & Cure: Remote control Acupressure points given by the God. For Treatment and perceivable relief , hard-pressure is to be applied on & around these points with Ur thumb and middle finger.
      Palms/soles:
      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2304961665160.2103840.1282822997&type=1&l=0a6bb63dd0

      Dorsal side of Palms & soles:
      In the middle of dorsal side of Ur palm, the remote control point for the breast is given. On hard pressing by Ur thumb and middle finger, if it hurts, U may feel that U/she have/has breast cancer. If U press the surrounding area on both palms regularly three times a day and then breast cancer shall not grow further. Acupressure & Indian Natural Remedies can cure breast cancer safely & totally.

      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2306802071169.2103895.1282822997&type=1&l=38eadce9df
      Cure is available by Acupressure Techniques & Indian Natural Remedies.

      PS:If satisfied/benefited with, U may inform others to browse ‘Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.

      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’ [Vol.I & II] available in all Indian Languages all over the globe] by Dr.Devendra Vora, DSc.,MD.,FRCP.,---an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India. Dr.Vora, cured and caused to cure more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

  45. QUESTION:
    If I start birth control two weeks after my last period, will my next period be very heavy?
    I ended my period two Wednesdays ago. I plan on starting birth control pills on Sunday. Since it will have been five weeks since my last period will this next one be very heavy?

    • ANSWER:
      The symptoms cited ----- maybe, an offshoot of

      Indiscriminate Use of Steroids*—Risk involved. Please, don’t play with ‘steroids’.

      Steroids, double edged dragons, are artificial hormones which are to be used very sparingly that too for a very short duration [say a week or maximum month]; under strict medical supervision, preferably by an endocrinologist or a gynecologist/reputed physician. Lest U shall be playing with ‘fire’.
      They will give the feeling of well being for emergencies only. Diet pills, Weight loss pills, Breast enlargement pills, Height increase tablets, Birth control pills [Plan A,B,C,UNWANTED 72, ecstasy, Mirena, Freedom-5, Marvelon-28, Yaz, tri-cylcen lo, etc.], medication for allergies, asthma/bronchitis, menopause, cholesterol lowering drugs, anti-clotting drugs, NSAIDs, depression possess steroids.
      Prolonged & indiscriminate usage has impact on cycles, mood swings, severe cramps, insomnia, anemia, severe hair loss, Serious irreversible complications, cancers, which are worse than the symptoms.

      •Birth Control without medication/steroids:----------
      1. Question about Ovulation & birth control, No steroids/medication?
      Natural & Safe Methods of Family Planning-No Medication.--From 5th day of menses to 18th day---is the period for release of egg-----'ovulation'-- Her temperature shall raise by just one or two degrees. On those days, sex with condom or no sex or withdrawal of the organ just before orgasm. Have a thermometer and check her temperature on all the possible days of ovulation, as cited. Or U can just massage her wrists & ankles on both sides hard by Ur thumb[s] just before coitus.
      2. Birth control by Acupressure techniques-----Remote control Acupressure points given by the God. For Treatment, hard-pressure is to be applied on & around these points with Ur thumb and middle finger.
      To activate Ur gonads—point no. 11 [prostate gland], No.12 [Penis], 13 [vagina], No.13 [Testes & Ovaries] No.14 [uterus]. All these points are located in both wrists and ankles.
      Palms/Soles:
      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2304961665160.2103840.1282822997&type=1&l=0a6bb63dd0

      Dorsal side of Palms & soles:

      http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.2306802071169.2103895.1282822997&type=1&l=38eadce9df

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse ‘Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.
      Source: ‘HEALTH IN UR HANDS’Vol.I & II--available in all Indian languages all over the globe-- by Dr.Devendra Vora, D.Sc.,M.D.,F.R.C.P., an octogenarian & pioneer in acupressure in India.

  46. QUESTION:
    What are the health benefits of taking Omega 3 daily?
    Also, what amount is good to fight depression?

    • ANSWER:
      * Number 8 mentions depression *

      1. Breast cancer protection: Research shows women with a high intake of fish oil fatty acids have up to 50% less chance of getting breast cancer, which is a major concern for most women. DHA is a natural anti-inflammatory that stops cellular transformation and kills off cancer cells.

      2. Relief from menstrual cramps: Unpleasant PMS symptoms are often the result of a fatty acid imbalance. Omega 3 fish oil relieves monthly pain and cramping known as dysmenorrhea.

      3. Improved fertility: Studies show that infertility is directly related to the amount of fish oil you consume. Fish oil balances hormones, improves hormonal levels and increases blood flow to the uterus. The more Omega 3 fatty acids you get the greater your odds of conceiving.

      4. Healthy babies: Fish oil is essential to a healthy pregnancy diet, facilitating healthy placental blood flow and the efficient exchange of nutrients and oxygen between mother and baby.

      5. Preeclampsia prevention: The high blood pressure during pregnancy, which is known as preeclampsia, can be very dangerous. The omega 3 fish oil fatty acids help maintain healthy blood pressure and greatly reduce any health risks for both mother and child.

      6. Full term babies: Fish oil fatty acids also lower the danger of premature birth. This insures during pregnancy stages a baby has fully formed lungs and reaches a healthy birth weight.

      7. Baby's brain development: A child's brain is especially dependent on the fatty acids found in omega 3 fish oil. For example, DHA has been found to ensure proper brain development and to increase a child's intelligence. It also improves eyesight and the development of motor skills.

      8. Less postpartum depression: Studies show women with a higher consumption of fish oil suffer significantly less postpartum depression. This means better times for both mom and baby.

      9. Minimized menopause problems: By greatly improving hormonal balance, fish oil fatty acids can dramatically reduce menopause symptoms, such as hot flashes and mood swings.

      10. Protection against osteoporosis: Having high levels of fish oil fatty acids has been shown to lower your risk of osteoporosis, which is an especially high risk for women after menopause.

      11. Reduced risk of heart disease: Heart disease kills more women prematurely than any other disease, including breast cancer. And the danger increases after menopause. Omega 3 with EPA and DPA is your best defense. Fish oil helps lower triglycerides, lower blood pressure and lower cholesterol naturally. And it's an essential part of an all around heart healthy diet.

  47. QUESTION:
    What is a good vitamin for someone with prehypertension to take?
    I recently found out i have high blood pressure...or well semi-high blood pressure. I'm on no medication. Just trying to get it under control with diet and exercise. My doc said i should start taking a daily vitamin supplement. However, he didn't mention which one. Any idea as to what vitamin would be good for me?

    • ANSWER:
      Germanium is one of the most dynamic new discoveries in the realm of trace elements necessary for optimum nutritional health. It raises the level of activity of various organs (facilitates oxygen uptake) and helps to expel harmful pollutants and arrest germ activity. Germanium serves as an electrical semiconductor by helping correct distortions in the electrical fields of the body.
      Germanium is still being researched for all of its possible supplementary applications. It is believed to act as an anti-cancer agent, and is effective for viral, bacterial and fungal infections.
      Poor immune system, low energy and cancer indicate Germanium deficiencies.

      Symptoms of Germanium Deficiency
      •asthma
      •cancer (breast, lung, bladder)
      •cardiac insufficiency
      •hypertension
      •hepatic cirrhosis
      •leukemia
      •neuralgia
      •nephritis
      •neurotic disorders
      •softening of brain tissue
      Natural Sources
      •garlic
      •ginseng
      •aloe vera
      •comfrey
      •all chlorophyll-rich foods
      •shiitake mushrooms

      Potassium is called the "alkalizer". It neutralizes acids and restores alkaline salts to the blood stream, and works with sodium in all cells including at nerve synapses to maintain or restore membrane potentials and assist in metabolic processes.
      Potassium is critical to cardiovascular and nerve function, by regulating the transfer of nutrients into cells and supplying muscle energy.
      Potassium also regulates water balance, assists recuperative powers, aids rheumatic or arthritic conditions (causes acids to leave joints and ease stiffness), is vital for elimination of wastes, is a natural pain desensitizer, helps control convulsions, headaches and migraines, promotes faster healing of cuts, bruises and other injuries, and generally contributes to a sense of well being.
      Potassium is stored in the muscles.

      Symptoms of Potassium Deficiency
      •bad circulation
      •bluish tint to skin
      •chronic fatigue syndrome
      •diabetes
      •earaches
      •edema
      •headaches
      •heart palpitations
      •hypertension
      •insomnia
      •intestinal pain
      •muscle weakness
      •oppressive breathing
      •pain in the eyes
      •prolapsed uterus
      •swollen glands
      •tissue anemia
      •water retention
      Natural Sources
      •leafy green vegetables
      •citrus
      •bananas
      •black olives
      •potato peelings
      •beets
      •beans
      •kelp
      •whole grains
      •seafood

      http://www.phpure.com/nutrition_products/angstrom_minerals.htm

  48. QUESTION:
    What are the doifferent types of surgeons?
    I want to become a surgeon but im a long ways off still. Just wondering what are the different tyoes, i know neuro and cardiovascular what else?

    • ANSWER:
      Cardiothoracic surgeonCardiothoracic surgeons treat diseases of the chest wall, gullet, lungs, pleura and heart. Cardiac surgeons limit their practice to the heart and its major blood vessels. Thoracic surgeons specialise in chest surgery but do not perform heart surgery.

      Colorectal surgeonColorectal surgeons specialise in the surgical treatment of disorders of the lower intestine (the colon, anus and rectum). Examples include treatment for cancer, ulcerative colitis, twists of the colon causing obstruction, or investigate bleeding or other symptoms. Colorectal surgeons also treat hernias, piles, fissures and fistulas and rectal prolapse.

      Ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeon (also known as an otorhinolaryngologist from the Greek words for ear, nose and larynx)

      ENT surgeons operate on disease of this part of the body (eg the tonsils and adenoids, the nose and nasal sinuses, tumours of the throat, and sometimes the salivary glands and the thyroid gland).

      Endocrine surgeonEndocrine surgeons specialise in the surgery of diseases of the hormone-producing glands (eg the thyroid, and the adrenal glands or the pancreas).

      Neonatal surgeonMore specialised than paediatric surgeons, neonatal surgeons operate on very young babies up to the age of one or two months old, including premature babies. They treat conditions such as congenital obstructions of the gullet, bowel or anus, urinary obstruction or reflux, or abnormalities of the spinal cord such as spina bifida.

      Obstetrician and gynaecologistA surgeon who specialises in the care of the pregnant woman and her foetus (obstetrics) and women’s conditions, especially those affecting the reproductive organs (gynaecology). Obstetric surgeons’ work includes normal and abnormal childbirth, Caesarean sections and termination of pregnancy. Gynaecological surgeons operate on the uterus, cervix, ovaries and associated organs and structures, and are involved in the treatment of fertility.

      OphthalmologistOpthalmologists undertake surgery of the eyes, eyelids and bony surrounds of the eye (the orbits). Examples of an ophthalmologists work include cataract operations, lens implants, corneal grafts, treating ocular injuries, squints, diabetic retinopathy and rodent (malignant) ulcers near the eyelids.

      Oral and Maxillofacial surgeonSometimes called a faciomaxillary or an oromaxillofacial surgeon. This specialist holds qualifications in surgery as well as in dentistry. Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons perform operations on the head and neck not included in ENT, ophthalmology or neurosurgery (there may be some overlap). Oral and maxillofacial surgeons operate on tumours and cysts of the face, jaw, tongue and salivary glands, or after accidents or sports injuries to this part of the body. They also treat congenital or developmental disorders of the skull, facial bones and jaws, including cleft palate.

      Orthopaedic surgeonOrthopaedic surgeons specialise in bone and major joint disease. Their work includes treating fractures, performing hip and knee replacements, examining the inside of the joints (arthroscopy), operations for back problems and correcting abnormal foot or leg development in children (e.g. club foot). Some orthopaedic surgeons specialise further to become experts in hand, knee, shoulder or spinal operations.

      Paediatric surgeonPaediatric surgeons treat surgical conditions in children up to the age of 14-16 years, such as hernias, undescended testes, congenital abnormalities of the gut, kidney or urinary system, and childhood tumours.

      Plastic and reconstructive surgeonThese surgeons deal with surgery of the skin and soft tissues all over the body. The skills of plastic and reconstructive surgeons are required for serious burns and skin grafting; reconstruction after accidents or cancer; removal of warts, moles or tattoos; removal of excess fat from the very overweight (including liposuction); cosmetic surgery of the nose, eyelids, face, lips, ears, breasts; repair of tendons and damaged joints in the hands; and skin and soft tissue repairs in large wounds. Surgery carried out simply to improve appearance is called cosmetic surgery.

      Upper gastro-intestinal surgeonUpper gastro-intestinal surgeons specialise in operations on the stomach (and sometimes the gullet), hiatus hernia, biliary system, pancreas, upper intestines, and the appendix.

      Urological surgeonsUrological surgeons treat problems in the urinary system (eg kidney and bladder stones and tumours, enlargement of the prostate, disorders of the penis, testis or scrotum).

      Vascular surgeonVascular surgeons operate on the blood vessels (ie arteries and veins) for conditions such as blockages or dilations (aneurysms) in the major arteries in the abdomen or legs. They also operate for conditions such as varicose veins or complications of venous thrombosis, and carry out bypass grafts in the abdomen or lower limb. Vascular surgeons may also undertake major and minor amputations of the lower limbs, and microsurgery on small blood vessels (eg in reconnecting a severed finger).

      I hope this helped.


uterus cancer symptoms

Dcis Breast Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What type of breast cancer kills the most women?
    I know there are different types of breast cancer...some are rare..I know IBC kills but doesn't mean most women die of that type because not many women get that rare type. So what is the most common type of breast cancer that women die from? I cannot find that type of information on the internet....I find statistics but they do not state what type of cancer the women had to begin with?

    Thanks for your answers

    • ANSWER:
      What Jon posted is correct.
      Most women have ductal carcinoma and therefore that is what kills most women.

      Metastatic is a stage of cancer not a type.
      Triple negative is also not a type of breast cancer it is the hormone receptor status and does occur with different types.
      DCIS is ductal carcinoma before it becomes invasive and those statistics are separate..

  2. QUESTION:
    How many people in the US have breast cancer?
    Men and Women and only ones that CURRENTLY have breast cancer not ones that survived it.

    • ANSWER:
      In 2013, it is estimated that among U.S. women there will be:

      232,340 new cases of invasive breast cancer (includes new cases of primary breast cancer among survivors, but not recurrence of original breast cancer among survivors).
      64,640 new cases of in situ breast cancer (includes ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), of those, about 85 percent will be DCIS). DCIS is a non-invasive breast cancer and LCIS is a condition that increases the risk of invasive breast cancer. Learn more about DCIS and LCIS.
      39,620 breast cancer deaths.

      Rates of breast cancer among women vary by:

      Age

      Race/ethnicity
      African American
      Ashkenazi Jewish
      Asian American and Pacific Islander
      Hispanic/Latina
      American Indian and Alaskan Native

      Specific populations

      Lesbian, gay and bisexual women
      Transgender people
      Pregnant women

      Men

      Breast cancer in men is rare, but it does happen. In 2013, it is estimated that among U.S. men there will be :

      2,240 new cases of breast cancer.
      410 breast cancer deaths.

      Rates of breast cancer incidence (new cases, including new cases of primary breast cancer among survivors, but not recurrence of original breast cancer among survivors) and mortality (death) are much lower among men than among women.

      http://ww5.komen.org/BreastCancer/Statistics.html#US

      You can gather this information simply by entering "breast cancer statistics" into your favorite search engine.

  3. QUESTION:
    Does most women with stage 2a breast cancer always have a recurrence?
    I know that it is rare for stage 1 breast cancer to come back later and metastasize, but is it for stage 2a breast cancer? Stage 2a means no lymph nodes involved.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry, but your statement is very incorrect. This is from the National Cancer Institute:

      Stages of Breast Cancer
      Key Points for This Section

      After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the breast or to other parts of the body.
      There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
      The following stages are used for breast cancer:
      Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ)
      Stage I
      Stage IIA
      Stage IIB
      Stage IIIA
      Stage IIIB
      Stage IIIC
      Stage IV

      After breast cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the breast or to other parts of the body.

      The process used to find out whether the cancer has spread within the breast or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment.

      There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

      The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:

      Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
      Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
      Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.
      When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.

      The following stages are used for breast cancer:

      Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ)

      There are 2 types of breast carcinoma in situ:

      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, DCIS may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues, although it is not known at this time how to predict which lesions will become invasive.
      Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lobules of the breast. This condition seldom becomes invasive cancer; however, having lobular carcinoma in situ in one breast increases the risk of developing breast cancer in either breast.
      Enlarge

      Pea, peanut, walnut, and lime show tumor sizes.

      Stage I

      In stage I, cancer has formed. The tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has not spread outside the breast.

      Stage IIA

      In stage IIA:

      no tumor is found in the breast, but cancer is found in the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm); or
      the tumor is 2 centimeters or smaller and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes; or
      the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.

      So, there is also no concrete evidence that it is "RARE" for stage I breast cancer to "come back" and "metastasize." When cancer "comes back," it is called a recurrence. When it has "metastasized," that means it has spread to another organ. These are two different situations.

      There are women who had been dx'd with stage 0 or stage I breast cancer, and leapt to stage IV in the blink of an eye.

      You just can't assume that stage I means a person is in the clear.

      Cancer doesn't play favorites. It may never come back for a woman who was diagnosed originally as a stage IIIb. This is why it is crucial for women to be extreme advocates for themselves and be in tune with their bodies.

      By the way, I was diagnosed as a stage IIa/IIb, and I fully intend on NOT having it come back.

  4. QUESTION:
    Does everyone with breast cancer receive a bone scan?
    For everyone who has had breast cancer, when you were first diagnosed with breast cancer did your doctors have you to take a bone scan? Is it necessary for a person who has been newly diagnosed with breast cancer to have a bone scan?

    • ANSWER:
      Unless you are diagnosed with DCIS or LCIS it is standard procedure to have a bone scan.

  5. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to have a breast removed if you have breast cancer?
    I don't know if this sounds stupid...but if I had breast cancer, I would rather them just remove my breast and me be flat chested than to die of cancer. Does this even happen? Could it happen? Why or why not?
    So now that i know they do it.. does this cure the cancer ? Like... instead of having radiation and chemo is it an option just to have your breast removed?? and would they remove both so it wouldn't look wierd?

    • ANSWER:
      I had dcis, I was not given the option.
      I was told a mastectomy had to be performed.
      A person who has a breast removed due to cancer
      has an option of wearing a prosthesis or reconstruction.
      I chose to do reconstruction of removed breast.
      In my case it cured the cancer.
      That was 4 years ago.
      I did not require chemo or radiation after mastectomy.

  6. QUESTION:
    What does breast cancer feel like?
    Could you tell me where in the breast the lumps occur, what they feel like, etc.?
    What are some other symptoms of breast cancer? Are hair loss and tremors some symptoms?
    At what age can you get breast cancer?
    Any other info I should know?
    Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm a ten year survivor of breast cancer. Here goes.
      Tumours can occur in any part of the breast. Generally they are not painful at the outset. The one form of breast cancer that is painful from the start is a nasty little beast known as Inflammatory breast cancer. All women's breasts are somewhat lumpy and nodular to the touch. This is why monthly breast self examination after age twenty is recommended. The woman becomes familiar with the normal look and feel of her breasts, and any changes become immediately apparent ( lumps, orange peel skin, thickening etc.) Mine felt like a large kidney bean that was not too mobile. Cancer usually anchors itself to the blood stream somewhere. Hair loss is not a symptom of breast cancer. It 's a side effect of chemotherapy. Tremors are not a sign of breast cancer either.

      Breast cancer in women under thirty is rare. 1% of all cases in the US occur in women under thirty. I was 43 and considered young for breast cancer.

      A good reference is found here.

      Risk Factors

      When you're told that you have breast cancer, it's natural to wonder what may have caused the disease. But no one knows the exact causes of breast cancer. Doctors seldom know why one woman develops breast cancer and another doesn't.

      Doctors do know that bumping, bruising, or touching the breast does not cause cancer. And breast cancer is not contagious. You can't catch it from another person.

      Doctors also know that women with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop breast cancer. A risk factor is something that may increase the chance of getting a disease.

      Some risk factors (such as drinking alcohol) can be avoided. But most risk factors (such as having a family history of breast cancer) can't be avoided.

      Studies have found the following risk factors for breast cancer:

      * Age: The chance of getting breast cancer increases as you get older. Most women are over 60 years old when they are diagnosed.

      * Personal health history: Having breast cancer in one breast increases your risk of getting cancer in your other breast. Also, having certain types of abnormal breast cells (atypical hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], or ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS]) increases the risk of invasive breast cancer. These conditions are found with a breast biopsy.

      * Family health history: Your risk of breast cancer is higher if your mother, father, sister, or daughter had breast cancer. The risk is even higher if your family member had breast cancer before age 50. Having other relatives (in either your mother's or father's family) with breast cancer or ovarian cancer may also increase your risk.

      * Certain genome changes: Changes in certain genes, such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, substantially increase the risk of breast cancer. Tests can sometimes show the presence of these rare, specific gene changes in families with many women who have had breast cancer, and health care providers may suggest ways to try to reduce the risk of breast cancer or to improve the detection of this disease in women who have these genetic changes.

      Also, researchers have found specific regions on certain chromosomes that are linked to the risk of breast cancer. If a woman has a genetic change in one or more of these regions, the risk of breast cancer may be slightly increased. The risk increases with the number of genetic changes that are found. Although these genetic changes are more common among women than BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of breast cancer is far lower.
      * Radiation therapy to the chest: Women who had radiation therapy to the chest (including the breasts) before age 30 are at an increased risk of breast cancer. This includes women treated with radiation for Hodgkin lymphoma. Studies show that the younger a woman was when she received radiation treatment, the higher her risk of breast cancer later in life.

      * Reproductive and menstrual history:
      o The older a woman is when she has her first child, the greater her chance of breast cancer.
      o Women who never had children are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
      o Women who had their first menstrual period before age 12 are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
      o Women who went through menopause after age 55 are at an increased risk of breast cancer.
      o Women who take menopausal hormone therapy for many years have an increased risk of breast cancer.

      * Race: In the United States, breast cancer is diagnosed more often in white women than in African American/black, Hispanic/Latina, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native women.

      * Breast density: Breasts appear on a mammogram (breast x-ray) as having areas of dense and fatty (not dense) tissue. Women whose mammograms show a larger area of dense tissue than the mammograms of women of the same age are at increased risk of breast cancer.

      * History of taking DES: DES was given

  7. QUESTION:
    how fast does grade 2 breast cancer spread?
    My mom was diagnosed with breast cancer. There was a slightly swollen lymph node in her armpit that tested positive as well. She has idc and dcis (both apparently in the same tumor). The tumor is 2 cm and grade 2. My question is what are the chances the cancer has metasized to her bones and organs?

    • ANSWER:
      The tumor grade determines its aggressiveness but it can’t be used to predict how far the cancer has spread. She will need a bone and PET scan for that.

  8. QUESTION:
    What are my chances of getting breast cancer when I'm older?
    Well, I'm actually only 15 right now, but both my aunt and grandmother have had breast cancer. I know I'm still waaay too young to even be thinking about this, but I'm pretty curious. They survived it, but does this make my chances super-high? My mom's unrelated to both of them, so maybe that decreases it...?

    • ANSWER:
      My maternal great-aunt had breast cancer (it did not kill her) and although I don't know of anyone else in my family that has had it, I was diagnosed with stage 0 DCIS last month. I had a lumpectomy and am currently undergoing radiation treatment...I'm 44.

      Having it in your family doesn't ensure you will get it, and not having it in your family doesn't mean you will not. Just make sure you get a baseline mammogram in your mid to late 30s, and then yearly ones from age 40 on. It was my mammogram this year that found my tiny little issue...it was too small to be felt.

      Try not to worry about it...you may never develop cancer, and even if you do the treatments available are so far advanced from what they once were, and 'cure' is high when caught early enough.

  9. QUESTION:
    Is DCIS breast cancer hereditary?
    My 29 year old sister has been diagnosed with DCIS breast cancer and I am wondering if I should have some type of screening done, there are also other family members who have had breast cancer on my fathers side of the family.

    • ANSWER:
      Only about 5-10% of all breast cancers are hereditary. However, because your sister is so young there is concern for the possibility. You do not mention your age or which family members had cancer or how old they were at diagnosis. The answers to these questions also help determine the likelihood. It also helps to know if any were males or if anyone had ovarian cancer.

      I’m sure your sister’s oncologist will be going over all of this with her. They should have your sister tested to see if she has one of the BRCA genes. It is much easier and less expensive to check a known cancer patient.. If she tests positive then you should also be tested. If she tests negative than you do not need to be tested, as it is not hereditary.

      However, even if it is not hereditary you would still be at a higher risk for breast cancer and therefore you should begin screening now. Screening is not normally recommended for women until the age of 40 so if you are younger than 40 be clear with your doctor about your family history. If you are under 30-35 it you may need a few testes as the breast tissue in younger women is usually too dense to see anything on mammogram.

  10. QUESTION:
    is it possible to die at stage 0 of breast cancer?
    my neighbor has type 0 breast cancer. Is it possible she can die?

    please help me!

    • ANSWER:
      Stage 0 can either be DCIS or LCIS and both require treatment. It is only possible to die from either one if it is ignored.

  11. QUESTION:
    what is mastectomy when you have breast cancer what do a mastectomy have to do with breast cancer?
    when you have breast cancer what is mastectomy what do mastectomy have to do with breast cancer do it means that you have to get your breast cut off is it a surgery term

    • ANSWER:
      A mastectomy is performed on a patient when cancer shows up in the the breast.
      If it cannot be treated by lumpectomy, followed by radiation, or chemotherapy, then a mastectomy
      is performed to prevent cancer from spreading in to the lymph nodes to other parts of body.
      In my case I had DCIS where the only option was a mastectomy with no further treatment required.

  12. QUESTION:
    Will past breast cancer affect my life insurance options through my new employer?
    I just started a new job and I am trying to decide if I should choose a lower life insurance option that does not require the evidence of insurability form, or take the risk of applying for the higher insurance that I really want. I had DCIS a year and a half ago which was fully cured with mastectomy. I needed no chemo or radiation and had a clean 1/year check up. Has anyone had the experience of being rejected by a life insurance co for similar reasons?

    • ANSWER:
      From my experience, cancer is a definite thing not to have in your history if you want life insurance. My husband had testicular cancer, a seminoma, with 97-100% cure rate and he can't get any extra life insurance through his employer or buy another policy. Most recently, he applied for and was denied disability insurance through state farm insurance. Given that breast cancer has a lower survival rate, I would think if my husband wasn't approved, you most likely wouldn't be either. And his cancer was in 2000 and his five year mark was three years ago. But, with that said, it can't hurt to try. The most they can say is no.

  13. QUESTION:
    My mother was diagnoise with breast cancer in 2001. The name of the breast cancer that is in her left breast i
    The name of the breast cancer that is in her left breast is Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma. There is a lump on her right breast now. The question I am trying to ask is it okay for her to get a biospy on the lump that is on her right breast.

    • ANSWER:
      definately is a strong connection that first cancer has migrated if first cancer is not in situ the type of cancer your mum has is non evasive but always best to get checked
      Ductal carcinoma is a very common type of breast cancer in women. It comes in two forms: infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC), an invasive cell type; and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a noninvasive cancer.

      DCIS is the most common type of noninvasive breast cancer in women. Ductal carcinoma refers to the development of cancer cells within the milk ducts of the breast. In situ means "in place" and refers to the fact that the cancer has not moved out of the duct and into any surrounding tissue.

      As screening mammography has become more widespread, DCIS has become one of the most commonly diagnosed breast conditions. It is often referred to as "stage zero breast cancer." In countries where screening mammography is uncommon, DCIS is sometimes diagnosed at a later stage, but in countries where screening mammography is widespread, it is usually diagnosed on a mammogram when it is so small that it has not formed a lump. DCIS is not painful or dangerous, and it does not metastasize unless it first develops into invasive cancer

  14. QUESTION:
    If you have breast cancer do you HAVE to get your breast removed?
    is there another option? we have been learning about this in my health class and im jjust wondering. and also could you get breast implants to replace your lost breast, and would they be able to replace the nipple and aerolia too?

    • ANSWER:
      The surgery recommended depends on the individual's particular cancer; the size of the tumour and whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes are just some of the factors taken into consideration when deciding whether to recommend mastectomy (removal of the breast) or lumpectomy.

      I had a mastectomy. Given the position of my tumour, a lumpectomy probably wouldn't have had very satisfactory results aesthetically, but the main reason for removing my breast was that in addition to the tumour and cancerous lymph nodes, the breast had widespread ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which means precancerous cells.

      Breast reconstruction is a possibility in many cases, which can include a 'nipple'; and some people choose to have areola tattooed onto the reconstructed breast.

      I personally decided against reconstruction. What many people don't realise is that breast reconstruction is a huge operation, much more so than a mastectomy. It is major surgery that takes many hours to complete (between 9 and 14 hours depending on the type of reconstruction was the information I had & years ago), and is not always successful - I have known a few women whose reconstructed breasts had to be removed - more surgery. I decided once under the knife was enough for me.

      Why on earth were they teaching you about breast cancer in health class? Are they also teaching you about prostate cancer and Alzheimer's - two more conditions that you won't have to worry about until you are very, very much older.

      We are always seeing questions on here from teenage girls terrified they have breast cancer because of lessons in school.

      I hope whoever delivered your class gave you these facts: breast cancer is almost unheard of in under 25s, a girl aged 16 - 19 has less than a one in one million chance of developing it (which means that she is statistically more than twice as likely to be struck by lightning), and the risk to a girl under 16 is statistically zero.

      Fewer than 0.1% of all those diagnosed with breast cancer are under 30, and only 5% are under 40. Most (80%) are over 50 and the average age at diagnosis is a little over 60.

      I also very much hope they told you that at your age you should NOT be doing breast checks - they'll tell you nothing and worry you unnecessarily. The American Cancer Society and all other responsible and reputable cancer organisations recommend that women begin breast self examination at no younger than 20, if then; and some cancer professionals say 30. Before that it's pointless; firstly because there are so many hormonal changes that there is no 'normal' - and self examination is about a woman knowing what's normal for her and reporting any changes. And secondly because the chance of breast cancer is almost nil.

  15. QUESTION:
    2 suspicious clusters of pleomorphic calcifications found on one breast only during mammogram?
    Cancer blood test was negative. Mammogram showed these. Biopsy was done and results r in but doctor hasn't signed the waiver for them to be released yet. Does this always mean cancer? If so, what is the likely type and stage? Does it only mean there is a chance? R they usually malignant or benign? Is it more likely that they r cancerous or non-cancerous? What is normally done if they r cancerous? What is normally done if they r not cancerous? Only serious answers with reliable resources please!

    • ANSWER:
      I know I already answered your question as there are few people who believe there is such a thing as a “cancer blood test”.
      Doctors don’t need to sign waivers for a patient to get medical records.
      Stage is not determined by biopsy. If it is cancer it is likely ductal carcinoma or DCIS because most breast cancers are.
      Yes they are “usually” malignant or benign. Can you think of any other possibility?

  16. QUESTION:
    is having a prophylactic mastectomy a good idea?
    I had dcis in 2006' had lumpectomy 2 times counting that first time, my mother has just been diagnoised with breast cancer. I had the gene test done, waiting on results. I just want to know if I can have a prophylactic mastectomy since I have already been diagnosed with cancer. I had radiation, and am now on tamoxifen. thanks for any advice I can get.

    • ANSWER:
      in my opinion, you have made a difficult and courageous step. and i believe you are doing the right thing. i believe one day very soon i will be in the same boat as you. my mom and my granny both had BRCA and i want a prophylactic mastectomy as well. but i have not gotten the gene testing yet.
      the reconstruction options these days are truly amazing.
      however, prophylactic means just that...preventive. and since you have been diagnosed with ductal, i don't know how your doctor/insurance would view it.
      when you talked with your oncologist, what did he/she say?
      it may be just a matter of wording on the insurance forms/claims by your physician.

  17. QUESTION:
    Where would one find information about forms of breast cancer?
    I believe it is called infiltrating ductile carcinoma. I am not sure about the spelling, but I think it is close. I just need information, and where to find said information for reference.

    • ANSWER:
      Mammary ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer in women. It comes in two forms: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissue and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a noninvasive, possibly malignant neoplasm that is still confined to the lactiferous ducts, where breast cancer most often originates.
      Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). IDC accounts for about 70 percent of all breast cancers. The cancer cells form in the lining of your milk duct, then break through the ductal wall and invade nearby breast tissue. The cancer cells may remain localized — staying near the site of origin — or spread (metastasize) throughout your body, carried by your bloodstream or lymphatic system.

  18. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know what a "blood filled vascular lesion" of the breast is?
    My 25 yr old daughter had an ultrasound today because she found a lump in the underside of one of her breasts (she's been nursing for 5 mos.) She was told it's a "blood filled vascular lesion" and will have to see a surgeon. Since I went through breast cancer last year (non-invasive DCIS) and radiation, I have some concerns...... I find info online about "vascular lesions", but not blood filled. Any info would be appreciated.

    • ANSWER:

  19. QUESTION:
    Why do some women have to have mastectomy for DCIS if its a non invasive cancer?
    That is confined to the milk ducts in the breast.
    Please dont post to use nolvadex .......... That is up to doctor. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      You are a frequent contributor here with an excellent knowledge base.
      The reason women opt for mastectomy is the higher risk of a recurrence
      in the breast after lumpectomy alone - 25 to 30%.
      http://www.breastcancer.org/symptoms/types/dcis/
      "DCIS isn’t life-threatening, but having DCIS can increase the risk of
      developing an invasive breast cancer later on.
      When you have had DCIS, you are at higher risk for the cancer coming
      back or for developing a new breast cancer than a person who has never
      had breast cancer before. Most recurrences happen within the 5 to 10
      years after initial diagnosis. The chances of a recurrence are under 30%.
      Women who have breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy) for DCIS
      without radiation therapy have about a 25% to 30% chance of having a
      recurrence at some point in the future. Including radiation therapy in the
      treatment plan after surgery drops the risk of recurrence to about 15%.
      If breast cancer does come back after earlier DCIS treatment,
      the recurrence is non-invasive (DCIS again) about half the time
      and invasive about half the time. (DCIS itself is NOT invasive.)
      According to the American Cancer Society, about 60,000 cases of DCIS
      are diagnosed in the United States each year, accounting for about
      1 out of every 5 new breast cancers."

      So Susie, the answer is prevention.
      And women do not "have" to have a mastectomy.
      It is an option that should be discussed.
      Then the woman makes the choice for her own safety and peace of mind.

  20. QUESTION:
    how likely is it to get cancer from radiotherapy?
    My aunty had DCIS in her left breast, after lumpectomy, she needs to have six weeks of radiotherapy, but the doctor mentioned cancer as one of the several long-term side effects that might happen becasue of radiotherapy. Im just worried, how likely is it to get cancer from it? is radiotherapy really dangerous? will it shorten your life?

    • ANSWER:
      Our radiation oncologist and breast oncologist will tell you exactly what the probability the chances are that you will get cancer from this treatment. As I recall it is less than 5% chance of that happening. The chance that it will prevent cancer from returning is much greater, so most people will use radiation as insurance that cancer will not return.

      What is important when fighting any cancer is to do whatever you can at the initial diagnosis to keep it from returning.

      Less than 5% is something we could live with.

  21. QUESTION:
    What stage were you when you found out you had breast cancer?
    How did you find out & what stage were you at? What treatments did they give you & did they work?

    • ANSWER:
      I was one of the "lucky" ones. I had an area of dense tissue that my OB thought I should get checked out (I had just weaned my 14 month old son). The breast surgeon didn't find anything on the ultrasound but wanted to do a biopsy while she had me there. The biopsy found stage 0 DCIS. Crazy, it wasn't even related to the dense tissue (which ended up being just dense tissue). A mammogram showed it scattered throughout my entire breast.

      I had a mastectomy and thankfully the biopsied nodes where clear so no further treatment was needed. Now I get exams from my breast surgeon and ob every 6 months and mammograms every 6 months.

      I was only 28!

  22. QUESTION:
    My friend has been diagnosed with breast cancer. If you've had the same experience, can you provide any tips?
    Maybe some advice on what to expect or tips and tricks on how to make things go easier...possibly something the doctors or nurses forget to tell you? I do not know a lot of specifics yet but, if you could just post any helpful information you have, she would most appreciate it. She is almost 44.

    • ANSWER:
      There are many types of breast cancer. could you possibly say which type.
      She should have you with her. A patient when told she has breast cancer don't take it all in what the doctor is saying.
      Bring a notepad & pen with you if you choose to go to doctors appt with her.
      The doctor will tell her step by step as she goes along with treatment.
      I know how she feels i was diagnosed 4 yrs ago with DCIS ( Ductal Incarcinoma Insitu ) --- a non invasive breast cancer unless left unchecked for a period of 3 to 5 years.
      The treatment for me was mastectomy & I also chose breast reconstruction followed by no further treatment.
      If she has DCIS I can help her step by step on what to expect.
      I am a survivor & so will she .
      The advice --- Be with your friend & help her through the fears she may have.
      There are really no tricks --- Just follow the doctors orders.
      If she smokes quit.
      Today I was told ----- I am being released by my oncologist after 4 long years. I am breast cancer free.

  23. QUESTION:
    How to define breast cancer stage ?
    Overall lump size is 2.6 cm, found both IDC and DCIS, and nodes negative. What is her stage?

    • ANSWER:
      Assuming there are no mets, it would be a stage IIA.

  24. QUESTION:
    I have a question about Robin Roberts from Good Morning America?
    When Robin Roberts was first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2007 does anyone know what stage her breast cancer was in?

    • ANSWER:
      It was in the "early stage", Robin said she was originally told it was DCIS. Her SNB was clear but the final path report upgraded her to Stage 1 or 2.

  25. QUESTION:
    What are the seven levels of classification for breast cancer?
    I am doing a project and i need help!!!!! i cant find squat!!!!! i need the levels to be from the original SEVEN levels please!!!!!

    • ANSWER:
      Stage 0
      Stage 0 is used to describe non-invasive breast cancers, such as DCIS and LCIS. In stage 0, there is no evidence of cancer cells or non-cancerous abnormal cells breaking out of the part of the breast in which they started, or of getting through to or invading neighboring normal tissue.

      Stage I
      Stage I describes invasive breast cancer (cancer cells are breaking through to or invading neighboring normal tissue) in which:

      the tumor measures up to 2 centimeters, AND
      no lymph nodes are involved
      Stage II
      Stage II is divided into subcategories known as IIA and IIB.

      Stage IIA describes invasive breast cancer in which:

      no tumor can be found in the breast, but cancer cells are found in the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm), OR
      the tumor measures 2 centimeters or less and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, OR
      the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes
      Stage IIB describes invasive breast cancer in which:

      the tumor is larger than 2 but no larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, OR
      the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters but has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes
      Larger VersionStage III
      Stage III is divided into subcategories known as IIIA, IIIB, and IIIC.

      Stage IIIA describes invasive breast cancer in which either:

      no tumor is found in the breast. Cancer is found in axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone, OR
      the tumor is 5 centimeters or smaller and has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures, OR
      the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures
      Stage IIIB describes invasive breast cancer in which:

      the tumor may be any size and has spread to the chest wall and/or skin of the breast AND
      may have spread to axillary lymph nodes that are clumped together or sticking to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone
      Inflammatory breast cancer is considered at least stage IIIB.
      Stage IIIC describes invasive breast cancer in which:

      there may be no sign of cancer in the breast or, if there is a tumor, it may be any size and may have spread to the chest wall and/or the skin of the breast, AND
      the cancer has spread to lymph nodes above or below the collarbone, AND
      the cancer may have spread to axillary lymph nodes or to lymph nodes near the breastbone
      Stage IV
      Stage IV describes invasive breast cancer in which:

      the cancer has spread to other organs of the body -- usually the lungs, liver, bone, or brain
      "Metastatic at presentation" means that the breast cancer has spread beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes, even though this is the first diagnosis of breast cancer. The reason for this is that the primary breast cancer was not found when it was only inside the breast. Metastatic cancer is considered stage IV.

      EDIT: Now, there is ONLY 4 stages, but different levels within the stages, which I didn't even know!

  26. QUESTION:
    Can someone die of cancer and not even know they had it?
    I'm writing a story and its about a woman who has cancer. I would like to know if someone can die of cancer without eve knowing they had it. It can be any type of cancer. I need to know the symptoms and anything else about please. Thanks
    Does someone know what the symptoms of breast cancer are? And thanks for all the answers they're a lot of help.

    • ANSWER:
      Symptoms of breast cancer ........... Any sudden change or appearance of breast
      Lump felt by woman during self breast examination
      Dimpling
      Inverted Nipple
      Breast Cancer is not normally painful.
      A person who does not know they have cancer will come to know in middle to end stage cancer.
      Symptoms will show up making patient aware some thing is wrong
      I had breast cancer for two years before it was diagnosed by my oncologist.
      I was not aware that I had breast cancer ( Ductal Incarcinoma Insitu )
      With DCIS patient doesnt normally feel a lump
      Another cancer that patient dont feel in beginning stages is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.
      Lung & bone cancer will probably be felt by patient in early to middle stages.
      Oral Cancer is usually discovered by your dentist or patient sees that there are abnormal
      Lesions in mouth.
      Colon Cancer usually warrants patient to go to doctor for changes or blood in bowel movement.
      Cancer Of The Heart ... http://www.ygoy.com/index.php/heart-cancer-symptoms/
      Uterine Cancer ... Abnormal Bleeding from Vagina or spotting, Pain when emptying bladder.
      Pain during sex.
      Anal Cancer ... . http://www.medicinenet.com/anal_cancer/page2.htm#symptoms
      Any cancer that a patient does not feel right away is usually in middle to end stages. At this point some cancer patients can be saved but some are not.
      All these cancers above the patient will die if he/she is not aware of the symptoms.& does not go see a doctor.
      Most patients are aware of the fact that they do have cancer due to the symptoms that they become aware of.
      I could go on & on but hope this helps.

  27. QUESTION:
    Does taking Tamoxifen really benefit women with DCIS?
    Is it worth taking Tamoxifen to prevent recurrence of DCIS if your DCIS is ER and PR positive? If you put the risks and benefits on a balance, do the benefits outweigh the risks? I understand the benefit is quite small.

    • ANSWER:
      It is true that the benefits outweigh the risks for most patients, but it is also true that the benefits are small for all patients. In the large NSABP-B24 trial, where patients were randomized to either tamoxifen versus placebo (after all had undergone lumpectomy and radiation), patients were followed for breast events, defined as a new/recurrent breast cancer (DCIS or invasive) in the same breast, new lesion in other breast, or any metastasis. Patients took tamoxifen (TAM) for 5 years.
      Results: Events by 5 years on TAM 13.4% vs 8.2% on placebo. Risk of developing invasive breast cancer on same side by 5 years on TAM 2.1% vs placebo 4.2%. Risk of other breast developing cancer decreased from 0.8% on placebo to 0.4% on TAM.

      As you can see, odds are pretty good doing placebo, but they do really improve on TAM. You have to add in the costs financially and from side effects to make best decision. Most patients do OK on it but many have hormonal problems that disrupt life. One option is to just try it and if you don't like it, stop. I find it more useful in patients who have had a series of biopsies or multiple mammograms/ultrasounds because of breast abnormalities in addition to their DCIS, as these patients' lives may improve if we can decrease the incidence of breast abnormalities (less biopsies, xrays, costs, anxiety, etc).

      Also, another way to look at it. Reduction in breast events is ~5%. This means you have to treat 20 patients with TAM to help one benefit. To prevent one new invasive cancer from developing (risk dropped from 4.2 to 2.1% so ~2% difference), you would have to treat 50 patients.

      Hope all this helps.

      Blessings

      Edit: I do not mean to suggest the downsides outweigh the benefits, as Lily feels. Just that the benefits really are small overall and many women feel this decision has far more weight than it really does. This medicine can help reduce future problems (such as needing future surgery) but it has not been shown to affect survival or save lives (because the problems this medicine prevents are overwhelmingly cured with later surgery if medicine not taken). Statistically, it is beneficial, and it IS worth trying, but probably not worth ruining your quality of life over if not tolerated.

  28. QUESTION:
    How bad are we talking here? One of the women I work with was diagnosed with breast cancer...?
    At first it was called DCIS but they found more. Now they had to remove one of her breasts and the cancer is in her lymph nodes and muscles. Is this stage III already?? She's only 34. She is starting chemo and radiation.

    • ANSWER:
      DCIS stands for ductal carcinoma in situ. That is the earliest stage. This can be easily treated. In many cases, there does not need to be any adjuvant therapy.

      How it got from that to spreading to her lymph nodes and muscles that quickly sounds fishy. Perhaps, it was not really DCIS.

      Lymph node involvement is never good. I don't know the exact specifics of ther case. It could be stage III.

      I would suspect that chemotherapy (doxorubicin/adriamycin) and radiation are the standard treatment after surgery. Maybe a hormone blocker like Tamoxifen or Femara if she is ER+.

      Cannot say how bad but, remissions can be achieved.

  29. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know the name of the website that shows the new breast exam alternative to mammograms?

    It's when your breasts are submerged in water.

    • ANSWER:
      Maybe it is just me, but a tumor has to be pretty frikking big to produce enough heat to set off a thermogram. Thermography was attempted in the late 70s/early 80s but was deemed not effective at fining early stage breast cancers.

      Evidence of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) is as little as 2 millimeters in size. There is no temperature change in a *not yet* tumor of that size...at this stage it is only an atypia of cells. Mammography is the ONLY breast imaging modality to find DCIS.

      Don't hold your breath for this technology...breast imaging is governed by the FDA. It will take DECADES for the FDA to approve a totally new breast imaging technology.

  30. QUESTION:
    Is anybody out there had dcis{breast cancer and is now a breast cancer survivor?
    Just wondering if anybody had dcis

    • ANSWER:
      There are about 60,000 cases of DCIS each year and unless they leave it untreated they all survive.

  31. QUESTION:
    Can a person relapse from cancer even if the cancer has been in remission for 50 years?
    Someone told me that they have heard of someone relapsing from the disease even after 50 years of being diagnosed. Is this possible?
    Is a person really considered cured after 10 of being in remission of cancer
    What i meant to say is a person really considered cured of cancer after being in remission for 10 years?

    • ANSWER:
      I have never seen one recur 50 years later, but I have seen melanoma recur more than 40 years later, so yes it is possible. It isn’t unusual to see melanoma recur 20-30 years later, or breast cancer recur 20 years later, kidney recur 10-20 years later, etc., etc. and they are not new cancers they are recurrences.

      When a person is considered cured depends on the kind of cancer you are referring to, the location and the extent of the disease. For example someone with DCIS is considered cured immediately after treatment. Some colon cancers are considered cured during the colonoscopy.

      When cure cannot be determined it is referred to as disease free.

  32. QUESTION:
    what does it mean when you have fluid coming out your breast?
    everytime i squeeze my breast a clear liquid will come out.

    • ANSWER:
      By Mayo Clinic staff

      Nipple discharge refers to any fluid that seeps out of the nipple in a nonlactating woman. Nonmilk discharge comes out of your breasts through the same nipple openings that carry milk.

      One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your nipples or breasts. A nipple discharge may look milky, or it may be yellow, green, brown or bloody. The consistency of nipple discharge varies from thick and sticky to thin and watery.

      Possible causes of nipple discharge include:

      * Abscess
      * Breast cancer
      * Breast infection
      * Excessive breast stimulation
      * Fibroadenoma
      * Fibrocystic breasts
      * Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
      * Galactorrhea
      * Hormone imbalance
      * Injury or trauma to the breast
      * Intraductal papilloma
      * Mammary duct ectasia
      * Medication use
      * Paget's disease of the breast
      * Pregnancy
      * Prolactinoma

      You need to have this condition checked by a doctor

      good luck

  33. QUESTION:
    Is calcium deposits in the breast necessarily a form of breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      No they are calcium.
      They can indicate DCIS. It would say so in your report.

  34. QUESTION:
    What are the ocular side effects of the medicine tamoxifen?

    • ANSWER:
      Hope this helps... I put the web site where I got the info fron just incase you wanna go look at it.. Good Luck!

      GENERIC NAME: tamoxifen
      BRAND NAME: Nolvadex
      DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen (blocks the effect of estrogen on tissue). The precise mechanism of its action is unknown, but one possible mechanism is that it binds and blocks estrogen receptors on the surface of cells, preventing estrogens from binding and activating the cell. It is used in patients for treating and preventing breast cancer. Controversy currently exists as to which breast cancer patients will benefit from this treatment.

      PRESCRIPTION: yes

      GENERIC AVAILABLE: no

      PREPARATIONS: 10mg oral tablets.

      STORAGE: Store in a dry place at 15-30°C (59-86°F).

      PRESCRIBED FOR: Tamoxifen is used for the treatment of invasive breast cancer, the most common type of breast cancer, following surgery and/or radiation and for preventing invasive breast cancer in women at high risk for developing it. Tamoxifen also is used for the treatment of women following surgery and radiation for a less common type of breast cancer called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS or intraductal carcinoma). Women who have had ductal carcinoma in situ are at high risk for developing invasive breast cancer at a later date, and tamoxifen prevents development of the invasive cancer in almost half of the women during the first five years of treatment. Occasionally, tamoxifen is used to stimulate ovulation.

      DOSING: Tamoxifen should be taken at doses specifically directed by the physician. Currently, long term dosing is recommended (in excess of 2 years). Tamoxifen can be taken with food.

      DRUG INTERACTIONS: Tamoxifen can cause abnormalities of liver tests and other blood tests, and patients taking it should keep appointments for blood work to monitor for these side effects. Patients should report any suspected side effects immediately, especially bleeding and yellowing of the skin.

      SIDE EFFECTS: The most common side effects associated with tamoxifen are: hot flashes, weight gain, abnormal menstrual periods, and nausea.

  35. QUESTION:
    I have lost more than 6 dress sizes and have also had a diagnoses of breast calcifications.?
    My question is, is the weight loss because of the calcifications?

    • ANSWER:
      Congratulations on the weight loss, but is won't have cause the calcifications, see below for what it may be...

      Breast cystsCell secretions or debris
      Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)FibroadenomaMammary duct ectasiaMastitisPrevious injury to the breast
      Previous radiation therapy for cancer
      Skin (dermal) or blood vessel (vascular) calcification

      Have a look at the mayoclinic.com for more info.

      Very best of luck.

  36. QUESTION:
    What treatment is the best for Breast Cancer? HELP!!!?
    what is the best treatment for breast cancer for 40 year old women? My mom has cancer and she doesn't know what to do...
    well.... she HAS gone to the doctor already and the doctor told her to choose what she would like to do about it....(some doctor huh???)

    well....yah...
    She's in stage II by the way...

    • ANSWER:
      (m)

      Breast cancer is a complicated disease. Every woman's case is distinct. Your experience may be very different from those of friends or relatives who also had breast cancer. So there is no single "best" treatment. Only you and your team of health-care providers can work out the best approach for you. No matter what treatment you have, you will need regular checkups to make sure that you're staying healthy.
      Doctors evaluate a woman's breast cancer in part by determining how large the tumor is and how far it's spread. This is called staging. It's just a way of summarizing your current condition. There are five basic stages, 0 through IV, and a number of sub-stages.

      Staging doesn't tell the whole story. Other factors can affect your prognosis, such as the type of cancer, the speed with which the cancer is growing, your general health, your age, whether you had breast cancer before, and whether female hormones affect the cancer's growth.

      If you know the stage of the disease that you have, you can use this quick guide to see what kinds of treatments might help.

      Stage 0 Stage I Stage II Stage III Stage IV

      Stage 0 Treatment Options

      When needed, treatment for stage 0 breast cancer is very successful. The five-year survival rate is about 100%. This very early stage of the disease is not always actually cancer. Instead, it's often a precancerous condition. Treatment isn't always needed, and close observation may be enough. Treatments differ depending on what kind of stage 0 cancer you have. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or intraductal carcinoma is one type. In this condition, abnormal cells appear in the ducts of the breast. Sometimes, these cells become cancerous. That's why it's key to get treatment now. Here's a list of the typical treatments:

      Surgery is a standard. For smaller tumors, you might get a lumpectomy, in which only the abnormal cells and some of the tissue are removed. Some women choose a mastectomy, in which the entire breast is removed. After a mastectomy, you might choose to have breast reconstruction surgery.
      Radiation therapy is standard treatment after a lumpectomy. Radiation therapy attacks any abnormal cells that might have been missed and decreases the risk of another cancer.
      Hormone therapy with tamoxifen after surgery may also help prevent cancer from developing in the same or opposite breast.
      Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is the other type of stage 0 cancer. LCIS develops when abnormal cells appear in the lobes of the breast. Most women don't need treatment right away. However, LCIS raises the risk of getting cancer. So it's key to have frequent checkups with your doctor. Here are some treatment options:
      Hormone therapy with tamoxifen to lower the risk of developing cancer.
      Bilateral mastectomy -- the removal of both breasts -- is another option. Some women choose this approach because they are worried about getting cancer. They might have certain risk factors, like a strong family history of breast cancer. After surgery, you might choose to get breast reconstruction surgery. However, experts think that a bilateral mastectomy is a more extreme approach than women usually need.

      Stage I Treatment Options

      This is a very early stage of the disease. The cancer hasn't spread beyond the breast at all. So you have a number of good treatments to choose from. The five-year survival rate for women with stage I breast cancer is about 98%. This doesn't mean that these women will only live five years. Doctors just measure success rates for cancer treatment by seeing how women are doing five years after treatment. Women usually do well with a combination of treatments. Here are your basic options:

      Surgery is a standard. Since the tumor is still small, you may get a lumpectomy. In this procedure, just the tumor and some of the surrounding tissue are removed. Some women get a mastectomy, in which the whole breast is removed. In either case, the surgeon will likely take out one or more of the lymph nodes. After a mastectomy, you might choose to get breast reconstruction surgery. Surgery treats the disease of which we are aware. The other treatments of radiation, chemotherapy, and/or hormone therapy are considered "adjuvant" (added) treatments for occult (or hidden) disease. They are used to reduce risk of breast cancer recurrence.
      Radiation therapy is standard after a lumpectomy. It can kill off any cancer cells that were missed. Women with stage I cancer who get a mastectomy don't usually need radiation.
      Chemotherapy is treatment with drugs that attack cancer cells. It's often used after surgery to lower the risk of the cancer coming back. Women who had larger tumors are more likely to need it.
      Hormone therapy is sometimes used after surgery in women who have hormone receptor-positive cancer (tumors whose growth seems dependant on estrogen). In these women, medications can prevent the tumor from getting the hormone it needs to grow. These drugs include tamoxifen and newer aromatase inhibitors like Arimidex. Women who haven't reached menopause may consider having their ovaries removed to stop them from making hormones that help cancer grow. Again, women with larger tumors are more likely to need hormone therapy.
      Biological therapy is a new approach. In about 25% of women with breast cancer, an excess of a protein known as HER2 makes the cancer spread quickly. Herceptin is a new drug that's been approved to treat women with metastatic breast cancer that is HER2-positive. It stops this protein from making the cancer grow and makes chemotherapy more effective. It is most often used in combination with chemotherapy. Very recent studies have led to its use in early breast cancer.
      Clinical trials are open to many women with stage I cancer. A clinical trial may allow you access to cutting-edge treatments. Many new therapies -- new drugs, new treatments, and new combinations -- are in clinical trials now. Keep in mind that any successful treatment we have now started out in a clinical trial.

      Stage II Treatment Options

      With stage II breast cancer, the cancer is still contained within the breast and (in some cases) in nearby lymph nodes. Many treatments may help. The five-year survival rate for women with stage II cancer is estimated to be between 76% and 88%. It may be higher. This doesn't mean that these women will only live five years. Doctors just measure success rates for cancer treatment by seeing how women are doing five years after treatment. As with stage I cancer, you would likely use a combination of treatments.

      Surgery is standard. For smaller tumors, you might get a lumpectomy, in which only the tumor and some of the surrounding tissue are removed. For larger tumors, you might need a mastectomy, in which the entire breast is removed. In either case, the surgeon will likely remove some of the lymph nodes. After a mastectomy, you might get breast reconstruction surgery.
      Radiation therapy is standard for women who get a lumpectomy. It can kill cancer cells that were missed during surgery. Some women with stage II cancer who get a mastectomy will also need radiation, especially if the tumor was large.
      Chemotherapy is often used after surgery. This treatment can destroy any remaining cancer cells that were missed. Chemotherapy may also be used as neoadjuvant therapy -- treatment before surgery to shrink a tumor. If it works, the tumor might then be small enough to remove in a lumpectomy.
      Hormone therapy is sometimes used after surgery in women who have hormone receptor-positive cancer. In these women, medicines can prevent the tumor from getting the hormone it needs to grow. These drugs include tamoxifen and newer aromatase inhibitors like Arimidex. Women who haven't reached menopause may consider having their ovaries removed to stop them from making hormones that help cancer grow.
      Biological therapy is a new approach. In about 25% of women with breast cancer, an excess of a protein known as HER2 makes the cancer spread quickly. Herceptin is a new drug that's been approved to treat women with metastatic breast cancer that is HER2-positive. It stops this protein from making the cancer grow and makes chemotherapy more effective. It is most often used in combination with chemotherapy. Very recent studies have led to its use in early breast cancer.
      Clinical trials are open to many women with stage II cancer. A clinical trial may allow you access to cutting-edge treatments. Many new therapies -- new drugs, new treatments, and new combinations -- are in clinical trials now. Keep in mind that any successful treatment we have now started out in a clinical trial.

      Stage III Treatment Options

      In stage III, the cancer still hasn't spread far beyond the breast and nearby lymph nodes. So even though the breast cancer is more advanced, the five-year survival rate is still about 49% to 56%. This doesn't mean that these women will only live five years. Doctors just measure success rates for cancer treatment by seeing how women are doing five years after treatment. A combination of different treatments often works best.

      Chemotherapy is a common treatment. This approach can help destroy any cancer cells that remain after surgery. Chemotherapy may also be used before surgery. It can shrink the tumor to make it easier to remove. You would still need chemotherapy after surgery. In cases where surgery isn't an option, chemotherapy may be the main treatment.
      Surgery is an option for many women. You might get a lumpectomy, in which a surgeon removes the tumor and surrounding tissue from the breast. Or you might need a mastectomy, in which the whole breast is removed. The surgeon would also remove lymph nodes. After a mastectomy, you might choose to get breast reconstruction surgery. For larger tumors, you may need chemotherapy before surgery.
      Hormone therapy can help women with hormone receptor-positive cancers. In these women, medications can prevent the tumor from getting the hormone it needs to grow. These drugs include tamoxifen and newer aromatase inhibitors like Arimidex, Aromasin, or Femara. Hormone therapy may be used after surgery. It may also be used as a primary treatment if surgery isn't possible. Women who haven't reached menopause may consider having their ovaries removed to stop them from making hormones that help cancer grow.
      Biological therapy is a new approach. In about 25% of women with breast cancer, an excess of a protein known as HER2 makes the cancer spread quickly. Herceptin is a new drug that's been approved to treat women with metastatic breast cancer that is HER2-positive. It stops this protein from making the cancer grow and makes chemotherapy more effective. It is most often used in combination with chemotherapy. Very recent studies have led to its use in early breast cancer.
      Clinical trials are open to many women with stage II cancer. A clinical trial may allow you access to cutting-edge treatments. Many new therapies -- new drugs, new treatments, and new combinations -- are in clinical trials now. Keep in mind that any successful treatment we have now started out in a clinical trial.
      Radiation therapy is standard for women with stage III cancer who get surgery. Radiation can destroy any of the cancer cells that were missed.

      Stage IV Treatment Options

      In stage IV breast cancer, the cancer has spread elsewhere in the body. Affected areas may include the bones, brain, lungs, or liver. Because multiple areas may be involved, focused treatments like surgery or radiation alone are not sufficient. So far, treatment of stage IV breast cancer does not provide a cure for the disease. By shrinking the cancer, treatment can slow down the disease, make you feel better, and let you live longer. Although patients with stage IV breast cancer may live for years, it is usually life-threatening at some point. Many factors influence this.

      Here are some of the standard treatments:

      Chemotherapy , or treatment with cancer drugs, is often the main treatment. It can slow down the growth of the cancer. Chemotherapy is often used in combination with hormone therapy or immunotherapy.
      Hormone therapy can be key for women with hormone receptor-positive cancers. These are cancers that need hormones to grow. Tamoxifen has been used to block the effects of estrogen for decades. But newer drugs, like the aromatase inhibitors Arimidex and Femara, and the aromatase inactivator Aromasin, also show great promise. They reduce the amount of estrogen your body makes. By cutting off the supply of estrogen, you can choke the cancer and slow it down. Women who haven't reached menopause may consider having their ovaries removed to stop them from making hormones that help cancer grow.
      Biological therapy is a new approach. In about 25% of women with breast cancer, an excess of a protein known as HER2 makes the cancer spread quickly. Herceptin is a new drug that's been approved to treat women with metastatic breast cancer that is HER2-positive. It stops this protein from making the cancer cells grow. It may also boost your immune system, giving it the strength to fight the cancer itself. It is most often used in combination with chemotherapy.
      Clinical trials are open to many women with stage IV cancer. A clinical trial may allow you access to cutting-edge treatments. Many new therapies -- new drugs, new treatments, and new combinations -- are in clinical trials now. Keep in mind that any successful treatment we have now started out in a clinical trial.
      Surgery and radiation are used in some cases. These treatments aren't used to cure the cancer. But they may help treat pain and other symptoms in areas where the cancer has spread.
      Other drugs may also help treat some of the side effects of breast cancer treatment, such as nausea, fatigue, and infections.

  37. QUESTION:
    is there an alernative for Tamoxifen?
    I will be having 6 weeks of radiation for breast cancer(I had a lumpectomy) I am cancer free and was at stage 0. It was suggested that I take Tamoxifen I don't want to.

    • ANSWER:
      Stage 0 breast cancer is either ductal carcinoma in situ or lobular carcinoma in situ (DCIS or LCIS). It's main risk is of recurrence, and of progression to invasive cancer, either of which are quite curable when they are caught early when followed closely (as you will be after going through this now). In this case, Tamoxifen is basically your only choice- the other drugs are not FDA -approved for DCIS or for prevention indication.
      Assuming you have DCIS, taking tamoxifen does the following:

      Women who take tamoxifen have fewer breast cancer events (defined as new invasive or non-invasive breast tumors in either breast) at 5 years compared with doing nothing, 8.2% vs. 13.4%. With tamoxifen, developing invasive breast cancer in the same breast decreased from 4.2% to 2.1% at 5 years. Tamoxifen also decreased the incidence of other breast tumors (invasive and noninvasive) from 0.8% per year to 0.4% per year.
      So, as you can see, your relative risk is reduced by 40-50% in all cases, but your actual risk is low to start with. For example, looking at risk of having invasive breast cancer develop in your breast which had the DCIS, if you do nothing it is 4.2%. You can decrease this by 50%! with tamoxifen- sounds great, right? However, reducing 4.2 by 50% gives you 2.1%, which is only a 2.1% absolute decrease. This means that if 100 women with DCIS were followed over 5 years who did not take tamoxifen, ~4 would be expected to get an invasive cancer. If all those women took tamoxifen, then only ~2 would get it- not exactly a big decrease right?

      It is reasonable for your doctor to offer tamoxifen (I do too). But it is also reasonable for you to look at that information and not feel the risk:benefit ratio is right for you. ALternatively, you could try it and see how you like it- if all goes well, you can finish out your five year course.

      Either way, please discuss this further with your oncologist.

      Blessings

  38. QUESTION:
    Whats the risk of dying once youve been discovered with breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Quite small. In Canada, DCIS is considered pre-cancer.

  39. QUESTION:
    What is intraductal papillary carcinoma with oci suspection?

    • ANSWER:
      Ask an Expert: Intraductal papillary carcinoma

      Q. I have recently been diagnosed with a very rare type of breast cancer called Intraductal Papillary Carcinoma. I am looking for any information you might have on this type of breast cancer and how it is treated.

      Answer from the expert staff of breast cancer research at the Robert W. Franz Cancer Research Center at Providence Portland Medical Center: Intraductal papillary carcinomas are indeed rare, accounting for less than 1 percent to 2 percent of breast cancers in women. However, this type of cancer is similar to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in some important ways. It is a non-invasive cancer that is confined to the ducts in the breast. It rarely spreads to the axillary lymph nodes or elsewhere in the body.

      Standard treatment for intraductal papillary carcinoma is the same as treatment for DCIS; namely, either a combination of lumpectomy and radiation or a mastectomy, possibly followed by tamoxifen therapy. Less than 1 percent of patients treated for intraductal papillary carcinoma will have a recurrence.

  40. QUESTION:
    Why do I have stuff coming out my nipple?
    I am 18 and a half, I squeezed my nipple and liquid came out of it..I am on my period though..Can this mean I am pregnant? And if I am, how far along would I be if I have milk coming out my nipple? It is only a really small amount when I squeeze it though..

    • ANSWER:
      Sometimes, nipple discharge is just a normal (physiological) part of your breast's function. If that's the case, the discharge might resolve on its own.

      Most often, nipple discharge stems from a noncancerous (benign) condition. However, breast cancer is a possibility, especially if:

      * You have a lump in your breast
      * The discharge contains blood
      * Only one breast is affected

      Possible causes of nipple discharge include:

      * Abscess
      * Breast cancer
      * Breast infection
      * Excessive breast stimulation
      * Fibroadenoma
      * Fibrocystic breasts
      * Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)
      * Galactorrhea
      * Hormone imbalance
      * Injury or trauma to the breast
      * Intraductal papilloma
      * Mammary duct ectasia
      * Medication use
      * Paget's disease of the breast
      * Pregnancy
      * Prolactinoma

      Rarely is nipple discharge a sign of breast cancer. But it might be a sign of an underlying condition that requires treatment. If you're still having periods and your nipple discharge doesn't resolve on its own after your next menstrual cycle, or if it's particularly bothersome, make an appointment with your doctor to have it evaluated.

      In the meantime, take care to avoid nipple stimulation — including frequent checks for discharge — because stimulation actually makes the discharge persist.

  41. QUESTION:
    Pagets Disease of the nipple on a male?
    I have just recieved an email warning women of Pagets Disease of the nipple. I would like to know does anyone know of any males that have been diagnosed or suffered this disease. My partner had similar symptoms and I want to know if this is common in males too.
    If so what did you notice first and how long did it take for you to go see a doc? My partner is stubborn.

    • ANSWER:
      Paget's Disease of the Nipple: An Overview
      Paget's disease of the nipple, also called Paget's disease of the breast, is an uncommon type of cancer that forms in or around the nipple.

      More than 95 percent of people with Paget's disease of the nipple also have underlying breast cancer; however, Paget's disease of the nipple accounts for less than 5 percent of all cases of breast cancer. For instance, of the estimated 211,240 new cases of breast cancer projected to be diagnosed in 2005, fewer than 11,000 were expected to involve Paget's disease of the nipple.

      Most patients diagnosed with Paget's disease of the nipple are over age 50, but rare cases have been diagnosed in patients in their 20s. The average age at diagnosis is 62 for women and 69 for men. Paget's disease of the nipple is rare among both women and men.

      Paget's disease of the nipple was named after Sir James Paget, a scientist who noted an association between changes in the appearance of the nipple and underlying breast cancer. There are several other unrelated diseases named after Paget, including Paget's disease of the bone and Paget's disease of the vulva.

      Causes of Paget's Disease of the Nipple
      Scientists do not know exactly what causes Paget's disease of the nipple, but two major theories have been suggested for how it develops.

      One theory about the cause of Paget's disease of the nipple proposes that cancer cells, called Paget cells, break off from a tumor inside the breast and move through the milk ducts to the surface of the nipple, resulting in the disease. This theory is supported by the fact that more than 97 percent of patients with Paget's disease also have underlying invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). DCIS, also called intraductal carcinoma, is a condition in which abnormal cells are present only in the lining of the milk ducts in the breast, and have not invaded surrounding tissue or spread to the lymph nodes. DCIS sometimes becomes invasive breast cancer. Invasive breast cancer is cancer that has spread outside the duct into the breast tissue, and possibly into the lymph nodes under the arm or into other parts of the body.

      The other theory concerning the development of Paget's disease of the nipple suggests that skin cells of the nipple spontaneously become Paget cells. This theory is supported by the rare cases of Paget's disease in which there is no underlying breast cancer, and the cases in which the underlying breast cancer is found to be a separate tumor from the Paget's disease.

  42. QUESTION:
    What else can "Tamoxifen" be used in?
    I want to know what else it can be used in besides the cancer ....I am training in a pharmacy as I am a undergraduate pharmacist and yesterday I dispensed Novaldex(Tamoxifen) and my supervisor (the pharmacist) told me that Tamoxifen is not always used for breast cancer but also in some hormonal disturbances and troubles in the breast ........I need to know these problems more definitely

    • ANSWER:
      You really need to look this up yourself. As a Pharmacist, you NEED to be able to find answers on your own.

      On example, you find the rest. Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS).

  43. QUESTION:
    what is the life span of the 5th stage breast cancer patient?

    • ANSWER:
      There is no fifth stage... the stages go from 0-4

      Stage 0—Carcinoma in situ
      In stage zero breast cancer, atypical cells have not spread outside of the ducts or lobules, the milk producing organs, into the surrounding breast tissue. Referred to as carcinoma in situ, it is classified in two types:

      Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS)— very early cancer that is highly treatable and survivable. If left untreated or undetected, it can spread into the surrounding breast tissue.
      Lobular Carcinoma In Situ (LCIS)—not a cancer but an indicator that identifies a woman as having an increased risk of developing breast cancer.

      Stage I—Early stage invasive breast cancer
      In stage 1 breast cancer, the cancer is no larger than two centimeters (approximately an inch) and has not spread to surrounding lymph nodes or outside the breast.

      Stage II
      Stage 2 breast cancer is divided into two categories according to the size of the tumor and whether or not it has spread to the lymph nodes:

      Stage II A Breast Cancer—the tumor is less than two centimeters(approximately an inch) and has spread up to three auxiliary underarm lymph nodes. Or, the tumor has grown bigger than two centimeters, but no larger than five centimeters (approximately two inches) and has not spread to surrounding lymph nodes.
      Stage II B Breast Cancer— the tumor has grown to between two and five centimeters (approximately one to two inches) and has spread to up to three auxiliary underarm lymph nodes. Or, the tumor is larger than five centimeters, but has not spread to the surrounding lymph nodes.

      Stage III
      Stage 3 breast cancer is also divided in to two categories:

      Stage III A Breast Cancer—the tumor is larger than two centimeters but smaller than five centimeters (approximately one to two inches) and has spread to up to nine auxiliary underarm lymph nodes.
      Stage III B Breast Cancer— the cancer has spread to tissues near the breast including the skin, chest wall, ribs, muscles, or lymph nodes in the chest wall or above the collarbone.

      Stage IV
      In stage 4 breast cancer, the cancer has spread to other organs or tissues, such as the liver, lungs, brain, skeletal system, or lymph nodes near the collarbone.

  44. QUESTION:
    If my mom has the BRCA2 gene but I don't, can life insurers still charge me more for it?
    She had breast reconstruction done because they found DCIS (stage 0) cancer. The insurance agent has asked me if she was diagnosed with cancer, but I'm not sure how to accurately respond. If I say yes I will get charged a higher premium even though I don't have the increased risk caused by the BRCA2 gene. I want to be honest though.

    • ANSWER:
      I'm not sure exactly how things work over in the US with insurance, as I'm a UK resident. But in terms of giving a truthful account of your risk, its difficult.

      It sounds like your mum did have cancer. The definition of DCIS (Stage 0) is:

      "DCIS is a Stage 0 cancer—the earliest form of breast cancer. Stage 0 breast cancer is a contained cancer that has not spread beyond the ductal system (to the lymph nodes or other areas of the body). The cure rate for DCIS is close to 100% provided that an accepted standard method of treatment is followed."

      So although it was cancer, the outcome is generally very positive. If you know that she has the BRCA2 gene - then that is very likely to be the cause of her cancer. So in theory if you don't have that gene then you are less likely to be at risk. But given that 1 in 9 women get cancer at some point in their lives, you can't eliminate your chances by just not having a certain gene. It is believed that my Mum doesn't have the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene - yet she got breast cancer and so did her mum. I therefore figure that my risk of getting it is probably proportionately higher even if I don't have these particular genes, because there are probably other genes and circumstances that interact with each other, to increase my risk. This said, having been to see a genetic consultant I've been told my risk is 20% as opposed to the general population's risk of 10%. This is because neither my gran's sisters or my aunts (my mum's sisters) have had cancer.

      The notion of risk that insurance companies deal with should be the same as doctors - but I'm not sure if that is the case. Be honest, say that she was diagnosed with cancer and had the BRCA2 gene. But also make it clear you've been tested and you do not have the gene. This should limit the impact on your premiums and the terms they place on the paying out.

  45. QUESTION:
    What are clustered microcalcifications in the breast?

    • ANSWER:
      If magnification views reveal additional smaller microcalcifications clustered with those visible on the regular mammogram, the likelihood of cancer increases. http://www.katc.com/global/story.asp?s=1230164&ClientType=Printable

      Sometimes on a mammogram tiny white grains of calcium or microcalcifications are seen. No one knows exactly why, in certain circumstances, the breast lays down calcium. Fortunately the majority of microcalcifications seen on mammogram are due to benign changes and often represents an aging process. There are 4 main classifications of microcalcifications

      1. Malignant Calcifications

      These calcifications are very characteristic and are associated with invasive cancer. No one is sure, why the breast lays down microcalcifications in this situation. One theory is that with malignant/premalignant conditions, there is an abnormal production and turn over or death of cells. With cell death, calcium is a by-product.

      2.Premalignant Calcifications

      These calcifications are associated with pre-cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Sometimes it is easy to distinguish the premalignant calcifications that are associated with DCIS but this is not always the case.

      The breast is made up of fat, fibrous tissue and glandular tissue. The glandular tissue comprises ducts and lobules/ milk glands. The ducts are the hollow tubes by which the milk produced in the lobules / milk glands is carried to the nipple. The ducts and lobules/milk glands are lined with cells. It is these cells which can become pre-cancerous and then have the ability to become cancerous.

      The actual term ductal carcinoma in situ is confusing and alarming. Because the word carcinoma is used the natural assumption is that DCIS is invasive cancer. This is not correct. DCIS is a premalignant or precancerous condition of the breast. It is not invasive cancer but it does have the potential to change to invasive cancer if left in the breast. The main difference betweeen invasive cancer and precancer is that invasive cancer has the ability to invade into blood or lymph vessels and spread through out the body. Precancer or DCIS is not able to do this as the cells are contained within the duct walls ( see diagram ).

      DCIS is graded by the pathologist into either high, intermediate or low grade. It is thought that high grade DCIS definitely becomes invasive in the time frame of a few years while low grade DCIS probably becomes cancerous but over a longer time period - 10-20 years. The intermediate grade DCIS has activity lying between high and low grade.3.Indeterminant Calcifications

      Sometimes the calcification pattern is unclear and the calcifications are called indeterminant . To determine the nature of these microcalcifications, there are two options available.
      * The microcalcifications can be biopsied either surgically or by stereotactic core biopsy .
      *Alternatively a 6 month repeat mammogram can be done. The absence of any change over this time interval would suggest that the calcifications are a result of a benign process. Because the process of precancerous cells turning invasive takes years, reviewing the area through a 6 month mammogram is not felt to jeopardise the situation.

      4. Benign Calcifications

      The major group of calcifications seen on mammogram belongs in this group. http://www.healthguidesonline.com/Breast_Microcalcifications.html

  46. QUESTION:
    Mom was just diagnosed with breast cancer, scared and curious?
    We just got the tests back. Im really scared, she has epilepsy and lupis too. I don't know much about cancer or whats going to happen I'm only 14 going to highschool in a few days! My best friends mom passed away of breast cancer a year ago. I really don't know what to think... Anyone know what it is or how fast or agressive it is? Please.
    i sound stupid but please help me!
    thank you so much

    • ANSWER:
      One great thing about breast cancer treatment is that it is very organised.

      Breast cancer can range from DCIS which gets a 0 on the scale to larger, more aggressive cancers. They decide treatment according to what the cancer will respond to, how big it is and if it has spread to lymph nodes.

      Even with larger tumours, treatment is very effective these days and survival rates are very high.

  47. QUESTION:
    Dag with dcis breast cancer in stag 2, before i start chemo, i need some healthy advice about nutrition etc.?

    • ANSWER:
      I had aggressive chemo for lung cancer. Before starting the chemo and all thru it I used isolated whey protein powder. It helped me put weight on during the chemo and kept my energy at a pretty good level. Before using anything tho, be sure to check with your onc. I don't know if whey would interfere with your estrogen levels... I really only research lung cancers.
      I also did, and still do eat a balanced diet of 80% aalkaline to 20% aacidic. If you would like you can email me and I will send a chart to your email.

  48. QUESTION:
    How many stages are in breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      There are actually 5, numbered 0 to IV, with 0 being DCIS, and IV being metastasis to other organs such as brain, lungs etc.
      Stage II has parts a & b and stage III has parts a, b & c.

      My own was borderline II (b) or III (a).


dcis breast cancer

Lung Ca

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Why does smoking increase the risk of bladder cancer?
    It seemd obvious why it would cause lung ca, oesphageal ca, and oral cavity ca, but why bladder ca?
    Is there a particular carcinogen responsible or reason why it causes transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder?

    • ANSWER:
      Smoking is considered one of the greatest risk factors for bladder cancer. The risk is probably due to the fact that cancer-promoting substances found in tobacco tend to collect in the urine, and then become concentrated in the bladder while awaiting excretion. Other chemicals, including aniline dyes, beta-napthylamine, benzadine salts, and mixtures of aromatic hydrocarbons also are believed to be cancer-causing agents. These chemicals are widely used in the rubber, leather, textile, chemical, plastics, petroleum,
      wood, and paint industries. It may take up to 50 years after the original chemical exposure for bladder cancer to develop. -

  2. QUESTION:
    What questions should i ask a lung cancer specialist for an interview?
    I am writing a thesis about lung cancer and I am supposed to interview 2 oncologists. I am not really interested in my assigned topic and i'm quite contented with the information available in the net. What questions should i include in the interview?

    • ANSWER:
      1. What is the newest treatment for lung cancers?
      2. What you think about the lawsuits against Phillip Morris?
      3, What can you do to prevent lung cancer
      4. Approximately how many lung ca pts are you treating now?
      5. Has the cure rate of lung cancer gone up in the last 20 yrs
      6. What is the cure rate for lung cancer currently?
      7. Do you believe cigarette smoking is related to lung cancer?
      8. What made you decide to become an expert in lung cancer
      9. Do you believe in God and do you believe faith has any
      impact on the cure rate of cancers?
      10. What is the most important advice you can give someone
      who is caring for a lung cancer pt.
      11. What are the signs and symptoms of lung cancer?
      12. Do you reccomend hospice for your terminal pts and when
      do you know it is the time to offer it as an option.
      13. Have you ever seen a lung cancer pt cured?
      14. How much does it cost to recieve a round of chemotherapy?

  3. QUESTION:
    Is it appropriate to use GTN on a pt with an exasperation of emphysema, who also has diminished .....?
    lung sounds to one lung field and crackles on the other? The Audible wheeze had notable improvement with continuous salbutamol. Your thoughts please, as the history revealed lung Ca, and emphysema only. No cardiac hx and no personal GTN in medications !?!?!?!?
    GTN is what we call Glyceryl Trinitrate in NZ........

    • ANSWER:

  4. QUESTION:
    Why do my lungs hurt when the air is too humid or dry?
    I have had asthma since I was born, but over the past year the air has started to make my lungs hurt. If the air is too humid my chest hurts, and same goes if it is too dry. I live in Maine where the air is fairly clean, but if someone has a campfire going, the smoke from that will make my lungs hurt as well. I have seen the doctor for this but they seem to be dumbfounded by my issue.

    • ANSWER:
      In my experience, this sounds normal for an Asthma user. The way Asthma works is it causes your Bronchioles to contract in unusual ways and they dont release as fast as they should. This causes less oxygen to reach your blood cells and results in you gasping for air.

      http://www.odec.ca/projects/2005/thog5n0/public_html/whatarelungs.html

      Extreme temperature changes and things like smoke can complicate this. For example, smoke will cause those Bronchioles to contract - added with Asthma which also causes it to contract, you can see how it combines to make it dangerous.

      I would continue to see a doctor about it, and ask them to send you to a specialist [Respiratory Therapist] if they can't figure it out.

      This should help you find a healthier balance and they can make sure you are equipped for those moments.

  5. QUESTION:
    How can I get rid of the mold on my house's walls?
    I live in Riverside,CA. I have allergy to mold and unfortunately the walls of my house, especially behind the sofa and TV is covered by mold. I cleaned it several times but they grow after few days.

    • ANSWER:
      Mold cannot be killed mold you can clean it but it will grow back, your problem is mositure in the walls which mold can kill you so keep it cleaned with a mold remover from your local paint supply store.*

      NOTE: I came back because you need to know this the mold on the other side of the walls you cannot see is also deadly. So cleaning makes it look good but you lungs or getting toxic poisoning

  6. QUESTION:
    what is correct blood level for the blood test for ca 125?
    my sister has ovarian cancer, and one of the tests to see if your at risk is a blood test called ca-125. I would like to know what the safe levels are and not safe levels.

    • ANSWER:
      A normal result would be <21 U/mL.

      Elevated CA 125 serum levels may be seen in patients with ovarian, lung, pancreatic, and uterine malignancies, as well as certain non-malignant disorders such as pericarditis, cirrhosis, hepatitis and other hepatic disorders, endometriosis, and ovarian cysts. Elevated levels have also been reported to occur during menstruation and the first trimester of pregnancy.

      In patients who are, or have been, treated for cancer, a doubling of CA 125 levels suggests disease progression or recurrence, whereas a halving of levels suggests a therapeutic response.

      I hope that answers your questions and good luck to your sister.

  7. QUESTION:
    Is high altitude training good for soccer players?
    I'm planning on spending a month in big bear CA to train before the beginning of summer practice for city college soccer next year around may. Is that a good Idea? Please give me viewable sources. Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      It depends. For your situation, it's going to be bad because your lungs won't be used to the lack of oxygen in the high altitudes. You could get woozy and all that stuff. And then when you come back, your lungs will have to get used to the massive increase of oxygen. Oxygen is considered a poison if too much is given at one time, so it could be dangerous.

  8. QUESTION:
    Statue of limitations to file a law suit against the Tobacco Industry in CA?
    What is the statue of limitations in California to file a law suit against the Tobacco Industry for negligence, for a person w/Co pd/Emphysema/Lung Cancer ?

    • ANSWER:
      i believe the tobacco industry has already paid all of the penalties and now have protection from future lawsuits but you would have to check w/a lawyer from Ca to be sure.
      however i personally feel that if a person does something that causes harm to them then they should be the one held responsible, is Wendy's responsible for overweight people are the gun manufacturers responsible for a murder.no it comes down to personal accountability. I'm sorry if i sound harsh but i think it is about time this country got back to the basics of personal responsibility

  9. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to get Breast CA if you had Thyroid CA?
    In the past 10 months I've had Thyroid CA and surgeries and radiation, cuz it matastiszed. Now I'm wondering since Thyroid is a hormone, will other hormone areas get CA? What are the odds?
    What about other hormone areas; cervical, ovarian, uterus etc...

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, it is possible to have a secondary cancer. If your cancer metastisized that means that it is possible that microscopic cells traveled anywhere in the body and lodged there. Common places for a thyroid cancer cells to metastasize include the central nervous system, lymph nodes, in areas of the lungs or bones, or in the neck. You cannot rule out a metastasis to the breast. These malignant cells in the breast though would show they were thyroid cells, thus they would be considered a metastasis.

      It is also possible to get a second primary cancer in the breast that has no relation to the primary cancer of the thyroid.
      Some people have two or even three different types of cancer. Just because you've had one cancer does not mean you can't get another one. Sometimes the second malignancy can be linked to the first treatment, especially if the second cancer is sarcoma of the breast.

      As far as the hormone theory, it seems that the common spots for reoccurence (based on the experiences of many other patients) are the cns, lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or neck . . and it is not common for it to go to the breast. Thus you cannot discount your reasoning, but it is not common.

      Medline Plus: Thyroid Cancer
      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/thyroidcancer.html

      NCI: Thyroid Cancer
      http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/thyroid

  10. QUESTION:
    How long is my dad going to live? ( Well, a Rough Estimate? )?
    My dad has been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, and he has basically lung cancer.
    He also has Bad legs, and if he gets upset or mad or overwhelmed some sort of lining around his heart area or whatever could pop and he could die.

    He's only 44 but his insides are the age of a 80 year old.

    • ANSWER:
      Whatever we say will be wrong.
      In general terms sometime in 2012 most likely.
      - - -
      Boy Jason - I don't believe they will have many good days to enjoy.
      A large bottle of morphine would be advisable.
      I lost track at over 2000 of my patients who died.
      Comfort support, oxygen, Hospice nurses,
      Long acting narcotic - MS Contin, Fentanyl patches
      I would not advise chemotherapy for advanced pancreas CA ands lung CA

  11. QUESTION:
    How long does it take for nicotine to get out of your blood system?
    my husband is going to be having back surgery again.... and his new dr wants him to quit smoking for 6 weeks and they will do a blood test to see if the nicotine is gone because he has a bad hystory of infections and getting sick does it take all of 6 weeks?some have said a week and all kind of different answers ca some one answer this quistion?

    • ANSWER:
      It's not just the nicotine that the doctor wants to clear although nicotine raises heart rate,blood pressure, its effects also lowers resistance to infection. It is important for the lungs to get an opportunity to clear some of the gunk that tobacco leaves behind like the tar. Your hubby is going to have to have a general anesthetic and a machine will be breathing for him. It is urgent that his lungs be in good shape for this. For you to try to enable him to keep smoking longer than he should by asking this question is very strange. If you are a smoker, you need to quit smoking around him because second hand smoke can still cause problems for him.

  12. QUESTION:
    How can I avoid lung pain after/while running in cold weather?
    It's gradually been getting worse the colder it gets, and last night I ran, it was probably around 45 degrees out....I got done and had a really sharp pain my lungs.

    I'm in a police academy, so not running/running inside isn't an option
    and I've read that it might help to wear a mask/something covering the mouth
    but I don't know what that could be that wouldn't require me to severely break the dress code

    any help/ideas would be appreciated
    thanks

    • ANSWER:
      I completely understand your problem, my runnig temps right now are just above freezing. Breathing through your nose is one of the biggest helps, it gives the air time to warm before hitting your lungs. I have also run with a bandana or silk scarve over my mouth. It ca feel confining, but once I got used to it I really liked it. It helps humidify your intake which will help your lungs a bit.

      Good luck!

  13. QUESTION:
    Can I sue a Doctor for negligence in Canada?
    My Grandfather died choking to death, because his lungs failed due to fast-acting oat cell lung cancer. His Doctor knew he had cancer in November, but failed to inform anyone, including my Grandfather. If we would've known in November, he may be alive today. Can our family sue the Doctor for negligence and actually get somewhere in Canada? Or does the government always win?

    • ANSWER:
      I don't have first hand knowledge RE the subject but when I researched it I found what I suspected: socialized medicine is worthless to the patient and at best engenders an environment of mediocrity.
      We need to fight any semblance of said.

      I quote an ED physician from the US that worked in CA.:
      "Sixth, medical malpractice suits are almost unheard of even though malpractice is quite common. I witnessed one of my patients who got an ectopic pregnancy on each side of a supposed tubal cauterization. Another patient had a poorly repaired ankle fracture with life long pain. The richest surgeon in the province was near our small town because he offered to do all specialty cases - messing up ortho, then urology, etc. I helped him retire as I left by simple patient empowerment. But no one else cared - he saved the other docs money."

  14. QUESTION:
    What are the levels of the independent variable?
    my project is testing do aerobic exercises increase the lung capacity. Im testing it with balloons.
    my independent variable is the balloon, i just don't know what the levels aree .

    • ANSWER:
      There could be 2 possible levels: 1) How fast a subject can inflate a balloon to a certain diameter, and 2) The diameter that the subject can inflate a balloon to, in a single breath.

      Be sure to include one group doing "interval training", which is the best way developed so far, to increase pretty well all parameters of aerobic training. Here's how to to it:

      http://ca.answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=Aulum8AoTDDeG551SjWvGYfAFQx.;_ylv=3?qid=20110312130842AAYjfI5

  15. QUESTION:
    What information do you need to prove a person is bot capable of caring for themselves?
    My Brother-in-law (in his 50's) doesn't take care of himself and has ended up in the hospital twice in two years with sezures, and this last time a collapsed lung. he doesn't take his meds, lives in a filthy house, and neglects his pets. I am looking for advice on how to go about having My Husband ( his brother) take over his power of attorney and make his decisions for him. He is not capable of doing these things on his own. Yet
    no one seems to know any answers. We now have his Parrot
    and need answers.
    Forgot to mention. We are in Upstate New York in the USA

    • ANSWER:
      It depends where you live. Here in CA, it's about having the person "conserved". You can always call the police and ask them to do a "welfare check" on him, explain that he is ill and takes poor care of himself. Get enough of these on record, and the cops' reports, it will really help.

      There is a good organization called Alliance for the Mentally Ill. Although you are not really talkng about mental illness, they know a lot about family getting involved in having someone conserved.

  16. QUESTION:
    How come smoking cigarettes causes all kinds of cancer while smoking Marijuana does not ?
    in both cases smoke will go through the lungs ???? what am I missing ?
    so smoking cigarettes is very destructive and stuff and smoking Marijuana is therapeutic and cool ?

    • ANSWER:
      Chronic cannabis use is associated with psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone effects. It also has oncogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects all of which depend upon dose and duration of use. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15563650903074507

      . The strongest evidence of a causal association was for head and neck cancer, with two of three studies reporting statistically significant associations. The evidence was less strong but suggestive for lung cancer, with one of three studies conducted in populations that did not mix marijuana and tobacco reporting a significant association. Suggestive evidence also was seen for bladder cancer, with one of two studies reporting a significant association. For brain and testicular cancers, the single studies conducted of each of these endpoints reported significant associations. Among the epidemiological studies that reported results for parental marijuana smoking and childhood cancer, seven of eight found statistically significant associations. Maternal and paternal marijuana smoking were implicated, depending on the type of cancer. Childhood cancers that have been associated with maternal marijuana smoking are acute myeloid leukemia, neuroblastoma, brain astrocytoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. Childhood cancers that have been associated with paternal marijuana smoking are leukemia, infant leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and rhabdomyosarcoma. - http://life.umt.edu/curry/DOcs-SOS/Current%20Peer%20Educators/Articles/Tomar_et_al.pdf

      Marijuana smoke was listed as a cancer-causing agent in California June 19, 2009
      http://oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/files/p65single072012.pdf

      Those who had ever used marijuana were 2.4 times more likely to be diagnosed with types of testicular cancer called non-seminoma and mixed germ cell tumors. These types of testicular cancer come with a somewhat worse prognosis than the so-called seminoma tumors. - http://news.yahoo.com/smoking-pot-linked-testicular-cancer-risk-123850779.html

      Marijuana smoke caused significantly more damage to cells and DNA than tobacco smoke, the researchers note. - http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090805110741.htm

      Our studies therefore demonstrated that 4T1 mammary tumor-bearing mice elicited the development of MDSC in the spleens and lungs and the frequency of these cells was enhanced following administration of THC. Thus, we suggest a role for MDSCs in the cannabinoid-induced immune suppression in breast cancer patients that may result in enhanced tumor growth. http://jimmunol.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/184/1_MeetingAbstracts/100.2?sid=8bf79fe7-cf3d-48e3-96e1-7e852a617509

  17. QUESTION:
    How long does a patient with terminal kidney cancer live? Read Short Description?
    Like, it spread already, to the lungs and liver. Sorry if I got anything wrong, like something like this can't happen. even if my mom is a nurse I don't know very much about this type of stuff. What is the shortest time they could live and the longest? what is the worst type of cancer you could die from?
    P.S. I don't have kidney cancer. It's research and i cannot find anything on Google about how long and how short someone can live with terminal kidney cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      In kidney cancer,Median patient survival for patients with metastasis is about 10-12 months.
      Patients with metastatic disease have an 18% chance of surviving 2 years.
      However, subsets of patients with advanced disease have shown improved survival.
      The following factors predict the risk of metastasis following radical nephrectomy (RN) for clinically localized RCC(RENAL CELL CARCINOMA) viz: size and stage of primary tumor, extent of regional lymph node involvement, if any, tumor histology, presence or absence of necrosis, and presence or absence of vascular invasion.
      Small cell branchogenic ca,pancreatic ca.gall bladder ca are few ca with worst prognosis.

  18. QUESTION:
    How can i make a model of lung cancer spreading? its for school but i dont how to model something like that .?
    i have to model the event of lung cancer spreading, i have a thick piece of styrafoam to cut out lung shapes but google didnt help me figure what to make it look like or anything. please help, its due in 2 days.

    • ANSWER:
      Start with an image like this http://z.about.com/f/p/440/graphics/images/en/18013.jpg and draw arrows to the brain, liver, adrenal glands, and bones (perhaps the ribs,spine, pelvis, humerus and femur - that's where I've seen lung cancers spread most often to bone.)

      I don't know what grade you are in or how much anatomy you know. I think I would do this on poster board rather than styrofoam unless you want to cut out organ shapes and glue them to poster board. A drawing/painting would be easier.
      Good Luck!

      Added note
      Here's another image more like what I'm suggesting.
      http://www.uptodate.com/patients/content/images/onco_pix/Lung_CA_IV.jpg
      I forgot to mention lymph nodes which are also sites for metastatic disease - usually in the mediastinum or the supraclaviclur areas. Wish I was there to help you. You may need to brush up on anatomy to know what I'm talking about. But this picture should help you.

  19. QUESTION:
    How can I get help for perscriptions?
    My Grandmother (shes the most important person in my life) has been in the hospital for a week, and has aroujnd ,000 in bills. They found a Brain tumor, cancer in the lung, and the bone scan looks bad too. We got her medicine for a month. It was 0.98. We can't afford it. Are there any funds or anything that could help her pay for this stuff. I couldn't imagine her not being with me.

    • ANSWER:
      here are some links to cancer financial help and medical financial help...you can check with the hospital about the bills or try to file for bankrupcy...

      Financial Assistance Links for Cancer

      Amercian Cancer Society
      http://www.cancer.org

      BTS Cares
      http://www.tbts.org

      Cancer Care, Inc.
      http://www.cancercare.org

      Cancer financial aid links
      http://www.rare-cancer.org/financial-aid.html

      Cancer Fund of America
      http://www.cfoa.org

      Cancer Medicine Assistance links
      http://www.rare-cancer.org/medicine-assistance.html

      The Candlelighter's Childhood Cancer Foundation
      http://www.candlelighters.org

      Children's Emergency Relief Foundation & Children's Wish Foundation Intl.
      http://www.childrenswish.org

      Genentech Access to Care Foundation
      http://www.spoconline.com

      Hill-Burton Free Health Care
      http://www.hrsa.gov

      Medicine Program
      http://www.themedicineprogram.com

      National Association for the Terminally Ill
      http://www.terminallyill.org

      National Bone Marrow Donor Program
      http://www.marrow.org/PATIENT/Plan_for_Tx/Planning_for_Tx_Costs/Financial_Assistance_for_Trans/index.html (financial assistance for bone marrow transplant patients..ie leukemia,etc)

      National Children's Cancer Society
      http://www.children-cancer.com

      Patient Advocate Foundation
      http://www.patientadvocate.org
      http://www.copays.org

      ************

      Financial Aid for Health care for uninsured people

      Consumer Guides for Getting and Keeping Insurance
      http://www.healthinsuranceinfo.net/ (by state)

      When you don’t have money to get the care you need:
      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/financialassistance.html
      http://ask.hrsa.gov/pc/
      http://www.omhrc.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=2&lvlID=18
      http://www.hrsa.gov/help/default.htm
      http://www.thefrugallife.com/medicalalternative.html
      http://www.google.com/search?q=Free+Low+Cost+Medical+Health+Services+&hl=en&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&start=10&sa=N

      Free and low cost prescription medication: http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?section=about_medications&Template=/ContentManagement/contentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=19169 (national alliance for mental illness)
      http://www.themedicineprogram.com/links.html (the medicine program)
      https://www.pparx.org/Intro.php (partnership for prescription alliance)
      http://www.rxassist.org/providers/resources.cfm (resource list of help)

      AIDS and HIV medication help
      1. Abbott Virology Patient Assistance Program:
      Due to the life-threatening nature of HIV infection, the complexity of overall care, and the critical need for continuity of antiretroviral therapy, the Abbott Virology PAP was designed with several unique attributes. These provisions ensure that patients impacted by HIV have access to Abbott’s two protease inhibitors. Eligibility criteria vary by medication.Call (800) 222-6885 or visit https://www.pparx.org/ViewProgramDetails.php?program_id=312 (medicines and eligibility)

      Abbott Virology Patient Assistance Program
      D-31C, AP52
      200 Abbott Park Road
      Abbott Park, IL 60064-6214
      1-(800) 222-6885 (phone)
      1-(866) 483-1305 (fax)

      2. Roche HIV Therapy Assistance program
      Roche Patient Assistance Foundation at 1-877-75-ROCHE.
      https://www.pparx.org/ViewProgramDetails.php?program_id=53 (medicines and eligibility)

      3. PPA list of programs
      https://www.pparx.org/ViewCompanies.php (list of PPA programs by company and states)

      Partnership for Prescription Assistance (PPA)
      The Partnership for Prescription Assistance brings together America's pharmaceutical companies, doctors, other health care providers, patient advocacy organizations and community groups to help qualifying patients who lack prescription coverage get the medicines they need through the public or private program that's right for them. Many will get them free or nearly free.
      https://www.pparx.org/ViewCompanies.php (list of programs by company and states)

      Together Rx
      A FREE prescription-savings card for eligible residents of the United States and Puerto Rico who have no prescription drug coverage. A public service program created and sponsored by a group of some of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies.This drug discount card is sponsored by 10 major pharmaceutical companies--Abbott Laboratories, AstraZeneca, Bristol Meyers Squibb, Glaxo Smith Kline, Johnson & Johnson, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi Aventis, Takeda and TAP Pharmaceuticals. The card is free and offers a 25%-40%* discount on over 300 brand-name and generic prescription drugs as well as other prescription products, such as glucose test strips.
      To apply you cannot be eligible for Medicare, cannot have prescription drug coverage (public or private), must have a household income equal to or less than ,000 for one person, ,000 for a family of two, ,000 for a family of three, ,000 for a family of four or ,000 for a family of five and must be a legal US resident. For more information call 1-800-444-4106 or visit:

      http://www.togetherrxaccess.com/about.htm. (Together Access- prescription help for the uninsured)
      http://www.togetherrxaccess.com/druglist.html (medicines list…click on letters to the left to find your med)
      http://www.togetherrxaccess.com/pdf/TRx_Access_Enroll.pdf (application)

      RXAssist - Patient Assistance Center
      RxAssist offers a comprehensive database of these patient assistance programs, as well as practical tools, news, and articles so that health care professionals and patients can find the information they need.

      RxHope
      RxHope is the only patient assistance Internet initiative financially supported by PhRMA (Pharmaceutical and Research Manufacturers of America) and participating pharmaceutical companies.

      NeedyMeds.com
      NeedyMeds provides information for people who need help with the cost of medicine and other healthcare expenses.

      AARP State-by-State, Plan-by-Plan List of Pharmacy Assistance Programs
      http://www.aarp.org/bulletin/prescription/statebystate.html (list of plans by AARP)

      Retail outlets programs-
      http://www.rxassist.org/providers/documents/Kmart-01-17-07.pdf (K-Mart low cost generics list)
      http://www.rxassist.org/providers/documents/TargetGenericsProgramDrugList.pdf (Target low cost generics list)
      http://i.walmart.com/i/if/hmp/fusion/genericdruglist.pdf (Walmart/ Sam’s club low cost generics list)
      http://www.rxassist.org/providers/documents/NewGenericsList-4-6-07.xls (RxOutreach/Xubex low cost generics list)

      Drug Company programs-
      Individual Company Patient Assistance Programs

      1.) Abbott Patient Assistance Program
      The Abbott Patient Assistance Program (PAP) provides Abbott medications, at no cost, to patients in financial need.1-866-972-7863 or fax at 1-866-207-2786.
      http://www.abbott.com/global/url/content/en_US/40.40.20.3:3/general_content/General_Content_00066.htm (eligibility)
      http://www.rxassist.org/providers/documents/AbbottDiabetesCare_000.pdf (application for PAP)
      Abbott Patient Assistance Program
      1420 Harbor Bay Parkway
      Alameda, CA 94502

      Eligibility for the Abbott Virology Patient Assistance Program:
      Due to the life-threatening nature of HIV infection, the complexity of overall care, and the critical need for continuity of antiretroviral therapy, the Abbott Virology PAP was designed with several unique attributes. These provisions ensure that patients impacted by HIV have access to Abbott’s two protease inhibitors. Eligibility criteria vary by medication.
      For more information about this program, call (800) 222-6885 or visit https://www.pparx.org/Intro.php

      Abbott Diabetes Care Patient Assistance Program
      The Abbott Diabetes Care Patient Assistance Program offers assistance on blood glucose meters and strips to low-income patients in the United States. In 2006, more than 5,200 patients were approved for assistance at a retail value of approximately 5,000. We donated nearly 3,500 blood glucose meters and more than 35,000 boxes of blood glucose strips. Customer Care Phone Number (888) 522-5226. Office Phone Number(510) 749-5400

      Write Us:
      Abbott Diabetes Care, Inc
      1360 South Loop Road
      Alameda, CA 94502
      For more information about this program, visit www.abbottdiabetescare.com.

      Ross Patient Assistance Program
      The Ross Patient Assistance Program offers assistance on metabolic and nutritional products to low-income or uninsured patients in the United States. In 2006, nearly 2,000 patients received products valued at more than 0,000.1-888-4PPA-NOW (477-2669)
      For more information about this program, visit www.pparx.org.

      2.)Amylin Patient Care Assistance Program
      1-800-330-7647 (phone)
      http://www.amylin.com/products/reimbursement.cfm (overview and contact info)
      http://www.amylin.com/pdf/Byetta_PAP_App.pdf (Byetta help application)
      http://www.amylin.com/pdf/SYMLIN_PAP_App.pdf (Symlin application)

      Amylin Patient Assistance Program
      PO Box 8435
      Gaithersburg, MD 20898

      3.) AstraZeneca Patient Assistance Program
      AstraZeneca's assistance programs. Questions? call 1-800-424-3727.
      http://www.astrazeneca-us.com/content/patientAssistance/patientAssistanceProgram/default.asp?id= (eligibility)
      http://www.astrazeneca-us.com/content/patientAssistance/patientAssistanceProgram/astrazeneca-medicine-list.asp?id= (medicine list)
      http://www.astrazeneca-us.com/content/patientAssistance/patientAssistanceProgram/astrazeneca-how-to-apply.asp?id= (to apply for PAP)
      http://www.astrazeneca-us.com/content/patientAssistance/patientAssistanceProgram/pdf/243041%20PAP%20English%20Application.pdf (online application)

      4.) Bridge to Access
      GlaxoSmithKline’s patient assistance program for non-oncology medicines, provides GSK prescription medicines to eligible low-income patients without prescription drug benefits. To apply via phone, call 1-866-PATIENT to receive by fax or mail.

      http://www.bridgestoaccess.com/enrollment/eligibility_criteria.html (eligibility)
      http://www.bridgestoaccess.com/ProductList (medicine list- This list may not be complete. If you do not see your GlaxoSmithKline medicine listed, please call 1-888-825-5249, M-F 8AM-8PM ET.)
      http://www.bridgestoaccess.com/forms/enrollment_forms.jsp (enrollment forms)
      http://www.bridgestoaccess.com/getting_products/retail_fill.html (how to get your first refill)
      http://www.bridgestoaccess.com/getting_products/obtain_refill.html (how to get subsequent refills)
      Each subsequent refill must be requested by calling 1-866-PATIENT at least three weeks before the patient’s existing supply of medicine is completed.
      http://www.bridgestoaccess.com/PatientEnrollment?pageFunction=FORMPATIENT (online form for application)

      5.) Lilly Direct Patient Assistance Programs
      Eli Lilly and Company index of all company programs to assist patients with prescription drug costs. For further details about the program and application materials, please visit the LillyMedicalAnswers website or call toll free 1-877-RX-LILLY (1-877-795-4559)

      Lilly’s Medicare answers program
      http://www.lilly.com/products/access/direct_patient.html (eligibility)
      http://www.lillymedicareanswers.com/lilly_medicare_answers_program2.jsp?reqNavId=1.3 (medicine list and eligibility for medicare program they have)
      http://www.lillymedicareanswers.com/pdf/lma_application.pdf (application)

      Lilly’s Lilly Cares program
      Lilly Cares is a patient assistance program provided by Lilly. As part of the company's efforts to provide access to our products for legal U.S. residents regardless of their ability to pay, we created a program to offer free medication, through physicians, to patients who are otherwise unable to obtain our products. Lilly Cares assists patients who are uninsured and whose income is less than 200 percent of the federal poverty level. Most Lilly products are available through the program.
      Eligibility is based on the patient's inability to pay and lack of third-party drug payment assistance, including insurance, Medicaid and government, community, or private programs and cannot be eligible for Medicare. Applications are available to anyone and must be completed and signed by the patient and the physician. Patients can download a blank application from the Lilly Cares website or applications can be faxed to you by calling 1-800-545-6962.

      http://www.lillycares.com/index.jsp (medicines , incl. Humulog and Humilin insulin and eligibility)
      http://www.lillycares.com/pdf/lilly_cares_application.pdf (application)

      Lilly Cares
      PO Box 230999
      Centerville, VA 20120
      1-(800) 545-6962 (phone)

      Physician requests should be directed to:
      Lilly Cares
      P.O. Box 230999
      Centreville, VA 20120
      1-(800) 545-6962 (phone)

      6.) MerkHelps
      Merck's Prescription Discount Program
      This drug discount card helps those without prescription insurance save 15% to 40% on selected Merck medicines. Enrolling in the program is free. There are no income or age requirements but you must be a legal U.S. resident to be eligible. To contact the Merck Patient Assistance Program , call 800-727-5400
      8:00 AM–8:00 PM ET, Monday through Friday.Physicians and other healthcare professionals inquiring about the Patient Assistance Program may contact Merck by calling 1-800-994-2111.

      http://www.merck.com/merckhelps/uninsured/home.html (Merck Prescription Discount plan for the Uninsured)
      http://www.merck.com/merckhelps/patientassistance/qualify.html (eligibility)
      http://www.merck.com/merckhelps/patientassistance/qualify.html (medicine list)
      http://www.merck.com/merckhelps/patientassistance/english_enrollment.pdf (application)

      7.) Novartis Patient Assistance Program
      Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation's Patient Assistance Program (PAP) provides assistance to patients experiencing financial hardship who have no third party insurance coverage for their medicines. You or your physician can call Novartis at 1-800-277-2254.

      http://www.pharma.us.novartis.com/novartis/pap/pap.jsp?usertrack.filter_applied=true&NovaId=3350119488824466892 (eligibility and medicine list)
      http://www.pharma.us.novartis.com/novartis/medicare.jsp (assistance for transplant or oncology patients and some other situations with Medicare D recipients) Oncology and transplant patients should call 800-942-3424 and all others should call 800-620-3292.
      http://www.pharma.us.novartis.com/novartis/pap/pap_other_products_enroll.jsp (applying…call )
      http://www.pharma.us.novartis.com/novartis/pap/pap_enrollment_application.pdf (online application)

      8.) Novo/Nordisk Diabetes Patient Assistance Program
      Patient must be a legal US resident and must not have or qualify for any government prescription coverage such as Medicare Part D, Medicaid, Veteran's Administration or any state or local programs which cover the Novo Nordisk product requested. Patient cannot have nor qualify for any private prescription coverage such as an HMO or PPO.Approved patients will receive a 90-day supply of medication sent to the physician's office. A new application must be submitted with each request. Income documentation is only required annually.

      https://www.pparx.org/ViewProgramDetails.php?program_id=249 (medicine list incl. Novofine needles, Novolin, Novolog, and Levemir insulins, glucagen and Prandin)
      https://www.pparx.org/resources/2007-03-01.Novo_Nordisk.Novo_Nordisk_Diabetes_Patient_Assistance_Program.440.pdf (application and eligibility)

      Novo Nordisk Patient Assistance Program
      PO Box 181640
      Louisville, KY 40261
      1-(866) 310-7549 (phone)
      1-(866) 441-4190 (fax)

      9.) Ortho-McNeil, Inc. Patient Assistance Program
      Ortho-McNeil provides assistance to patients who, because of financial burden and lack of prescription drug coverage, may have difficulty paying for their treatment. Call a Patient Assistance Program Specialist at 1-800-652-6227, Monday through Friday, 9 am to 5 pm, Eastern Time.Please call our program at 1-800-652-6227 with any questions regarding the application or enrollment process.
      http://www.ortho-mcneil.com/html/comi2/company_pap_ortho-mcneil.jsp;jsessionid=U0JJF0QJWCGJ4CQPCCFTC0YKB2IIQNSC
      (eligibility)
      http://www.ortho-mcneil.com/active/janus/en_US/assets/common/company/pap_app.pdf (appplication and list of covered medicines…change to 100% view to read it better)

      10.) Pfizer Patient Assistance
      Pfizer Helpful Answers™
      Pfizer Helpful Answers is a family of programs that helps people without prescription save on many Pfizer medicines, no matter their age or income. People with limited incomes might even qualify to get their Pfizer medicines for free. Lower income individuals who have insurance coverage for prescription medicines – such as Medicare, Medicaid or other private insurance – may still be eligible for assistance for their Pfizer medicines if they are experiencing significant financial or medical hardship. For more information, call toll free 1-866-706-2400 visit www.PfizerHelpfulAnswers.com

      An index of patient assistance programs offered by Pfizer, Inc. Call: 1-866-776-3700
      http://www.pfizer.com/pfizer/subsites/philanthropy/access/us.programs.index.jsp (list of all Pfizer programs for medicine help)
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Find/findall.aspx (overview list of all Pfizer programs for the uninsured)

      Pfizer’s Connection to Care
      Connection to Care provides Pfizer medicines for free to qualified patients through their doctor's office. Call: 1-866-776-3700…(allows hardship exceptions) Customer Service: Phone 800-707-8990
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Programs/medicines.aspx?p=2 (list of medicines)
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/files/C2C_English.pdf (application and covered medicines)
      Pfizer Connection To Care
      PO BOX 66585
      St. Louis, MO 63166-6585

      Sharing the Care
      Sharing the Care provides Pfizer medicines for free to eligible patients through participating community health centers. To find a health center near you, call the Partnership for Prescription Assistance at 1-888-477-2669, then contact the health center to apply.
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Programs/programdetails.aspx?p=109 (eligibility)
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Programs/medicines.aspx?p=109 (list of medicines)

      Pfizer Hospital Partnership program
      Free Pfizer medicines through participating hospitals to apply.
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Programs/programdetails.aspx?p=108 (eligibility)
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Programs/medicines.aspx?p=108 (list of medicines)

      Pfizer's "Pfizer Pfriends"
      This program helps those without prescription insurance save 15% to 50% on most Pfizer medicines at the pharmacy. Enrolling in the program is free. Eligibility and benefit levels will be determined by the applicant's income, depending on individual or family status. You must be a legal U.S. resident to participate. To apply call 1-866-776-3700. 1-877-447-4600
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Programs/programdetails.aspx?p=1 (program details)
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Programs/medicines.aspx?p=1 (list of medicines)
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/files/PP_English.pdf (application and covered medicines)
      Pfizer Pfriends
      PO Box 12041
      Trenton, NJ 08650-9634.

      Pfizer’s First Resource
      FirstRESOURCE provides reimbursement and appeals assistance to insured patients. It also provides free Pfizer medicines to eligible uninsured and underinsured patients. There are several different ways to get your medicine, depending on the medicine you take. Free Pfizer medicines plus reimbursement and appeals assistance To learn more and to apply, call 1-877-744-5675.
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Programs/programdetails.aspx?p=7 (eligibility and medicines)

      Pfizer Bridge Program
      Free Pfizer medicines plus reimbursement and appeals assistance. Call 1-800-645-1280 to apply in this program
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Programs/programdetails.aspx?p=8 (eligibility and medicines)

      Pfizer RSVP Zyvox, Vfend, Revation program
      Free Pfizer medicines plus reimbursement and appeals assistance. Call 1-888-327-7787 for assistance for RSVP
      http://www.pfizerhelpfulanswers.com/pages/Programs/programdetails.aspx?p=12 (eligibility and medicines)

      11.) Roche U.S. Pharmaceuticals Assistance Program
      Roche program providing company drugs, free, to patients who lack prescription coverage and the means to pay for the medications they need. To learn more about the Roche Patient Assistance Foundation and our individual product programs, call our toll-free number 1-877-75ROCHE (877-757-6243).
      http://www.rocheusa.com/programs/patientassist.asp (some of the medicines listed)

      12.) Santhofi-Aventis Patient Assistance Program
      For information call (800) 221-4025
      https://www.pparx.org/ViewProgramDetails.php?program_id=637 (medication list incl. Lanthus and Apidra insulin and eligibility)
      https://www.pparx.org/resources/2007-03-01.SanofiAventis.SanofiAventis_Patient_Assistance_Program.664.pdf (application and eligibility and medicines…incl. Lanthus insulin)

      Mail or fax application, prescription, and photocopy of
      Federal income tax return to the
      following address:
      Sanofi-aventis U.S. Patient Assistance Program
      P.O. Box 759
      Somerville, NJ 08876
      Fax#: (866) 734-7372
      (800) 221-4025 (phone number for information)

      13. Schering-Plough Patient Assistance Programs
      Schering-Plough assists patients in securing drug reimbursement as well as providing lifesaving drugs at no cost to people with low incomes through our patient assistance programs.
      http://www.schering-plough.com/schering_plough/pc/patient_programs.jsp (overview)

      Schering-Plough Commitment to Care Program
      Covers company cancer, hepatitis and anti-fungal drugs. 1-800-521-7157
      http://www.schering-plough.com/schering_plough/pc/commitment_care.jsp (eligibility and medicines)
      http://www.schering-plough.com/pdf/commitapp.pdf (application)

      Schering-Plough S-P Cares Program
      SP-Cares helps low-income patients who do not have commercial prescription drug insurance coverage. The program also helps low-income Medicare beneficiaries who have spent up to 2% of their household income out of pocket to purchase their prescription medications this year. The program provides eligible patients with access to Schering-Plough allergy, asthma, dermatology and cardiovascular prescription products (our cancer, hepatitis and anti-fungal drugs are available through the Commitment to Care program). Physicians, patients or their advocates can call the Patient Assistance Program toll free number or click on the link below for an application. The physician and patient then jointly complete the application and return it for review and approval. If approved, up to a three-month supply of the requested product is sent to the physician to be dispensed to the patient in need. In 2006, the program distributed pharmaceuticals free of charge to more than 100,000 patients. To apply for the S-P Cares Patient Assistance Program, patients call toll free: 1-800-656-9485
      http://www.schering-plough.com/schering_plough/pc/sp_cares.jsp (overview)
      http://www.schering-plough.com/pdf/patient_assistance.pdf (enrollment form)
      http://www.schering-plough.com/pdf/physician_reorder.pdf (physician medication reorder form)

      What are discount pharmacy services?
      Some stores have discount pharmacy services. For example, Kmart pharmacies have a 90 day generics program for , available anywhere in the country where there is a Kmart pharmacy. Costco, Sam’s Club, Giant Eagle, Meijer’s and BJ’s pharmacies often have competitive prices. Membership is not required to use the pharmacy services. Costco has a mail order pharmacy service, with no additional charges for standard shipping.

      Are there patient assistance programs for generic medications?
      Yes.
      Xubex and RxOutreach both offer patient assistance programs for generic drugs. These programs differ from all other patient assistance programs in that they are not offered by the pharmaceutical manufacturer of the drug. They are programs that include several different generic drugs which are purchased by the company and then made available for a fee to low income individuals. Both companies have income requirements to be eligible and both charge a fee to receive the medication. Xubex charges shipping and handling as well.

      1.Rx Outreach ( http://www.rxoutreach.com/?s=2&e=103
      Rx Outreach offers 125 different medications available in a 90 day supply at a cost of either , or , depending on the medication. In order to be eligible, your household income must be below 250% of the Federal Poverty Level. Rx Outreach information and applications can be found at
      http:// www.RxAssist.org (apply for rxoutreach here)
      http://www.rxassist.org/faqs/default.cfm#13 (overview and eligibility)
      http://www.rxassist.org/faqs/documents/Newgenericslist-9-19Web.xls (chart of medications available thru xubex and rx outreach)

      Rx Outreach
      Express Scripts Specialty Distribution Services, Inc.
      PO Box 66536
      Saint Louis, MO 63166-6536
      Customer Service: 1-800-769-3880
      Hours are 7:00 am - 5:30 pm CST Mon-Fri
      email: rxoutreach@express-scripts.com

      2. Xubex Pharmaceutical Services (http://www.xubex.com/)
      Xubex makes 97 medications available and has two pricing levels, depending on the medication: / for a 90 day supply, / for a 180 day supply and /0for a 360 day supply. Xubex adds a .85 shipping and handling fee for each order. 1-866-699-8239.
      http://www.xubex.com/
      http://www.rxassist.org/faqs/default.cfm#13 (overview and eligibility)
      http://www.rxassist.org/faqs/documents/Newgenericslist-9-19Web.xls (chart of medications available thru xubex and rx outreach)

      Xubex information and applications can be found at

      Xubex
      P.O. Box 1244
      Winter Park, FL 32790-1244
      Phone: 407-478-2663
      Fax: 407-671-7960
      email:info@Xubex.com

      Disease Specific Help-
      http://www.rxassist.org/providers/documents/Co-PayAssistance_000.doc (Diseases with support available for copay assistance)
      http://www.rxassist.org/providers/documents/Lowcostdiabeticandothe-1.doc (low cost diabetic supplies)

      ********************

      WHERE CAN I FIND LOW COST DIABETIC SUPPLIES?

      1.)Abbott Diabetes Care Patient Assistance Program
      This program assists financially disadvantaged individuals who meet certain income criteria. The Abbott Diabetes Care application can be found at http://www.rxassist.org/providers/documents/AbbottDiabetesCare_000.pdf or call 866-224-8887.

      2.)Amylin Patient Care Assistance Program
      1-800-330-7647 (phone)
      http://www.amylin.com/products/reimbursement.cfm (overview and contact info)
      http://www.amylin.com/pdf/Byetta_PAP_App.pdf (Byetta help application)
      http://www.amylin.com/pdf/SYMLIN_PAP_App.pdf (Symlin application)

      Amylin Patient Assistance Program
      PO Box 8435
      Gaithersburg, MD 20898

      3.) Bayer
      Receive your FREE diabetes Care Kit which includes Ascensia® blood glucose meter, Lancet device, carrying case and strips. Must be 14 years of age or older to receive this offer. This offer is open to US Residents only. https://secure.xubex.com/apply/diabetes.aspx (free diabetes care kit through www.xubex.com)

      4.) IPump.org, Inc. (http://www.ipump.org) offers limited reimbursement for diabetes medications, supplies, and insulin to persons who qualify under their "ERMA" (Emergency Request for Medical Assistance) program. They also offer limited monthly financial assistance to qualifying persons to help cover the cost of insulin, diabetes medications and supplies. Persons may only receive financial assistance through one program and no more than once per year. Under their "REDS" program eligible persons may receive certain free diabetes and insulin pump supplies. Contact the Assistance Program Director, program-director@ipump.org for more information about programs currently funded.

      5.) Islets of Hope http://www.isletsofhope.com/diabetes/assistance-programs/main_1.html lists comprehensive assistance programs by state, as well as international resources for other countries. Includes private, corporate, and government programs. Click on “Assistance Programs” in their pull-down menu. Islets of hope also has a guidebook describing assistance programs for diabetes supplies, insulin pumps, medication, etc
      http://www.isletsofhope.com/pdf/diabetes-assistance-programs.pdf (overview and details)
      http://www.isletsofhope.com/diabetes/assistance-programs/find-diabetes-assistance-1.html (tips on finding more help for uninsured people in general)

      6.) Lilly’s Lilly Cares program
      Lilly Cares is a patient assistance program provided by Lilly. As part of the company's efforts to provide access to our products for legal U.S. residents regardless of their ability to pay, we created a program to offer free medication, through physicians, to patients who are otherwise unable to obtain our products. Lilly Cares assists patients who are uninsured and whose income is less than 200 percent of the federal poverty level. Most Lilly products are available through the program.
      Eligibility is based on the patient's inability to pay and lack of third-party drug payment assistance, including insurance, Medicaid and government, community, or private programs and cannot be eligible for Medicare. Applications are available to anyone and must be completed and signed by the patient and the physician. Patients can download a blank application from the Lilly Cares website or applications can be faxed to you by calling 1-800-545-6962.

      http://www.lillycares.com/index.jsp (medicines , incl. Humulog and Humilin insulin and eligibility)
      http://www.lillycares.com/pdf/lilly_cares_application.pdf (application)

      Lilly Cares
      PO Box 230999
      Centerville, VA 20120
      1-(800) 545-6962 (phone)

      Physician requests should be directed to:
      Lilly Cares
      P.O. Box 230999
      Centreville, VA 20120
      1-(800) 545-6962 (phone)

      7.) Novo/Nordisk Diabetes Patient Assistance Program
      Patient must be a legal US resident and must not have or qualify for any government prescription coverage such as Medicare Part D, Medicaid, Veteran's Administration or any state or local programs which cover the Novo Nordisk product requested. Patient cannot have nor qualify for any private prescription coverage such as an HMO or PPO.Approved patients will receive a 90-day supply of medication sent to the physician's office. A new application must be submitted with each request. Income documentation is only required annually.

      https://www.pparx.org/ViewProgramDetails.php?program_id=249 (medicine list incl. Novofine needles, Novolin, Novolog, and Levemir insulin, Glucagen and Prandin)
      https://www.pparx.org/resources/2007-03-01.Novo_Nordisk.Novo_Nordisk_Diabetes_Patient_Assistance_Program.440.pdf (application and eligibility)

      Novo Nordisk Patient Assistance Program
      PO Box 181640
      Louisville, KY 40261
      1-(866) 310-7549 (phone)
      1-(866) 441-4190 (fax)

      8.) Santhofi-Aventis Patient Assistance Program
      For information call (800) 221-4025
      https://www.pparx.org/ViewProgramDetails.php?program_id=637 (medication list incl. Lanthus and Apidra insulin and eligibility)
      https://www.pparx.org/resources/2007-03-01.SanofiAventis.SanofiAventis_Patient_Assistance_Program.664.pdf (application and eligibility and medicines…incl. Lanthus and Apidra insulin)

      Mail or fax application, prescription, and photocopy of
      Federal income tax return to the
      following address:
      Sanofi-aventis U.S. Patient Assistance Program
      P.O. Box 759
      Somerville, NJ 08876
      Fax#: (866) 734-7372
      (800) 221-4025 (phone number for information)

      *************************************

      How to apply for Medicaid or medicare
      http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MedicaidEligibility/
      http://www.aarp.org/money/lowincomehelp/applying_for_medicaid.html
      http://www.rxassist.org/providers/resources.cfm#medicaregeneral (help with problems with Medicare part D)
      http://www.cms.hhs.gov/default.asp? (medicare and Medicaid page)

      For information about Social Security, Medicare, and disability benefits, call the Social Security Administration at 1-800-772-1213.
      http://www.ssa.gov/
      http://www.ssa.gov/disability/professionals/bluebook/index.htm (filing Social security disability online)
      http://www.disabilityfacts.com/ (SSDI) E -mail: dfacts@earthlink.net
      This organization provides information, publications, and workshops on Social Security Disability issues.
      http://www.siteboxparking.com/?dp=www.disabilityresource.com&aid=40118 (disability resource links)
      http://www.disabilityinfo.gov/digov-public/public/DisplayPage.do?parentFolderId=500 (disability info)

      For information about Medicaid, contact your local social service or welfare office. You can also find information about Medicare and Medicaid at
      http://www.CMS.gov
      http://www.cms.hhs.gov/default.asp?

      How To Pay for Mental Health Services
      http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/KEN98-0050/default.asp
      http://depression.about.com/cs/findadoc/a/freelowcosttx.htm

      Additional Public Benefits for Families Raising Children:
      http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/financialassistance.html

      DENTAL HELP:
      Free or low cost dental care United States
      http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/53F91091-23DB-47F3-8782-6572C33F9D42/0/LowCostFactsheet.pdf
      http://www.raconline.org/info_guides/dental/dentalfaq.php

      FREE AND LOW COST DENTAL HELP FOR DENTURES , BROKEN TEETH , PAIN , ETC.
      http://dental-assistance.app-sl-1.aidpage.com/dental-assistance/

      Need eyeglasses or eye care?
      http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/financialaid.asp
      http://www.uniteforsight.org/freeclinics.php

      How to Get a Free or Low Cost Pap Smear,
      The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program provides free or low cost Pap smears to eligible women across the country. Through this program, uninsured and impoverished women can receive Pap smears at local clinics and doctor's offices.
      Here’s a list for every state:
      http://cancer.about.com/od/screeninganddiagnosis/a/freepapsmear.htm

      Low Cost or Free Mammograms and pap tests in your area
      National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program for low-income women provides free or low-cost mammograms and Pap tests. Find a free or low-cost mammogram and Pap test in your State
      http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/cancercontacts/nbccedp/contacts.asp (free or low cost mammograms and pap by state)

      Where can I go to get free or reduced-cost prenatal care?
      You can call this number if you need free birth control help, too!
      Women in every state can get help to pay for medical care during their pregnancies. This prenatal care can help you have a healthy baby. Every state in the United States has a program to help. Programs give medical care, information, advice and other services important for a healthy pregnancy.
      To find out about the program in your state:
      ·Call 1-800-311-BABY (1-800-311-2229) This toll-free telephone number will connect you to the Health Department in your area code
      ·For information in Spanish, call 1-800-504-7081
      ·Call or contact your local Health Department

      Community health centers provide health care regardless of your ability to pay and even if you have no health insurance. Find the community health center closest to you. Phone the community health center for more information or to make an appointment.
      http://ask.hrsa.gov/pc/ (list of neighbor health centers near you)

      Hill-Burton obligated facilities provide free or reduced-cost services to those who are unable to pay. Each facility chooses which services it will provide at no or lowered cost and who will receive them. Eligibility for Hill-Burton is based on family size and income. You may apply at a Hill-Burton obligated facility for free or reduced-cost care either before or after you receive care. Find Hill-Burton obligated facilities. Apply for free or reduced-cost care at the Hill-Burton obligated facility.

      Hill Burton Hotline
      1-800-638-0742
      (1-800-492-0359 in Maryland)
      In 1946, Congress passed a law that gave hospitals, nursing homes and other health facilities grants and loans for construction and modernization. In return, they agreed to provide a reasonable volume of services to persons unable to pay and to make their services available to all persons residing in the facility’s area. The program stopped providing funds in 1997, but about 300 health care facilities nationwide are still obligated to provide free or reduced-cost care.
      http://www.hrsa.gov/help/default.htm (list of Hill Burton obligated facilities by state)

      State medical assistance programs help people with incomes under certain limits pay for prescription medications, visits to the doctor, hospitalizations, and insurance premiums. Each program is different and not all States have medical assistance programs. Contact your local department of social services or a local hospital's social worker to see if your State has a program and if you might be eligible to apply.

      Rotary Clubs, which provide humanitarian and educational assistance

      Elks Clubs, which provide charitable activities that benefit youth and veterans

      Shriners, which offer need-based treatment for children at Shriners hospitals throughout the country

      Kiwanis Clubs, which conduct fund-raising events and projects to help the community and especially children

      Religious organizations

      In many areas, nonprofit or special interest groups such as those listed above can sometimes provide financial assistance or help with fund-raising. In addition, some local governments may have special trusts set up to help people in need. You can find out more about such groups at your local library or your local city or county government's health and human services office.

      Medication Information
      Medication side effects and actions and interactions
      http://www.costco.com/Pharmacy/frameset.asp?trg=HCFrame.asp&hcban=Banner.asp&hctar=drugnotes.asp&catid=&Article=drug%20information&log= (Costco)

      PDR online (medications , effects and side effects)
      http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/rxdrugprofiles/alphaindexa.shtml (rx)
      http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/otcdrugprofiles/alphaindexa.shtml (OTC)
      http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/herbaldrugs/index.shtml (herbal)
      http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/index.shtml (nutritional supplements)

  20. QUESTION:
    Can the body repair nephron in the kidneys or make new nephron?
    What about damge to alveoli in the lungs can the body repair it or make new alveoli ?

    • ANSWER:
      Understanding the mechanisms of nephron repair is critical for the design of new therapeutic approaches to treat kidney disease. The kidney can repair after even a severe insult, but whether adult stem or progenitor cells contribute to epithelial renewal after injury and the cellular origin of regenerating cells remain controversial. Using genetic fate-mapping techniques, we generated transgenic mice in which 94%–95% of tubular epithelial cells, but no interstitial cells, were labeled with either β-galactosidase (lacZ) or red fluorescent protein (RFP). Two days after ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), 50.5% of outer medullary epithelial cells coexpress Ki67 and RFP, indicating that differentiated epithelial cells that survived injury undergo proliferative expansion. After repair was complete, 66.9% of epithelial cells had incorporated BrdU, compared to only 3.5% of cells in the uninjured kidney. Despite this extensive cell proliferation, no dilution of either cell-fate marker was observed after repair. These results indicate that regeneration by surviving tubular epithelial cells is the predominant mechanism of repair after ischemic tubular injury in the adult mammalian kidney.

      This one pertains to cigarette smoke effecting the alveoli:

      Cigarette smoke inhibits alveolar repair: a mechanism for the development of emphysema.
      Rennard SI, Togo S, Holz O.

      University of Nebraska Medical Center, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 985125 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 98198-5125, USA. srennard@unmc.edu
      Classically, emphysema has been believed to develop when mediators of tissue injury exceed protective mechanisms within the lung. Evidence also supports the concept that tissue destruction represents a balance between tissue injury and tissue repair. In this context, cigarette smoke is directly toxic to cells within the lung and can impair the repair functions of fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and mesenchymal cells. This may occur in the absence of overt cytotoxicity and may result from alteration of selected biochemical pathways. A variety of repair functions can be affected, including chemotaxis, proliferation, production of extracellular matrix, and remodeling of extracellular matrix. Finally, cigarette smoke can damage DNA but can also compromise apoptosis. As a result, DNA repair mechanisms can be initiated, leading to recovery of cells that potentially contain somatic cell mutations. This pathway may contribute not only to the development of cancer but to the persistent abnormalities in tissue structure that characterize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate normal tissue repair and understanding the bases for altered tissue repair in the face of cigarette smoking offer new opportunities designed to address the structural alterations that characterize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

      Effects of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid in Promoting Alveolar Repair*
      Paula N. Belloni, PhD, Laura Garvin, BS, Cheng-Ping Mao, MS, Irene Bailey-Healy, BA, and David Leaffer, BA
      + Author Affiliations

      *From Roche Bioscience, Department of Respiratory Diseases, Palo Alto, CA.
      Abbreviations: ATRA = all-trans-retinoic acid; PCNA = proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PDGF = platelet-derived growth factor; RA = retinoic acid; RAR = retinoic acid receptor; RXR = retinoid X receptor; SP = surfactant protein; TGF = transforming growth factor

      Emphysema is characterized by airway destruction distal to the terminal bronchioles, gradual loss of lung recoil, decreased alveolar surface area, and impaired gas exchange, leading to a reduced FEV1.1 These last two features, impaired gas exchange and reduction in expiratory flow, are characteristic physiologic abnormalities in patients with emphysema. The most common cause of emphysema is cigarette smoking, although other potential environmental toxins also may contribute. These various insulting agents activate destructive processes in the lung, including the release of active proteases and free radical oxidants in excess of protective mechanisms. The imbalance in protease/antiprotease levels leads to the destruction of the elastin matrix and alveolar structure with progressive loss of lung recoil. Removing the injurious agents (ie, quitting smoking) slows the rate of damage; however, unlike the response after acute lung injury, the damaged alveolar structures do not repair and lung function is not regained.

      The relationship between vitamin A status and airway obstruction has been examined in cross-sectional studies.23 These studies established an inverse relationship between plasma retinol status and the degree of airway obstruction (assessed by FEV1). Recent preclinical studies suggest that an analog of vitamin A, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), may promote the repair and/or realveolarization of parenchymal lesions associated with emphysema.4 This study has prompted a surge of new preclinical and clinical research explori

  21. QUESTION:
    what is Fall and Winter like in the Las Angeles area?
    Hi, I may be moving out to the Las Angeles, CA area, and am just wondering, what is Fall and Winter like there? Are there pretty Fall color on the other trees besides palm trees? Does it ever snow, even just a dusting? Coming from Missouri, so give me the raw truth, those of you that have lived there! It would actually be a suburb just outside of LA.

    • ANSWER:
      Terrible. The weather sucks, and the pollution is so bad it will make your lungs collapse.

  22. QUESTION:
    how does the natural cleaning mechanism work against smoking in our body?
    A 72 year old man has been smoking heavily for 24 years and has a persistent cough. a biopsy of his lung tissue revealed considerable amounts of carbon particles. How could this happen considering the natural cleaning mechanism of the respiratory system?

    • ANSWER:
      the sticky tar and nicotine render the cilia ineffective so it couldn't work. it overwhelmed it. might as well put glue down there, he probably has clubbing of his yellow fingertips, a blue greyish appearance, short of breath, an enlarged barrel shaped chest, could be really skinny if has lung ca. yik

  23. QUESTION:
    What regulates the beating of the heart?
    Just wondering what is the process that induces and regulates the beating of the heart. I know that Ca ions stored and released from the SER (smooth endoplasmic reticulum or the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the case of muscle cells) but my knowledge ends there. Thanks in advance for any comments.

    • ANSWER:
      The human heart is really a pump, a powerful muscle the size of your fist that circulates blood to and from the body's millions of cells. It's divided into four chambers. There are two chambers on each side with a wall-like divider between them called a septum that separates the left side from the right side. These two receiving chambers have two passageways called valves. Each side of the heart has two valves that allow blood to pass through the heart. The tricuspid valve on the right and the mitral valve on the left regulate blood flow between the atrium and the ventricle on each side. The right valve is called the pulmonary valve and it allows blood to flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries, which supply the lungs. The left valve is called the aortic valve, which regulates blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta.
      In the normal adult, the heart pumps five liters of blood, which is recirculated continuously through the body. The blood moves from the heart into tubes called arteries, then into tiny tubes called capillaries and finally into the veins that lead back to the heart.
      The entire cycle takes about 60 seconds, during which the blood brings nourishment and oxygen to all the body's cells in the tissues, organs, muscles and bones.
      Here's a more complex description of the blood's journey through the body: The blood moves from the left atrium to the left ventricle through the mitral valve. As the left ventricle contracts, it pushes open the aortic valve and the blood is carried into the aorta, which distributes it to all other body organs including the heart by way of the coronary arteries. These arteries wind around the heart to keep the heart muscle supplied with oxygen and nutrients for its continuous pumping job.
      As wastes are produced, they are delivered through the blood to the right atrium through the vena cava. The accumulated blood pushes open the tricuspid valve, allowing the blood to pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle. After the chamber fills, the heart contracts and the pulmonary valve opens. Blood then flows from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
      The pulmonary artery, which has two branches, carries blood to the right and left lungs. From the lungs, the capillary vessels carry the blood along the lungs' tiny air sacs. As the lungs breathe, carbon dioxide is passed from the body and oxygen is taken in. As this transfer occurs, the blood changes from purple or dark red to bright red.
      After passing through the lungs, the blood is brought by the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. From there, the blood starts its course through the left ventricle and aorta again.

  24. QUESTION:
    How exactly do bone marrow transplants work.. and would I be able to donate?
    My best friend has Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma. It's a relapse. They are talking about giving her a Stem Cell/Bone Marrow Transplant. Can anyone give me information about this? We both have AB+ blood types, so would I be able to donate? I will be having a double lung transplant soon, so would I still be able to donate after that? Does that fact that I'm a boy and she's a girl have an effect on anything? We're 17. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry to hear about your friend's relapse. Patients who do relapse do have a higher rate of survival with a bone marrow transplant (BMT) than those who do not. In order to be a bone marrow donor you must be a healthy individual and be over 18 years old unless you are donating to a sibling. So, since you are 17 you would have to wait until your next birthday to be able to register as a donor. You said you're waiting for a double lung transplant so depending on what the condition is that you are in need of the transplant may disqualify you from being able to be a donor.

      Just being blood type AB+ does not necessarily mean you are a match to your friend. Gender does not play a role in determining if you're a match or not. There are 6 markers they look for in determining how good of a match you are. A 6/6 match is, obviously, the best match but a 5/6 match can also be accepted but there is a slightly greater chance of transplant rejection.

      The test for a possible match is easy - my children all had their cheek swabbed to test and see how close of a match they were to my 2 year old son E who has AML leukemia. He is on the transplant list right now waiting for a BMT and a matching donor. My 6 year old was the closest match but he was not a close enough match to donate to E.

      The donation itself is done under general anesthesia as it can be quite painful. The bone marrow is generally taken from a large bone - usually the hip by aspiration. After the bone marrow is collected, the donor will most likely have bruising and some pain. An increased risk of infection does exist and slightly lower blood counts are possible.

      Before the recipient can have the transplant, he or she must go through intense chemotherapy, or sometimes radiation or both, in order to kill all remaining cancerous cells and to make room for the new bone marrow that is about to be transplanted. After the chemotherapy and/or radiation, the bone marrow is introduced directly into the blood. I'm not sure if your friend has a port-a-cath or a central line of some kind but my son E has a port (which by the way I think is one of the greatest inventions in the history of medicine - it makes everything so much easier). So there is no actual surgery involved in the BMT on the recipient's side. The new stem cells find their way from the blood into the bones and if everything goes right, the transplant will take hold and the donor's cells will take over and produce healthy cells. Typically, hospitalization lasts for over a month to ensure the BMT was effective and is not being rejected. The patient is kept in isolation with only close family allowed to see them due to the fact that they have no immune system. Full recovery typically takes around a year.

      I hope this helped you out some. I hope nothing but the best for you in your transplant, and your friend with hers. If you have any more questions feel free to email me (crazycanuckj@yahoo.ca) or IM me (crazycanuckj).

  25. QUESTION:
    What is a good cardio workout that I can do every week?
    I don't really want just any workout plan, I want one using the "Supra-cardio" technique or in other words more intense, shorter workouts. I heard you give your heart and lungs the best workout this way, by maximizing there capacity and preventing shrinkage. I just don't know how intense, how long and how many times a day/week I should do this. I mostly plan on doing exercises involving running, biking, swimming and others I'm not sure of yet. Any suggestions or comments appreciated!

    • ANSWER:
      please try out reading these sites

      http://www.divine.ca/en/fitness-and-nutrition/articles/c_11_i_2893/super-cardio-workout-1.html

      http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/exercise-healthy-heart

      http://www.freeworkoutsguide.com/fatlosscardioworkout.html

      i hope that these sites would answer your question..wish u a healthy life..

  26. QUESTION:
    Can a blood test show if someone has cancer?
    A friend of mine is worried that he may have lung cancer, will a simple blood test be able to detect it?

    • ANSWER:
      I work in pathology, as the answer is yes. Blood can tell yo a whole plethora of things affecting your health, and can indicate cancer.
      A full blood count (FBC) is a haematology test, examining many parameters. Your platelet and white blood cell count can be indications, though they no not confirm cancer. a PSA (prostate specific antigen) is a blood test that indicates prostate cancer. Other cancer test we frequently use are C19.9 and C125 (cancer antigen 125), which are cancer makers CA-125 is clinically approved for following the response to treatment and predicting prognosis after treatment.

      Hope i could be of help XD
      Good luck to your friend, I hope all is well/

  27. QUESTION:
    Survival rate on Kidney Cancer that has spread to the lung?
    My husband has kidney cancer he has a 13cm x 10cm tumor in his kidney and a mass in his lymph node and it has spread to the one lung. He had a bone scan and that was negative and I am really concerned everything that I read gives no hope. It's like ok it is in the lung so you do not have a very high survival rate. I need some hope. If there is anyone that has survived please give me some hope!

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry to hear about your husband. My son had a stage I favourable histology Wilms Tumor as an infant so we've met lots of other children with the same type of kidney cancer. I know several children who had metastases to the lung and other organs that are alive and well today. It isn't a death sentence and there are many new treatments and clinical trials your husband may be eligible for. Don't give up hope, he could live a perfectly normal life after winning this battle. Best of luck to you and your husband! If you have any more questions feel free to email me (crazycanuckj@yahoo.ca) or IM me (crazycanuckj).

  28. QUESTION:
    How long can we continue the treatment for a patient with damaged lungs? On lifesaving drug...?
    ...and machines for 1 month.
    My mon is suffering from weakened lungs due to Pneumonia and had two cardiac arrests. She was revived by electric shock and injections. The infection is persistent. Its been one month now and we are not able to cope with the financial and emotional burden. There is no improvement in her condition and has to be kept on ventilator + oxygen with heavy antibiotics, albumin etc.Please help.

    • ANSWER:
      if her quality of life can return. this is a question that you need to get at least 2 opinions on.

      you do not say if there is any hope or if the dr recommends taking her off the machines, but after 2 ca’s
      i doesn’t sound real good.

      if i had the choice i would have spent every penny i have and hocked everything i own to have kept my husband alive. but only if his quality of life could return to a somwhat normal life.

      i don’t want to be kept alive with tubes,iv’s, and medications.i have a living will that states this, so there will never be a question of my being a vegetable and being kept alive by heroic measures.

      i believe that when everything that can be done is done it time to let that person go so that they can go to a better place and live eternity in peace.

  29. QUESTION:
    Can I take ibuprofen and prednisone at the same time?
    Was given an antibiotic for pneumonia, plus prednisone to reduce swelling in lungs. Dosage is 60mg prednisone in the mornings for 5 days total (this is the 2nd day). How does prednisone affect ibuprofen? Would it be safe to take 400 or 600 mgs ibuprofen for a backache? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Before you take Ibuprofen, discuss it with your doctor. If he says it's OK, take the dosage he tells you to - no more. Despite what the answer below says...there CAN BE issues with taking both.

      See this for more info...especially the section on "What other drugs will affect Ibuprofen?": http://www.drugs.com/ibuprofen.html It says, "If you are using any of these drugs" (i.e. steriods) "you may not be able to use ibuprofen or you may need dosage adjustments or special tests during treatment." My guess is he/she will recommend against it.

      Don't take aspirin.

      You can take acetaminophen (Tylenol). http://www.bccancer.bc.ca/HPI/DrugDatabase/Appendices/Appendix4/PrednisonePtInfo.htm

      In any case, consult with your doctor...

      Never take 600 mg of Ibuprofen at once. That is well above the recommended dosage of 200-400 mg.

  30. QUESTION:
    Any one use a vapor machine with there babies?
    I have a 13 day old newborn. I was wondering if it is safe to use a Vicks Vapor Mist Machine? Did you ever use one. I posted this a little while ago and she said the mist might hurt his lungs? Could that happen? Just some info would be nice!

    • ANSWER:
      humidifiers are good, they remove pollutants from the air, just don't point it straight at baby's face, or put it too close.
      http://www.toysrus.ca/product/index.jsp?productId=2774069&isProductCrossSell=true

  31. QUESTION:
    How do I look for leading physicians ( oncologists ) that specialize in lung cancer or thoracic cancer in CA?
    Okay, my grandmother just got diagnosed with Stage 3a lung cancer and I am looking for leading oncologists in california. I would especially like those who specialize in lung cancer if possible.

    Does anyone have any tips or websites on where I should begin my search.

    We are searching ONLY IN CALIFORNIA, but anywhere throughout California is fine.

    Thank you!!

    Any experience with any oncologists, good or not, would be appreciated as well.... =)

    • ANSWER:
      Medicine is a .1 trillion a year business in this country, and the system is set up to suck the wealth and life out of the American public. Only 1 in 3 people with cancer live for 5 years after diagnosis, and that number hasn't changed significantly in the last 30 years, despite many billions being spent of 'research' every year.

      I have cancer now. I'm disgusted with the system, and have turned to alternative medicine since my doctors have told me there is no hope. Bitter? Yes, I am--and my anger has motivated me to learn about repressed natural methods of disease control.

      You are just starting in the meat grinder right now, and I strongly urge you to look for an answer besides artificial drugs, surgery and radiation. Here are some books I have read from cover to cover, that are now helping me to survive way beyond my doctors' grim predictions--

      "The Cure for All Cancers"
      "A Cancer Therapy"
      "Oxygen Therapies"
      "Hydrogen Peroxide--Medical Miracle"
      "The Natural Cure for Cancer--Germanium"
      "Killing Cancer"
      "Natural Cures 'They' Don't Want You to Know About"

      There are many other good books about surviving this disease, and you should know about this option, even if you choose to go the traditional route with it's abysmal prognosis. Best of luck.

  32. QUESTION:
    How does inhaling fiberglass cause cancer?
    Can your lungs heal if you inhaled it once by accident?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi, It is unlikely that you will have any problems if it was a one off exposure! Depends on what it was you inhaled. My brother owned a fibreglass manufacturing company for almost 10 years and I'm sure that he would have inhaled more than his fair share over that time. He is now 65 and doing fine! Having said that, one of his employees who was 17 at the time did develop lung cancer and is sadly no longer with us, as to whether that was fibreglass related? Well we never knew for sure.

      The thing is that breathing in the small fibrous glass particles ca be harmfull by embedding themselves in the lungs, I guess in a not too disimilar fashion as asbestos.

  33. QUESTION:
    How can I get my dog focus on me when walk?
    I have a 1 year old GSD male, he's kind of very high energy dog, when I walk him, he likes to pull the leash, not focus on me. when he sees other dogs on the street close by him, he will lung, bark, and pulling to other dog, he is almost bigger than me and I can't pull him back. Please advice me how I can get his attention once the other dogs pass by, and how to get him to ignore them, I don't want him to hurt other dogs and get into a fight.

    • ANSWER:
      DONT get a HARNESS.. they are designed to encourage and make it easier for dogs to pull.. it just feels like less pulling because the weight is distributed more evenly (which is why it is easier for them to pull) .. think of sled dogs... they wear harnesses.

      Teach the "watch" command which can be found here if you don't know how to do it:

      http://www.about-cocker-spaniels.com/training-a-puppy-watch.html

      also, use a martingale collar, if you don't know what it is, here is a picture:

      http://www.google.ca/imgres?imgurl=http://www.healthypawspetinsurance.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/martingale-collar.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.healthypawspetinsurance.com/blog/tag/martingale-collar/&usg=__b4rnPAoQkzQwvIPCvjHb6s2lM48=&h=280&w=280&sz=10&hl=en&start=0&zoom=1&tbnid=EgCXprQ7gDGwrM:&tbnh=162&tbnw=161&ei=uNDfTbDrFIW5tgfekpzwCQ&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dmartingale%2Bcollar%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26biw%3D1366%26bih%3D653%26tbm%3Disch&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=756&vpy=92&dur=1133&hovh=162&hovw=161&tx=156&ty=121&page=1&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:3,s:0&biw=1366&bih=653

      and a 6 foot leash.

      When your dog starts to focus on the dog or person, give the "watch me" command, reward if he does it right away.. you want to break the focus from the distraction. If he ignores it, give him a correction with the leash and collar.

      repeat as necessary, and dont be afraid to practice.. using family and friends with their dogs.. training in a controlled situation often helps, before training 'in the real world"

  34. QUESTION:
    Are the new FDA restrictions on tobacco products an abuse of government power?
    In a recent news article posted on Yahoo! "Historic anti-smoking vote to give FDA new power", it states that "The legislation [...] would give the Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate the content, marketing and advertising of cigarettes and other tobacco products.

    I don't smoke cigarettes, nor do I advocate them, but think is a gross abuse of government power. Tobacco products already have the strictest rules concerning advertising (in CA ads are practically limited to magazines and gas stations only). Now the government is attempting to regulate it even more.

    Also, in an odd "change-of-the-poles" effect, the government now IS Big Tobacco. Picture this, the government is now in control of what Big Tobacco makes, how it makes it, what it markets, how it advertises, and profits from it substantially through 300%+ tax rates excised on tobacco products in cities such as New York.

    Does anyone else see several very wrong things with this scenario? Please no heated remarks about how cigarettes kill - WE KNOW.
    gomanyes - "do you think that requiring FDA approval to sell a drug is also an abuse of government power?"

    Yes, I do think that is another example of the government's abuse of power. I believe gov. should only act as a facilitator, never* an inhibitor. Build roads, build schools, but let the markets do as they please. If the FDA wants to put a stamp on things it approves, that's fine. But making non-approved products illegal is an abuse of power, because people have the right to choose what they put in to their bodies, whether it be cigarettes, alcohol, or medicine.
    Bill M - I would agree with you if corporations forced people to consume their products. However the fact remains that individuals have the ability to choose whether or not they use tobacco products, and in what capacity. Would you like to edit your comment to include a rebuttal?
    Lea R - I did not know until reading your post how severe the circumstances were in Canada surrounding tobacco and alcohol. It is interesting to learn how different things are.
    It worries me because we are continuously creating more restrictive laws, but hardly ever do we abandon them. We are losing our freedoms inch by inch.

    Many think cigarettes should be bad because of the health implications, but where does that road end? Will they next ban chocolate, and butter, and candy, and steak, and ham, because they all in some way or another can be detrimental to ones health?

    People cit how many people have died from cigarettes frequently. It's as if people think "If it weren't for tobacco, no one would ever die, so we should get rid of it." I fail to see the logic in fruitlessly attempting to prevent something that is inevitable. (death)

    • ANSWER:
      The bill gives the FDA to not only regulate nicotine and tar, it allows them to outlaw tobacco completely. The reasoning is that curtailing smoking is in the public good, promotes better health, and will lower health costs.
      All admirable.
      However, it is the camel under the tent that bothers me.
      The same argument can be said about regulating butter, red meat, alcohol, and sugar.
      While obesity and heart disease are far larger health risks and cost society much more in terms of long term health care, (lung cancer is a very efficient killer, most patients die within 2 years. Diabetes, on the other hand takes decades of care, and vis a vis lung cancer, costs the medical system much more. So if they can justify limiting nicotine, they can surely justify limiting your sugar content.
      Problem is I dont want the government telling me how much sugar I , or you, can partake in.
      Beware, more governmnet dictums are on the way.

  35. QUESTION:
    My mother does have a tumor in her pancreas that has not been able yet to be determined if it is pancreatic ca?
    not been able to get a confirmed diagnosis if it is pancreatic cancer although she has been diagnosed with lung cancer and the doctor is trying to find out if she has pancreatic cancer and it has spread to the lungs. We are still waiting on this and been going on for four months now, but just recently she has been passing white stools, could this be a sign that it is pancreatic cancer or just that she has a tumor in her pancreas?

    • ANSWER:
      We can't give you the answer you want. There is, as you know, something wrong. White stool is caused by a lack of bile which could indicate a duct obstruction.

      "Obstruction of the biliary duct (due to gallstones, inflammation, fibrosis, cancer, pressure from outside (pancreatic cancer or cyst, abdominal tumor like fibroma)."

      I am sorry, that isn't much help to you. I hope the obstruction turns out to be something innocent and treatable.

  36. QUESTION:
    In the case of Genes, how would I determine my chances of developing cancer?
    Both of my Grandmothers, Maternal and Paternal, died of Lung cancer, does this mean that I have a genetic disposition to potentially have it too? None of my other relatives have developed it.

    • ANSWER:
      A family history of lung cancer increases your risk of lung cancer, but this DOES NOT mean that you will get lung cancer. Similar to say...an obesity gene, you can have the gene but never have a weight gain issue. It's whether the gene expresses itself or not that matters. Environmental factors, such as smoking, can trigger this similar to how Type II diabetes may be triggered with pregnancy.

      You'd need to speak to your doctor if you have concerns. But I wouldn't dwell on this and think that you will eventually develop lung CA. The fact that the rest of your family is fine should be reassuring to you. Genetics counseling is probably not necessary. This is usually done only with a strong family history of cancer; in general, this means a family history that includes several affected relatives, with at least some affected at atypically early ages. But again, speak to your doctor if you have concerns.

  37. QUESTION:
    I am looking for silica-free safe sandbox sand. Where can I find it?
    I do not want to buy online, they charge 1.00 a lb shipping. I need 300 lbs. So far I have heard that Home Depot and Orchard supply might carry it. I'm in central CA. I'd like more options. Silica free has no quartz in it, so no need for the prop 65 warning.

    • ANSWER:
      OK here is a thread you might want to read that deals with the
      playground sand/
      sandbox sand/
      silica free-sand/
      sandblasters getting lung cancer issue

      http://parents.berkeley.edu/recommend/where2buy/sandbox.html
      Amazingly this is a big issue out where you are apparently.
      I don't rememeber any sand box I ever played in where the sand was absolutely dry.
      Seems the issue is the dust in the sand. We never had any dust in any sand box I ever played in.
      The play sand at Home depot worked for my kids.

  38. QUESTION:
    Is there any type of funding for kids with multiple disabilities?
    I have a grandson who's 4 yrs old with cerebral palsy, arthrogryposis, chronic lung disease, etc. He has a tracheal diversion, feeding tube, etc. I'm looking for any information on information about funds that are out there to help, with putting in a ramp, getting a vehicle for a wheelchair, etc.

    • ANSWER:
      It depends where you live. In CA, we have Regional Centers. Other states should have similar agencies to help. The Regional Center here has paid for hot tubs, wheelchair ramps, home construction to widen doorways for wheelchair access, etc.

      Check with Easter Seals, or United Cerebral Palsy. They will have info. to guide you along in your search. Good luck.

  39. QUESTION:
    What kind of literary device is this?
    I hadn't taken a breath and my lungs felt squashed, like there was a semi-trailer sitting on top of them.

    • ANSWER:
      It's a Simile.

      Here's a webpage that has a lot of great information plus and explanation of what each of them is.

      http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/de/resources/litdevices/index.html

      Blessings

  40. QUESTION:
    What is the best mask to use to filter out noxious fumes?
    I make belt buckles and use E6000 glue to adhere the pieces together. It's very strong, and has a carcinogen warning from CA, and so the fumes are not healthy to breathe in.

    I don't want a huge mask, just something that will filter out as much of the fumes as possible....I don't want to get lung cancer!

    Thanks so much :)

    • ANSWER:
      place a vacuum near your work to expell the fumes -(preferably) outside. Use your head girl.

  41. QUESTION:
    whats the best way to build up lung power to run?
    I have asthma, and want to be able to run to make losing weight faster. What is the best way to build up my stamina endurance, I get out of breath just walking fast. I really want to run. Any suggestions?

    • ANSWER:
      since walking fast is dificult for you now.. just walk fast for 2+hours at a time with out stopping, everyday and each day push yourself harder to walk faster, eventually you will be jogging and eventually running, it will take time but you gotta keep pushing yourself. being out of breath is good. its nessicary. so is chest pain. all runners get out of breath and get chest pain, its nessicary. just gota get used to it.

      gain muscle, loose fat
      drink 1+cup water per hour, eat healthy varities 2000+cals a day, exersize hard 2+hours a day, strech 2+hours a day
      mon upper body, tues cardio, wed low, thr ca fri up sat ca sun rest
      work the muscle until u cant move it, its good to have muscle pain 1-7days after a session, dont work the muscle when its sore, wait til it doesnt hurt b4 u work it agian.
      A picture of 5lbs of fat and 5lbs of muscle next to eachother = http://www.onemorebite-weightloss.com/muscle-to-fat.html
      the thinnest you should look = http://clicknspark.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/_mg_0543-lockers-bria-med-logo.jpg
      too thin = http://blog.singersroom.com/celebs/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/buckeey.jpg

      answer mine? its about if girls or boys should have more muscle? pics inside! http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090709192129AAgZzlO

  42. QUESTION:
    What state and city should I move to?
    I need to move for health reasons. I would like to move to a city with weather like Anaheim, CA, but with less pricey homes. (Home prices between 250K- 315K are okay.) I want warmish winters -No Snow!!!!!- and summers that are not beastly hot. Up to 90 or 100 degrees (f.) is okay as long as it doesn't last for weeks on end and as long as it is --Not Humid!!--. I need lots of sun and I absolutely need clear air! (No smog, no inversions - if there is a potential for lots of fires, I need the wind to keep the smoke away from my lungs.) A small house is okay (no smaller than 2 bed, 2 bath) and it needs a small walking space for the dogs or a park nearby so the dogs can play. Please message me with your best suggestions! I will investigate everyones! Thank you!

    • ANSWER:
      Move to Charlotte, North Carolina. Great prices with the homes... around 200k and 300k. Many of which are actually two-story houses. Quite nice.
      We have warm winters... actually... quite warm this year, it was kind of scary. Our summers are... reasonable... between 90 and 100. And we have plenty of parks here in Charlotte, in fact... it's a policy of our leaders to keep greenery throughout our lovely and wonderous city.
      Secondly, the LOCATION. Just two hours away from the lovely mountains, and three hours away from beautiful Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. OR... if Myrtle Beach is a little... too up-beat, you can head to a more quieter coastline-- such the coastlines of North Carolina... tall grass and sandy beaches... the water... the waves... seagulls. And a lot less people than there are in Myrtle Beach.

      So, please check out Charlotte, North Carolina. It's a beautiful... city, friendly people... and the absolute best place to live. And I've been all of the world... and nothing is like Charlotte.

  43. QUESTION:
    can you puncture a lung if you lifted something really really heavy?
    i tied to lift a car, im dumb yes do not ask why, because i do not know, ca i puncture a lung that way? i felt a pop in my back and like a jolt in my chest, really scared, im 16 and dumb, please answer

    • ANSWER:
      Anyone can 'puncture' a lung just by coughing or moving; it's called a spontaneous pneumothorax. There are normally weaker areas in the lining of the lungs and sometimes those weak points give. Tall thin teenaged males are most at risk - smoking makes the chances of a pneumo increase.

      More than likely you 'popped' some rib cartilage.

      If you have any pain when you inhale/exhale, or difficulty breathing then you should have a responsible family member take you to the hospital emergency room or call 911.

  44. QUESTION:
    Taking a pre-employment physical for Police Department. What might this consist of?
    On Tuesday I will be taking a pre-employment medical physical for a large Orange County CA police department. What will this include? Blood work? Drug test?
    They have asked me to fast for 12 hours prior to the physical, why would they require that? Is the failure rate for this part of the employment process high? I have never had a physical before, any insight to the process would be greatly appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      It will generally be a pretty thorough physical and should consist of:

      vision test

      hearing test

      range of motion and strength test

      reflexes

      listen to heart/lungs

      probably check for hernias/ruptures (turn your head and cough while the doctor feels your lower groin area)

      The blood test will be looking for cholesterol/triglycerides, blood sugar and any other abnormalities. Some of these are affected by eating so that's why the fasting is required.

      Oh, and there will be a drug screen looking for opiates, THC, amphetamines, cocaine and PCP and an alcohol screen, either of your blood or breath.

      They are looking for anything that could affect your ability to perform as a police officer or pre-existing conditions that could result in your making a disability claim after you're hired. They also want to be sure you are not using drugs.

      There is also usually a psychological testing component to the pre-employment process for law enforcement positions. I have a friend who flunked that part of it.

      Good luck.

  45. QUESTION:
    How are these wildfires affecting my health?
    I live in the Bay Area, CA and it's been smokey here since last Saturday! It's depressing to say the least, however, my family and I have been sneezing a lot and just feel tired and sneezy. What can I do to protect our lungs! Any suggestions??

    • ANSWER:
      I know of an old person who died from it years ago but who knows, that was just the last straw for them. Smoke in general is not good for you it causes free radicals that bind to your DNA and cause mutations in a long term way. Short term is breathing difficulties and headaches. Stay out of it if you can. I wouldn't worry about it too much though, the air is probably worse inside.

  46. QUESTION:
    What do I do ? Will transportation be a problem? ?
    I have no car, my fiancé and I are moving to Santa Monica ca in July from Arizona but cannot find an apartments in our pricing range in Santa Monica but found plenty in Los Angeles but are unsure if it'll be a big deal for transportation. Any ideas!?

    • ANSWER:
      I've said it before and I'll say it again. In L.A. you need a car like you need your lungs. A car isn't a luxury here, it is a necessity. The city is huge and very spread out. It was mostly built after the advent of the automobile, so its layout developed on the assumption that people would drive to their destinations, not walk. Taxis are far too expensive at these distances. Public transportation is mostly a joke. You have to have your own car if you plan to live in L.A. There's really no practical way around it.

  47. QUESTION:
    How much does a low venous oxygen saturation affect judgement?
    When brought to the ER with liquid in her lungs (pleural effusion as a result of terminal metastatic breast cancer) my late wife's venous oxygen saturation was measured as 46% (as recorded on hospital file). Just then, in my absence, a relative got her to sign a will and now claims it's valid. Less than two days later she died, but had time to tell me that she shouldn't have signed anything when she was feeling so 'agitated'. I calmed her, telling her I would take care of it, and not to worry.

    Does anyone out there have the medical know-how to tell me whether I am well founded in contesting the will, and that its worthwhile (despite my state of bereavement) to start looking for lawyers and expert witnesses?
    A note for "biomed": You may have jumped to conclusions - as father of our infant daughter, I have to make sure that her mother's bequethment to her is protected. As much as I would just like to say 'to hell with this head-ache', I am motivated by parental responsiblity, rather than greed, to find a just solution.

    • ANSWER:
      Was the signature notarized? If not, it may not be legal. Assuming it was - I think you certainly could argue that your wife was not of sound mind when she signed that document. You have the medical records to back you up. 46% is very low and can cause confusion. You also said mets breast ca - did she have brain mets? If so - there's another claim that perhaps your wife was not of sound mind. I also assume she was on pain meds - again, I would question whether or not she was of sound mind.

      I'm not a lawyer, but I am a health care provider who all too frequently sees "well meaning" relatives crawl out of the woodwork when someone is on their death bed, especially when there is money involved. You never see these relatives when these patients really are very sick and could use them to help get them to appointments or just be there for them.

  48. QUESTION:
    How do i go about sueing a hospital?
    My boyfriend was jumped over the weekend and put in Kaiser in Sacramento, CA. They started giving him morphine and the doctor who set up the dripline messed up and ended up giving my boyfriend 4x the amount he was supposed to have. Luckily he is okay, but his lung collapsed, what should i do? should i sue them?

    • ANSWER:
      They should be sued! But your boyfriend is the one who should sue them.


lung ca

Mens Breast Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know where to buy a mens running top that has a breast cancer ribbon on it?
    My mom just passed away due to breast cancer and I do alot of 5K's. I would like to support her some way. Any ideas?

    • ANSWER:
      You can buy men's breast cancer awareness shirts on eBay at
      http://rover.ebay.com/rover/1/711-53200-19255-0/1?icep_ff3=9&pub=5574634183&toolid=10001&campid=5335994191&customid=&icep_uq=breast+cancer+shirt&icep_sellerId=&icep_ex_kw=&icep_sortBy=12&icep_catId=1059&icep_minPrice=&icep_maxPrice=&ipn=psmain&icep_vectorid=229466&kwid=902099&mtid=824&kw=lg

  2. QUESTION:
    Are there any dangerous side effects from taking Toremifene?
    My brother is doing a study to see the effects of Toremifene on healthy young males semen. Its supposed to prevent prostate cancer. It has already been approved by the FDA for use in women to treat breast cancer now they just want to see the effects on mens semen. I was a little skeptical about this but it doesn't seem all that bad since it is already out to the public. He takes 20 mg once a day. Are there any bad side effects that could happen from him taking this?

    • ANSWER:
      google it and read the dosing instructions. it will list potential side effects.

  3. QUESTION:
    Why don't women support awareness for "male" cancers in the same degree men support breast cancer awareness?
    You always see male professional athletes wearing pink wristbands, armbands, and cleats on television to support breast cancer awareness.

    Why don't you see women wearing testicular or prostate cancer ribbons?

    Is it because modern women feel their problems are more important than men's? Why does contemporary society devalue men?
    Ellen: Men make up less than 1% of all breast cancer patients - these are usually men who are overweight and/or have higher than normal levels of estrogen.

    We all know breast cancer primarily effects women.

    • ANSWER:
      I never was aware there were bands for mens cancer but I do support it or the research of it. My brother in law died from prostate cancer, he was a veteran of vietnam and I told him to go to VA and see if it was the effects of agent orange at which he did and was treated and received compensation for it.

  4. QUESTION:
    What is a good deodorant AND antiperspirant product that will keep me B.O free?
    I am alittle scared of te whole " aluminum causes alziemers" and" aluminum gives you breast cancer" but i dont want to be a sweaty freak i"m only thirteen so keep that in mind please> so a deo and anti that will keep me dry n clean without too much aluminum poisoning if u can lol

    • ANSWER:
      I feel like mens deo works better. I use degree and love it, the ultra dry. Remember that hair absorbs smell, so make sure your pitts are hair free!!!

  5. QUESTION:
    Where could i get a pair of Breast Cancer Awareness Nike Zoom Vapor Carbon Cleats?
    I'm trying to search for these cleats to buy online and I can't seem to find any but only one pair in Ebay but its size 10 mens and i wear 8.5 mens. I also don't buy stuff off off Ebay.

    • ANSWER:
      When they have the breast cancer month or week this season they will put the equipment up for sale on NFL.com

  6. QUESTION:
    Why is there always more support and more funding for women's cancers versus mens?
    Women already live longer than men, and they get something like 5 times more money for breast cancer research than prostate cancer research... all i ever see is pink ribbons...

    Men work longer and harder than women, and they pay way more in taxes and get a lot less in return so what the hell gives??? Why does society value women way above men???
    I am not sexist I am simply telling the truth... Im sick and tired of seeing men being treated as if they are second class citizens...

    • ANSWER:
      Women have gone out there beaten a drum to get research money for breast cancer.

      Question is, where are the men who are doing it for prostate cancer?

      I'd support it if it were organised... I think you'd find a lot of women would support prostate cancer, like men have supported breast cancer.

  7. QUESTION:
    Where can I buy pink breast cancer awareness mens t-shirts with proceeds going to charity?
    October is coming up.

    • ANSWER:
      Go to any of the breast cancer websites (there is a list under Contacts on www.after-cancer.com) and most sell what you want - and you know the profits are going completely to the charity.

      Thanks for support - I am a breast cancer survivor

      Verite R

  8. QUESTION:
    Where can i find mens breast cancer awareness jerseys?
    more or less like the pink jerserys that the teams have this year..
    Mens jerseys i know where i can find the womens ones...

    • ANSWER:
      yea...you can get them at nflshop.com
      your other option and idk if it will actually work but you can go into a sports store and ask if they have any or ask if you can get one shipped to the store or to your house

  9. QUESTION:
    wat if i dont start taking the oral contraceptive pil on my 1st day of menstruation instead 7 days b4 mens?
    i start taking the oral contraceptive pill today because i will engage in sexual intercourse tomorow only and will not happen again within 3 months. my menstruation period will come 7 days from this day. will i get pregnant?

    • ANSWER:
      If you have to have sex, use a condom. Otherwise tell him to keep it in his pants and wait till your married. Taking the pill is not good for you, it can cause cancer and:

      * Larger breasts
      * Weight gain or loss
      * Reduced or increased acne
      * Slight nausea
      * Emotional sensitivity right before your period
      * Mood swings throughout your cycle
      * Irregular bleeding or spotting
      * Breast tenderness
      * Decreased libido
      * Increased risk of cervical and breast cancers
      * Increased risk of heart attack and stroke
      * Migraines
      * Higher blood pressure
      * Gall bladder disease
      * Infertility
      * Benign liver tumors
      * Decreased bone density
      * Yeast overgrowth and infection
      * Increased risk of blood clotting

  10. QUESTION:
    Are the Wilson Womens Hope clubs good quality and worth buying? How do Dunlop or Acuity clubs rate?
    Been using mens clubs and want to try womens instead.

    • ANSWER:
      My first set of golf clubs were the Wilson Womens Hope clubs and I loved them. They did everything for me that I needed and served me well. The set includes the variety of clubs that you need to play a good game of golf and improve your score while increasing your skill level. The new set includes a hybrid as well. The bonus is that the purchase helps support the fight against breast cancer. The pink clubs are a constant reminder.

      The Acuity Clubs are also good and come highly recommended. I know ladies in the league who play with them and like them very much. They like the forgiveness of them and the accuracy they maintain in their shots.

      I have reviewed both of these sets in an article review on my website which is a website for women golfers..

  11. QUESTION:
    Women: Do you really believe that there is huge discrimination against you?
    Last time I’ve checked, I haven’t seen much of discrimination from the federal government when it comes for the employment and their pay scales. The federal health agency spends more money on women’s health than on men’s. According to the federal statistics there are 39 states that have an office of women’s health and only six have one for men. A search of more than 3,000 medical journals listed in Index Medicus found that 23 articles were written on women’s health for each one written on men’s. Although a woman is only 14 percent more likely to die from breast cancer than a man is from prostate cancer, funding for breast cancer research is 660 percent greater than funding for prostate cancer research. Even the post office has gotten into the act: there is only one disease for which you can buy a postage stamp and the profits will go to research to cure the disease: breast cancer, even though heart disease kills millions more men prematurely.
    It does not seem like discrimination to me.
    Is it really the truth that women make $.75 for every dollar that men earn?
    If an employer has to pay a man a dollar for the same work a woman would do for seventy cents, why would anyone hire a man?” And if it were due to male bosses undervaluing women, wouldn’t an all-female business soon put a male-dominated one out of business?
    It just doesn't make sense to me
    Traveller glass ceiling is a myth when equating for job difficulty, unpleasantness, hours per week worked, years of experience, etc., women earn more than men for the same work. Jobs as computer programmers pay well but require never ending training in highly technical material and long, deadline-driven days cogitating at maximum in isolation. Few women are willing to do that work, so 75 percent of programmers are men. Jobs in sweltering, being prison guards, sanitation workers, crane opperators, masons, clanging, carcinogenic iron foundries pay well, but few women are willing to do that work. According to the Jobs Rated Almanac, fewer than one percent(!) of ironworkers are women.
    Baba Yaga, you are greatly mistaking. I used to have a great respect for you, until you attacked me. I was just defending myself against your verbal abuse aimed against me. So, don’t confuse my despise for you and for a woman’s issues. I used to volunteer for the NOW organization while in college and for the Abuse shelters for battered women.
    When I have daughters I want them to be treated based on their actions. I want them to be treated equally to men on the work field. When I have daughters I want them to be treated based on their actions. I want them to be treated equally to men on the work field. I work as a teacher and my pay is equal to all female teachers who have started at the same time as me. So, I don’t believe it and I work for private school and not some public school.
    Baba Yafa I have never called you a feminazi or a lesbian. NEVER. Show me porof where I called you that.
    I olny called you a b***, because you called me a Chauvinist pig (when I am not one) nor have ever been one.
    Sorry for the misspelled words. I typed to fast and didn’t proof read anything. What are you trying to prove by posting my question from before? The contact of that question was the same as the one right now. We do not need the feminist movement in today’s society where the women are treated equally to the men.
    Wreckless, 11% of all Fortune-500 senior executives are women. Now, you may ask why such a smaller number. Well accroding to The primary reason for the 11% figure is that men, on average, are willing to devote more time to their career. And time it takes. A study conducted by Dr. Warren Farrell (presient of NOW and the only man to hold such postion) The Business Roundtable, an association of CEOs, found that the average CEO works 58 hours per week. Fortune 500 CEOs likely work even more. Most women make different choices. The October 10, 2004 lead story on 60 Minutes and the September 2003 New York Times Magazine story documented that a majority even of Ivy- and Stanford-educated female alumni did not work full time. Harvard Business School reports that only 38% of its female MBA graduates, during their childbearing years, work full-time.
    Baba Yaga again it was your response and not mine. You have not showed me where I called you a lesbian. Plus, it is unfair for you to not post the complete remark where I provided books on the topic to show that societies place standards on women rights. I really do not like it when people do not post the complete replies and just pick at sentence that best suits their needs.
    Pandora, I bow my head to you. Thank you for volunteering to serve, protect, and safe guard my freedom. I hope to one day see you as a general or maybe even as a secretary of defense. Good luck to you.
    Baba Yaga, I have never said that English was my native language. I have immigrated to USA couple of years ago and am still learning English. When I came to this awesome country I only knew one word which was, “hello.” FYI English is not the only language in the world. The language that I speak over 300 million people speaks it. If you would like I can debate with you in Russian and you will quickly see that my writing skills are in par with my verbal skills. Also, I never said that I teach in English, but I do teach in RUSSIAN and yes I am a teacher so Deal with it.

    • ANSWER:
      Obviously we have come an awfully long way from the days when women weren't allowed to vote etc. but I dont believe it is an equal situation as yet. I think the issue nowadays is not so cut and dry as somebody consciously discriminating against another based on gender.

      Unfortunately there are still men in powerful jobs who will not hire a woman for a position because they dont think a woman would be able to handle the job or they are afraid that they are just going to get pregnant and bugger off when they're needed but they are fortunately a minority.

      Middle management roles are often made up mostly of women but the dynamic shifts the higher up you get. Part of this is because it is not in most womens nature to go for a powerful job that requires cut throat decisions and ridiculous hours. Because of this not many women apply for jobs at an executive level and as there are less roles available at this level they end up competing against one another instead of helping each other succeed.

      Another hindrance to women is that alot of networking is still done on the golf course and not as many women play golf (sounds silly but I have heard first hand accounts of female executives missing out on crucial information or opportunities because they werent at a golf game they never even got invited to)

      With regards to lower pay the reason women get lower pay for the same job is because they generally accept the offered rate and men will quite often have more confidence to barter for a higher wage than what was on offer. This is mostly a confidence thing and there are definitely confident women out there but I read an interesting article once which suggested that when most men look at a job description for a new role they will confidently go for the job if they have about 80% of the required skills whereas a woman with 80% of the required skills would focus on the 20% she doesnt possess and probably not go for it.

      Anyway, it is an interesting question I have obviously focused on just the employment aspect because thats the only one I feel I have much knowledge on but with regards to the funding for breast cancer etc I think that is all about marketing. The organisations looking for money for breast cancer research are damn good at marketing, everybody knows about the pink ribbons etc. It doesnt make it any more important than any other disease, unfortunately its just all about business.
      Maybe we should all contact the organisations who arrange funding for research etc for mens diseases and tell them to pick up their act.

  12. QUESTION:
    what type of cancer affects people between 35years - 45years the most?
    I read that pancreatic cancer mainly affects people over 55.

    • ANSWER:
      women breast, dont know bout mens

  13. QUESTION:
    Tell me how modern feminism has affected the lives of both genders and the society.?
    I see people on GWS tell that modern feminism is not about equality anymore but supremacy and man-hating and then there are feminist who defend feminist movement saying that there are no hidden agendas involved and that feminists are all noble people with good intentions.

    Who should I believe?

    I have had my fair share of bad experiences with feminist women(Teachers, professors, bosses).

    ps: By modern feminism I mean feminism in recent years not when it first started and give more rights to women.
    Suspended in Gaffa-" Not all feminists are good, altruistic people."
    That simply doesnt cut it when you say not all are bad.
    If there are some man hating feminist then what have feminists done to get rid of the man hating trash in the feminist movement?

    • ANSWER:
      Modern feminism, from the 70s onwards, has influenced many, if not all, of the following. I cant think of any negative aspects for women because, well, its FEMinism.

      Here are some examples

      Its all about a mothers rights, but no fathers rights. The new family unit is now defined as a mother and her children.

      Women being treat like princesses in prison and men being treat like animals. Female prison guards humiliate and degrade men, but female prisoners get privacy and respect from male prison guards.

      Bodily choice for women, but forced genital mutilation for baby boys, referring to womens rights to their bodies in terms of abortion, but boys being circumcised without choice.

      Female reporters allowed in men’s locker rooms, but privacy and respect for female athletes. Very strange definition of equality that feminsim was very vocal about as being equal rights. Is this an example of the respect that feminists claim MEN dont have for WOMEN?

      Its women getting everything in a divorce, and men being torn away from their children

      Female sex offenders being slapped on the wrist, but male sex offenders being incarcerated the rest of their lives

      Its men being sentenced to more time for the same crime than women. This can be reserached under the US government and shows that women dont get held accountable to the level that men do.

      Its a feminized education system that cripples natural behavior of boys, makes being male a crime in school, then girls claiming they are smarter.

      Why is it when two people under the age of consent have sex, only the boy is charged with doing something wrong?

      Its women being allowed to drown five children and using the fact she is a woman to get away with it - Andrea Yates

      Its women being allowed to use domestic violence as an excuse to murder a sleeping husband, even though there is no evidence of domestic abuse - Mary Winkler

      Its the extensive abuse of restraining orders to villify an innocent man and get leverage in a divorce.

      Its men being jailed for defending themselves against an abusive wife, but called a wimp if he takes the abuse

      Its women demanding respect from men, but never having to respect them in return

      Its women having the choice between abortion, adoption, dropping an unwanted baby off at a hospital, raising the child with a father, or raising the child without a father, but the only choice men have is to agree.

      Its 3 innocent Duke Lacrosse players losing their lives because we dont ever think a woman could lie about rape - let alone prosecute her for doing so.

      Its women labeling men as abusive when the US government has shown women cause more child abuse than men.

      Its female rape being horrendous, but male rape being funny and made in to comedy movies. Rape is a legally accepted part of the justice system, but only against men.

      Its just about every TV show being allowed to humiliate and degrade men, but women complaining and calling it sexist if they were treated the same.

      It’s more health care spending going towards women’s health than mens.Breast cancer receives 7 times the funding of prostate cancer. There are three departments of womens health in the US government, but none for men. However, men live an average of 5 years less than women when the genders used to have the same life span.

      Its allowing women only clubs and banning men only clubs

      It’s doing everything we can to help girls in math and science, but letting boys fall further behind in everything else.

      It’s defining equal pay for equal work as men playing five sets of tennis, but women only playing three. Maybe women claiming 3=5 is the reason for the above point

      Its cutting men’s sports in college in favor of women’s sports that have no interest

      Its female murderers being mentally ill, but male murderers just being evil

      Its claiming men walk out on their family when its actually women who file 80% of divorces

      Its men being portrayed as evil, stupid or buffoons on TV and all women being perfect or superior.

      Its women wanting equality for their gender, but men being called chauvinist pigs when they want equality for their gender

      Its fixing the education system when girls are failing, and blaming the boys when boys are failing

      Its women being allowed to level false accusation against an innocent man without consequence. Read Duke Lacrosse and many other examples. Feminism has installed this right to women through the courts.

      Its a man being a chauvanist, sexist pig when he doesnt respect women, but a women who doesnt respect men is an admirable, strong and independant woman.

      Its feminists not being able to provide one example of legal discrimination against women today

  14. QUESTION:
    What are some side effects of the birth control pill?
    My parents are putting me on it and I would kinda like to know what to expect
    Oh and I am not a slut, or some stupid little 13 year old, so no lectures please. I'm nearly 18

    • ANSWER:
      they all are trying to scare u.The BC have indeed some side effects(hair lose, high appetite for food, some times infertility) but only if you take them for too long and without a break.SO long as a doc advice u what to take and when to stop, they have more benefits than side effects (prevent ovarian cancer or breast cancer, regularity of periods, low mens. flux, avoid ovarian cysts or cure the existent ones).So don't worry and talk to your doc.
      good luck!

  15. QUESTION:
    What does it mean when my dad wants Time to himself?
    What does it mean if your dad wants time by himself? He wants to go somewhere drunk and have to time to "Think about things"? What is that supposed to mean! He tries to go out and my mom threatens to leave him and take me and my 4 year old sister with her! Can anyone relate to my problems???

    • ANSWER:
      How do you know he wants to just get drunk?

      As for time to himself, jobs worked by men have on the job fatality rates 700 times higher than jobs worked by women, yet the men are blamed for earning more. In the last two years, 80% of layoff were men, so he's not sure he will have a job tomorrow.

      TV programs make fathers look like jokes.

      There are no mens health programs or commissions funded by the government, while there are over 200 fully funded ones for women.

      Their death rates from prostate cancer is higher than the death rate in women from breast cancer;

      The rates of prostate cancer has risen 108% since 1992;

      Castration is a standard part of prostate cancer surgery, yet women joke about them needing pill for erectile dysfunction; and

      The government spends on this disease for every 0 spent on breast cancer.

      The world and our government works against us and our children don't respect us. When was the last time you told him that you appreciated him?

      Just where should we be going to think about all these things?
      \\

  16. QUESTION:
    Why mens prostate cancer get so little funding but breast cancer gets plenty?

    • ANSWER:
      I think there are a few reasons. Even considering that prostate cancer deaths are about the same as breast cancer deaths, breast cancer receives so much more government funding.
      I know that people will readily donate to breast cancer profiteers rather than prostate cancer.
      But they'll also donate more to breast cancer than ANY other type of cancer.

      "Of the 1,638,910 people who hear "You have cancer" this year, 14 percent hear "You have breast cancer." I'd be willing to bet that the other 86 percent are no less frightened."

      But what's blatantly sexist about breast cancer campaigns is how they continually ignore the men who get and die from it.

      "But I do know the American Cancer Society's estimated number of men (yes, men!) and women who will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year: 226,870. And the estimated number of men and women who will die: 39,510."

      How many ads/PSAs have you heard for breast cancer that don't focus on how many *women* get breast cancer, but men and women. Men are excluded....why?

      We only seem to care when something bad happens to women; rape, domestic violence, sexism, circumcision, etc. Breast cancer is no different. It's called gynocentrism. Women's wants and needs are continually put over men's because hey, "Women have been oppressed for a bajillion years."

  17. QUESTION:
    is it mens breast cancer?
    im 15 and one of my nipples hurts when touched and feels like there is a lump in the middle...only on one side just on the nipple and the lump is inside it...mens breast cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Male breast cacner ans female breast cancer vary only in how common they are.

      A woman has about a 1 in 8 risk of developing it over their lifetime, a man has about a 1 in 1000 risk.

      80% of those suffering breast cancer are over 50.

      Even in females the risk of a developing breast cancer at age 16 - 20 is less than 1 in 1 milion. It is statistically too rare to measure in younger people.

      The youngest known case of breast cancer in a man (younger by many years) was age 24.

      There are rare childhood cancers that occasionally form in the chest, but these are very rare.

      There is also a condition called gynecomastia that occurs in 1 in 10 teenage males.

      Common, harmless, usually goes away by itself and sounds just like what you are describing.

      See a Dr if you are still concerned.

  18. QUESTION:
    Is too much soy on a vegan diet bad for you?
    Im on a vegan diet. I love soy! I heard eating lots of tofu and soy is bad for you and can lead to weight gain. I eat 3 smart dogs a day sometimes! I have switched from soy milk to almond to help. I do eat a ton of veggies and fruit, so I get plenty of that!

    Thanks for the advice.

    • ANSWER:
      That study small scale, preliminary study that Dr. Jorge Chavarro from the Harvard School of Public Health claiming “soy products may lower sperm count” do not tell the whole story. It was a small scale, preliminary study was based on recollected intake of soy and not on
      specific diets containing soy. The research did not find a negative relationship between soy and sperm mobility or sperm quality, which are both key factors to fertility. The study also did not determine directly what other foods, medications, supplements, existing medical conditions, sexual activities or environmental factors may have directly affected the drop in sperm count.
      According to New Scientist in http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn12792-eating-soya-could-slash-mens-sperm-count.html , Chavarro admits that many East Asian men consume much more soy than the participants in his trial and do not develop fertility problems. "He speculates that his study found a link between soy and low sperm count because many of the participants were overweight or obese. Men with high levels of body fat produce more oestrogen than their slim counterparts.” "They already have a lot of background estrogen," says Chavarro. He found that “soyfood and soy isoflavone intakes were unrelated to total sperm count, ejaculate volume, sperm motility, or sperm morphology” which are the important measures of sperm quality and male fertility.

      Generations of Asians, not just the Japanese, have regularly consumed soy without fertility disorders, and Asian countries have produced very healthy, highly functioning children for centuries.
      And previous rodent studies have suggested that high intake of soya products can reduce male fertility. This has led scientists to wonder how isoflavones might influence men's reproductive function, which is highly sensitive to hormones. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn7559-wouldbe-mums-told-to-avoid-soya.html
      The rest of the garbage that Daisy listed are either studies that were conducted on animals like mice or rabbit or were small-scale, preliminary, cross-sectional, uncontrolled studies, or short-term studies, not randomized controlled studies. They mean nothing overall. They do not tell the whole story and are based on big, noticeable limitations. These study also did not determine directly what other foods, medications, supplements, existing medical conditions, activities or environmental factors may have directly affected the the test subjects. Humans metabolize soy a lot differently than animals do.

      Soy protein has endogenous hormones that are harmful to the health of postmenopausal women: false
      Soy has endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals to humans: false
      Soy is responsible breast cancer and tissue proliferation: false
      Therre are Dangers of Soy Formulas: false

      Soy foods Negatively Affect Your Thyroid: false.

  19. QUESTION:
    Website for Official International Months?
    Okay, well there is Black History Month, International Womens Month, International Mens Month, Breast Cancer Awareness Month, all sorts of different official months. Is there any websites that list the different months?

    Or does anyone just know a lot of the months of the top of their heads?

    • ANSWER:
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_commemorative_months

      Here's your site.

  20. QUESTION:
    Does my friend have breast cancer?
    My guy friend was telling me that he has a bump on the side of his nipple...he says that it hurts and he thinks its mens breast cancer. is there any other possible things it could be?
    the bump is on the inside of his skin..

    • ANSWER:
      You don't say how old your friend is but I'm guessing he's quite young, probably a teenager?

      In which case his chances of getting breast cancer are as close to zero as makes no difference.

      Men do get breast cancer, but fewer than 1% of those diagnosed with breast cancer are male.

      And 80% of all people diagnosed with cancer are over 50; most men diagnosed with it are over 60.

      It's rare in women under 40, very rare indeed in women under 30 (fewer than 0.1% of all those diagnosed) and almost unheard of in under 20s.

      So you can see how huge the odds against a young male getting breast cancer are.

      Most breast lumps in males are actually a condition called gynaecomastia, a button-like growth under the nipple and areola area that can be felt and is sometimes visible to the naked eye, and it can be quite tender.

      This increase in the amount of breast tissue is not a tumour and occurs due to changes in hormone balances at times like adolescence.

      This is very likely what he has, but he should see a doctor for reassurance.

      By the way, there's no such thing as 'men's breast cancer'; the breast cancer men get is exactly the same as the breast cancer women get, and is treated in the same way.

  21. QUESTION:
    Please tell me how to do a testicular self exam ( like a breast exam)?
    I have a question on the mens health section, about me sitting on my testicles. I just hope that im just sitting on them and that it not might be cancer or something.

    • ANSWER:
      get them nice and soft such as in warm bath or shower and run your fingers all around them and then one ball at a time and move your fingers slowly over them to see if you feel any lumps that seam strange,be care-full that you don't get to excited when doing this as it will tend to you giving it a little w**k to finish it off

  22. QUESTION:
    Has anyone ever heard of Gynecomastia and what are some options for treatment?
    I believe I may have this problem (male breasts) and I have had it since i was 12 but didn't realize that there was an actual disease/disorder, I just thought I was cursed with this for life, anyways if anyone has had surgery to correct this problem, please let me know what options there are and estimated price for surgery. Thanks
    What type of doctor would I need to see??

    • ANSWER:
      from: http://www.webmd.com/hw/mens_conditions/tp21165.asp

      The overdevelopment of the male breast. The glandular tissue of the breast swells, usually in response to an excess of the female hormone estrogen or a lack of testosterone, a male hormone.

      When gynecomastia occurs in adult males, it is usually caused by an underlying condition, such as liver or lung cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, overactive thyroid, or hormone problems, such as cancer of the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, or testicles. Alcohol, marijuana, methamphetamine, and heroin use also may cause gynecomastia.

      Use of certain medications may also cause gynecomastia, including:

      * Steroids, such as prednisone or Hexadrol.
      * Medications used to treat ulcers (such as cimetidine).
      * Medications used to treat epilepsy (such as phenytoin [Dilantin]).
      * Digitalis and other heart medications.
      * Chemotherapy drugs, especially alkylating agents, a family of anticancer drugs that interfere with cells' DNA and inhibit cancer cell growth.
      * Antiandrogen drugs (such as flutamide, cyproterone, and spironolactone).
      * Antianxiety and antidepressant medications (such as diazepam [Valium] and tricyclic antidepressants).

      Gynecomastia in babies and adolescents normally does not require treatment and will usually resolve on its own. If caused by medication or disease, stopping the medication or treating the disease will often cure the gynecomastia. If caused by a lack of testosterone and increase in estrogen, hormonal treatment may be prescribed.

  23. QUESTION:
    Why does the NFL support breast cancer, what about Prostate cancer?
    Afterall, its a mens sport and all these pink socks are making me puke

    • ANSWER:
      The NFL already have the men hooked. They are going after the women now. This is how you get them. Focus on women issues and make them feel special. NFL goes where the money goes. Right now women have the money.

  24. QUESTION:
    Is this a safe place for women?
    I am referring to Gender and Women's Studies.

    As a women I keep trying to have genuine feminist debates but the trolls are intent on mysogny.

    I can't speak about the media's attacks on womens self esteem through diets/body image because I will just be called a fat lesbian by one of the many sexist men who lurk in these pages.

    I feel that the women here are being censored due to some nasty small minded individuals and this really should be a safe place to disscuss womens studies or gender studies not an attack on feminism.

    Feel free to raise any feminist/womens/mens issues on this question as I am interested to see why people are drawn to womens studys and what they really think about modern gender relations.

    • ANSWER:
      i have to agree with you. a woman can't have an issue, problem or question about anything without being a feminist, a lesbian, useless, incompetent or anything. a woman is not allowed to be upset about anything at all especially if it relates to men. even personal womens' issues somehow get turned around to be a crying, whiny, awwww you poor baby - deal with it issue. women are not allowed to have any legitimate complaints or concerns about anything. i have not been specifically here on this site, but in general, any concern a woman has is overlooked because everyone feels she is blowing things out of proportion.
      having said that........ yes, women should be allowed to talk about whatever concerns them. not all issues are pms or pmdd related, granted sometimes that enhances our feelings, but our feelings are the same none the less and they are usually supposed to be bottled up. most people that insult women and blame everything on hormones or just women being the weaker sex are just insecure because they see themselves in womens concerns. not all things women would like to talk about deal with men. believe it or not sometimes it is health, diet, children, money, politics, literature, recent events,religion... even cars and maintenance (yes, some women can do that on their own!!) men have their bars and ballgames to air their gripes, women are not allowed to have anyplace to do that without being denigrated or insulted by those who are afraid of what women really have to say. most women have brains, minds, opinions or their own and would like to have the place to speak freely without fear of being insulted for what they have to say. believe it or not, even when talking about men, a lot of women have wonderful things to say about the man in their lives and we should be allowed to say that too. not all female gatherings are gossip sessions, or fashion shows or trivial meetings. women have substance and like to have deep, meaningful, informative, intellectual, emotional conversations. talking about breast cancer or child birth or teenage daughters is difficult with a man because then can't personally relate ( i don't mean that as an insult just that men don't go thru these things the same way as women do). there are some things that are easier to discuss with someone that will experience it in the same way and no one of either gender should take offense or belittle someone for any discussion that takes place.
      i think i said a lot and said nothing!!!!!

  25. QUESTION:
    I heard that some deoderants can cause breast cancer,is that true?
    I use Suave clinical protection deoderant/antiperspirant, is there that risk with that kind? Please help!

    Thanks:)

    • ANSWER:
      i have heard that too its the antiperspirants and i have found that is like 90% of all female deodorants so i switch it up and use mens deodorant some times my thinking is im cutting down on the risk by using different non antiperspirant deodorant some of the times i wish they made more non antiperspirants for women unfortunately most non antiperspirants are mens

  26. QUESTION:
    Does anyone care about men who die of heart disease?? Why is there only an awareness for women?
    How come theres not an awareness for mens heart disease?? Does anyone only care about women and not men??

    • ANSWER:
      actually, what i always see is this exact thing only for cancer. there is TONS out there supporting breast cancer, yet it doesn't seem like there's many for prostate cancer. i honestly don't know what this is supposed to be- it may be sexism towards men (because i know that the amount of woman with breast cancer and men with prostate cancer are almost even), or maybe just the fact that women need more support or something. i honestly disagree with it as i am male. i don't mean to sound sexist, i feel that both genders are even, but i feel like there's so much money going to find a cure for breast cancer and not nearly that much towards prostate cancer.

      again i don't mean to sound sexist to any female who reads this.

  27. QUESTION:
    Why do aren't men's issues as represented in the media as woman's?
    I am for giving women equal opportunities to men and vice versa but I hear a lot of bs. The men earn more than women statistic has been thrown around forever. Taking the average or mens vs average of women's income just means men earn more on average. It doesn't say anything about why. Yet people throw it around and say it's oppression. Men could be working longer hours, women could be doing low paying teaching jobs like every teacher in my primary school showed.

    I don't see them mentioning that most homeless people are men and created shelters for men only. Prostate cancer funding gets nowhere near as much funding as breast cancer. Some men get breast cancer too. They don't mention more women in university and say we need to get more men in. Nobody seems to care that there are way more men behind bars and that they get harsher sentences for the same crime. Nobody tries to equalize anything where men have a disadvantage.

    As for the pay gap there is little disparity when the women have the same education, experience and same hours as men. I have seen companies for different ethnicities lower wages for the same work and even white men with different wages for the same job. On average men work more dangerous jobs and longer hours (which means more pay) but nobody mentions that. If companies could actually pay women less for the same work then i'm pretty sure they would mostly employ women.

    In university the women outnumber the guys but in my Computer Science and Engineering department the ratio was roughly 1 woman to 10 men. The liberal arts subjects, social sciences and biomed or medicine were filled with women. I didn't notice much difference in intelligence or work ethic between women and men in university. I did notice that women usually network more to get help. Every single girl except one always bonded with one of the smartest guys. That one girl that didn't was one of the smartest and had an excellent work ethic. What I did notice is there were lots of programs to get women into physical science and technology industries. That is unfair but I guess it's okay since they're underrepresented. Every girl in my year of Computer Science got a job within 6 months. A couple had jobs set up before they left. Only the guys with top grades and internships,or professional connections had jobs set up after.

    Nearly every woman I know in my age group(21-23) has a job and earns more than the guys I know. Whether they did a degree or tried to get work out of school they are making decent money. While the guys are evenly distributed. Around 40% have no job or are in jail or homeless, 30% are just getting by, around 25% have decent jobs, and around 5% are making a ton of money. One is an actor, the other went pro in sports and the other one runs a business with his father, another got rich from drug dealing and fled the country, and another got rich from myspace layouts when it was popular.

    • ANSWER:
      I think its because women how more power than men today and we exploit it. Men's power has diminished and women are now taking advantage of their new power. I'm not saying its right, but it will probably continue as women take even more charge in society.

  28. QUESTION:
    ok i am 14 and my nipple is killing me?
    i heard mens breast cancer is from like over weight and alcohol but i am in awesome shape i workout every day. but my nipple hurts every time i touch it it feels like there is a lump in it like the size of a bb from a bb gun plz help

    • ANSWER:
      its normal, i had the same thing for a while, eventually it will go away but it is a pain while its there

  29. QUESTION:
    Breast cancer adverts sexist?
    I think all these breast cancer adverts that are aimed solely at women is kind of sexist. Even the marathon they are doing is JUST for women.

    MEN GET BREAST CANCER TOO!

    • ANSWER:
      Uhhhh....yes they do. However, only 1% of men will get breast cancer, whereas breast cancer is a LEADING cause of death among women.

      Don't feel bad. There are plenty of commercials out there for prostate problems, erectile dysfunction problems, hair loss problems, bladder dysfunction problems, etc, all related to mens' health.

  30. QUESTION:
    a 16 year old boy have a chance to have a men breast cancer?
    i'm so very horrified about this beacuse i have a dark dry skin below my left breast and im so worried about this anybody can help me? plz ? is ths a cancer? or a nromal dryskin ? because only my left breast are affected the right are not , that why im so very scared about thiss im too young is there any chances? beacuse i searched about this and it say there 65-70 year old have chances to have a mens breast cancer , how about me, I'm only 16 yrs. old is there a possibility? it is about a few months ago sinced i noticed plz answer asap , tnx
    tnx bender , i hope that was true , because i'm really worry about it , its something dry skin under my skin that i can't remove for a couple of months , but luckily i dont have any lumps on my breast , i was really scared to go to a doctor asking about this thats why i think it would be better if i ask this in other people about their opinion , thank you so much . ^_^

    • ANSWER:
      Dry or dark skin on your breast is not an indicator of breast cancer. Breast cancer is usually indicated by lumps in the internal tissue of the breast it's self. If this is something you've had all your life it's probably nothing to worry about as any doctor who has examined you in the past would have noticed it. If it is something that has recently appeared, it could be any one of a number of things, actually... too many to list here, but it wouldn't be a bad idea to go to the doctor and have it checked out.

  31. QUESTION:
    How can I stop sweating??
    I sweat really badly under my arms. I'm only allowed to use adidas aluminum free deoderant..because deoderant with aluminum may be a cause of breast cancer. but, when I wear deoderant..I sweat more than I do without it. I really dont like the scents that adidas comes in. Can you tell me an aluminum free deoderant that smells good and stops the sweating?? Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Mitchum-unscented-solid...you do not need to use it daily, it still lasts even after a shower
      Deodorants to not help with sweating, by the way. at all..deodorants only help with smell.
      use Mitchum...occasionally..I rarely use any thing..the more you use the more you need..and your sweat glands need to work..I have never used any under arm stuff everyday..do not do it and in a month or two..it will be better...I love Mitchum I am a woman and I use the Mens..

  32. QUESTION:
    Why is that when you see the commercial for HPV?
    they show a bunch of women, like if this is a womens diseases, isn't it a male diseasess too being as though most women who say they contracted it got it from a man,
    What trigured this question is because a girl just asked a question about HPV.

    • ANSWER:
      They show women because HPV is mainly associated with cervical cancer, which is obviously a women's issue. Almost all cervical cancer cases are caused from HPV. In fact, cervical cancer is the second most common kind of cancer in women (after breast cancer), killing about 4,000 women a year!

      HPV does affect men, don't get me wrong. But, HPV doesn't affect mens health nearly as much as a woman's health. Men can develop genital warts from HPV, but these are usually treated fairly easy. Men can also develop penile and anal cancer from HPV but this is really rare and usually happens at a much older age (we're talking 50+).

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervical_cancer

  33. QUESTION:
    Is Yahoo Answers censoring mens issues?
    Yahoo Answers just changed a topic from "Gender Studies" to "Gender & Womens Studies".

    Is Yahoo Answers trying to cover up mens issues, by making it look like it is only women that have issues? Is Yahoo Answers practicing censorship?

    • ANSWER:
      @Avana

      --------------------

      Unsheltered Homeless
      Women – 12,000 – 4%
      Men – 240,000 – 96%

      Life Expectancy (2006) [2]
      Women – 80.8 Years
      Men – 75.7 Years

      Suicides
      Women – 7,585 - 19%
      Men – 28,450 - 81%

      Deaths by Homicide
      Women – 3,856 – 20%
      Men – 14,717 – 80%

      Deaths from Cancer (2004) [4]
      Women – 269,819
      Men – 290,069

      Deaths from HIV/AIDS
      Women – 3,357
      Men – 8,756

      Federal Funds for Sex Specific Cancer Research
      Women – Breast Cancer – 1,000,000 - 40,000 Deaths
      Men – Prostate Cancer – 0,000,000 - 33,000 Deaths

      Deaths on the Job (2010) [6]
      Women – 355 - 7%
      Men – 4,192 - 93%

      Injuries on the Job
      Women – 36%
      Men – 64%

      College Enrollment
      Women – 58% - 11,658,000
      Men – 42% - 8,770,000

      Affirmative Action Education Programs (Gender Specific) [8]
      Women – Yes
      Men – No

      Unemployment Rates (2010) [9]
      Women – 8.6% – 6,199,000
      Men – 10.5% - 8,626,000

      Average Hours Worked Per Week
      Women – 36.1
      Men – 40.2

      High School Graduation Rates (2005) [12]
      Women – 72%
      Men – 65%

      Incarceration Rates
      Women – 114,979 - 7%
      Men – 1,502,49 - 93%

      Child Custody Rates
      Women – 11,268,000 custodial mothers
      Men – 2,907,000 custodial fathers

      US Military Deaths From 1950 – 2010 [15][16][17]
      Women – 139 - 0.001%
      Men – 100,063 - 99.99%

      Federally Funded Battered Shelters
      Women – 2,000+ 0,000,000 per year
      Men – None – [FAQ-ANSWER]

      Federally Funded Health Offices and Research 1970 – Present (not including cancer research)
      Women Only – Office, Projects and Programs 70+ – Funds – 0,000,000,000
      Men Only – None – [FAQ-ANSWER]

      Forced Selective Service
      Women – No
      Men – Yes

      Drug and Alcohol Addiction and Abuse Rates
      Women – 5.8%
      Men – 12.2%

  34. QUESTION:
    Why do guys not like feminist?
    Just wondering from a man's point of view why they don't like feminist?
    I know why I don't like them, but was just wondering about men.

    • ANSWER:
      Because there are just one or two little examples of hypocrisy that make it slightly difficult to respect feminism.

      Its all about a mothers rights, but no fathers rights. The new family unit is now defined as a mother and her children.

      Women being treat like princesses in prison and men being treat like animals. Female prison guards humiliate and degrade men, but female prisoners get privacy and respect from male prison guards.

      Bodily choice for women, but forced genital mutilation for baby boys, referring to womens rights to their bodies in terms of abortion, but boys being circumcised without choice.

      Female reporters allowed in men’s locker rooms, but privacy and respect for female athletes. Very strange definition of equality that feminsim was very vocal about as being equal rights. Is this an example of the respect that feminists claim MEN dont have for WOMEN?

      Its women getting everything in a divorce, and men being torn away from their children

      Female sex offenders being slapped on the wrist, but male sex offenders being incarcerated the rest of their lives

      Its men being sentenced to more time for the same crime than women. This can be reserached under the US government and shows that women dont get held accountable to the level that men do.

      Its a feminized education system that cripples natural behavior of boys, makes being male a crime in school, then girls claiming they are smarter.

      Its women being allowed to drown five children and using the fact she is a woman to get away with it - Andrea Yates

      Its women being allowed to use domestic violence as an excuse to murder a sleeping husband, even though there is no evidence of domestic abuse - Mary Winkler

      Its the extensive abuse of restraining orders to villify an innocent men and get leverage in a divorce.

      Its men being jailed for defending themselves against an abusive wife, but called a wimp if he takes the abuse

      Its women demanding respect from men, but never having to respect them in return

      Its women having the choice between abortion, adoption, dropping an unwanted baby off at a hospital, raising the child with a father, or raising the child without a father, but the only choice men have is to agree.

      Its 3 innocent Duke Lacrosse players losing their lives because we dont ever think a woman could lie about rape - let alone prosecute her for doing so.

      Its women labeling men as abusive when the US government has shown women cause more child abuse than men.

      Its female rape being horrendous, but male rape being funny and made in to comedy movies. Male rape is a legally accepted part of the justice system, but only against men.

      Its just about every TV show being allowed to humiliate and degrade men, but women complaining and calling it sexist if they were treated the same.

      It’s more health care spending going towards women’s health than mens.Breast cancer receives 7 times the funding of prostate cancer. There are three departments of womens health in the US government, but none for men. However, men live an average of 5 years less than women when the genders used to have the same life span.

      Its allowing women only clubs and banning men only clubs

      It’s doing everything we can to help girls in math and science, but letting boys fall further behind in everything else.

      It’s defining equal pay for equal work as men playing five sets of tennis, but women only playing three. Maybe women claiming 3=5 is the reason for the above point

      Its cutting men’s sports in college in favor of women’s sports that have no interest

      Its female murderers being mentally ill, but male murderers just being evil

      Its claiming men walk out on their family when its actually women who file 80% of divorces

      Its men being portrayed as evil, stupid or buffoons on TV and all women being perfect or superior.

      Its women wanting equality for their gender, but men being called chauvinist pigs when they want equality for their gender

      Its fixing the education system when girls are failing, and blaming the boys when boys are failing

      Its women being allowed to level false accusation against an innocent man without consequence. Read Duke Lacrosse and many other examples. Feminism has installed this right to women through the courts.

      Its a man being a chauvanist, sexist pig when he doesnt respect women, but a women who doesnt respect men is an admirable, strong and independant woman.

      Its feminists not being able to provide one example of legal discrimination against women today.

  35. QUESTION:
    Are Women's Nikes built the same as Men's Nikes?
    I was going to do a breast cancer awareness out fit and wanted to get some pink nikes to go with the outfit. It's hard to find mens nikes in pink. Besides size what is the difference between women and men's Nikes?

    • ANSWER:
      Two and a half size difference. So if you wear a 9 in mens, you wear a 10.5 in womens.

  36. QUESTION:
    Looking for mens breast cancer awareness tight fit shirt?!?
    My boyfriend and I went to WWE Monday night raw in okc last night. A cameraman was wearing a long-sleeved tight fit (kinda like under armour) breast cancer awareness shirt. He said he liked it and I wanna buy him one. Problem is I can't find it anywhere. I tried under armour, Nike, and almost every Google.link that popped up can somebody help!

    • ANSWER:
      try target

  37. QUESTION:
    what are some mens political issues ?
    what are some problems that men face in general and why?

    • ANSWER:
      Lack of male birth control.

      Lack of health funding. Heart disease and stroke kill more men then women and kill men a lot sooner(30's-50's) but more money and attention is spent onwomen'ss heart disease and stroke research even though it kills fewer women a lot later in life(70's-90's).

      Lack of prostate cancer research funding. It has always been 50% less then breast cancer funding but since nancy pelosi became speaker of the house she reduced it(the budget and taxation powers are mostly vested in the house ofRepresentativess).

      Discrimination in the educational system.

      Discrimination in the Judicial system.

      Discrimination on college campus's(there are no public funded allmen'ss clubs but yet there are thousands of allwomen'ssbusinesss clubs and other organizations thatprohibitb males from joining and are tax payer funded).

      There are no all male universities or schools, but there are hundreds of all female universities and schools.

      Clear discriminatory bias in the media.

  38. QUESTION:
    i am looking for pink mens softballs?
    i am having a softball turnament for breast cancer and thought of having pink softballs to play with.
    all that i have found is the fake practice and the smaller womens softball
    because they makers want 300.00 plus they will only make them if u order 10 dozen and more
    there are men softball teams out there
    some will wear pink uni's yes

    • ANSWER:
      academy
      oshmans ( are they still around)

      any sports store

  39. QUESTION:
    Should Breast Cancer patients receive coverage if they're male?
    Here's the story:
    http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/44065422/ns/health-mens_health/

    That guy was definitely discriminated against. The federal law ought to be gender-neutral.

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, that is why private insurance companies are not who we should trust with our health

  40. QUESTION:
    Question about mens health (possibly puberty???)?
    I just turned 15 and since 14 i have had swollen nipples they are a little puffy and have some more tissue. I have gathered enough info from other questions and some other sources like webMD to know that it is just puberty and happens to some people but i want to know why and when it goes away. No Jokes Please. I Know it sounds funny but try to resist it. No are you sure it's not breast cancer either i am sure it isn't but that was a popular answer for similar questions.

    • ANSWER:
      you may have gynecomastia which includes puffy nipples and some tissue under the breast go to www.gynecomastia.org and check out their web site. any questions you have should have a answer there. they have pictures so you can compare yourself with the people in the pictures.also they have real medical advice from doctors. if it is puberty then chances are it may go away all by it self..

  41. QUESTION:
    Why does breast cancer recieve several times more funding and publicity than prostate cancer?
    If feminism is about gender equality why does breast cancer get disproportionately more funding and several times more publicity despite similar number of victims- for every 6 women who die of breast cancer 5 men will die of prostate cancer. Are men less important second class citizens now?

    http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/breast/#mortality
    http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/prostate/#mortality
    http://www.mens-rights.net/sexism/health.htm
    http://www.menshealthnetwork.org/library/TopTenCausesDeath.pdf

    In 2008 in the UK about 10,170 men died from prostate cancer.

    In 2008 in the UK around 12,000 women and around 70 men died from breast cancer.

    The two forms of cancer seem to be as problematic as each other, however Breast Cancer Research receives at least 75% MORE funding than Prostate Cancer Research.

    Men possess a higher death rate than woman for the ten leading causes of death; however the Government only provides a state-funded health department for women. The Office of Women's Health receives a large amount of state-funding in order to remain active and even though men are at greater risk than women - the state still refuses to offer an equivalent service for men.

    • ANSWER:
      The feminist movement has nothing to do with breast cancer awareness and funding. The reason that the breast cancer awareness campaign is such a success is because women who suffer this disease are likely to network with other sufferers, providing each other with support and holding fundraising events which involve their husbands, families and community.

      Men are naturally more reticent about their health issues and are less likely to join with other sufferers to form a pressure group and campaign for an increase of funding for men's health.

      Someone like you could make a difference.

  42. QUESTION:
    How much longer is Ebay going to have that annoying breast cancer pink ribbon on their site?
    I am so sick and tired of breast cancer awareness being everywhere. Just to name a few places; KFC, Deal or No Deal game show, Campbell's soup, and obviously this Ebay site.
    Yet, I see NO prostate cancer awareness.
    In fact, I have NEVER seen prostate cancer awareness anywhere, hell, I've never even seen what their ribbon looks like.
    What's wrong with places like Deal or No Deal gameshow and Ebay also advertising prostate cancer awareness?
    It's offensive to me.
    It's not equal.
    I look forward to the day that it starts a big enough uproar where many men protest it besides myself.
    Mens' lives and health is just as important as womens' lives and health.
    Mens' ability to live on and get the things they want out of life are just as important as womens' lives and the ability to live on and get the things they want out of life.
    So why is the American government acting so anti-male and virtually ignoring anything afflictions men might have?
    It's messed up. I hope this unfair and ridiculpus imbalance among attention for the health and well-being of the genders is nothing more than a phase that will hopefully fade out soon, where equality will hopefully come really soon. And if anything, with all of the much larger and unfair attention of womens' breast cancer, I would like it if places temporarlily gave more attention to mens' health than womens' health to balance out the unfairness that's been going on these past several years, not for long, just for a short period of time to help balance things out, and then the equality.
    Afterall, if there'd be an uproar among women about places raising awareness for mens' health only, then I see nothing wrong with men starting an uproad toward companies like Ebay, Campbell's soup, and Deal or No Deal as they have only given attention to womens' health.
    And if men on average really do live about 7 years less than women, then wouldn't the fair and logical thing to do would be to give slightly MORE attention to mens' health so they are living equally as long, if anything?
    And for any women answering this question; if men care more about the lives and well-being of random women than random men, then to balance this out, women should care more about the lives and well-being of random men than random women.
    For example, if the male captain and the male crew of the Titanic CHOSE TO and WANTED TO save the lives of women more than their own gender, than logically, if a ship had a female captain and an all-female crew, they would have to want to value and save the lives of men more than women, to balance it out.
    If a man would rather first save a drowing woman than a drowning man, than that means a woman should rather save a drowning man than a drowning woman, to balance it out.

    • ANSWER:
      October is breast cancer awareness month, so I say probably until the end of October.

  43. QUESTION:
    Lump on Mens Breast..?
    My lil bro found a lump on his breast.... It's smaller then a marble but as hard as a marble... It's on the side of his breast.. He's 23 and of course he's freaking out cuz of breast cancer.. I was just wondering if anyone had any other ideas of what that could be or caused from..

    • ANSWER:
      Go check it out with a doctor. Although male breast cancers only make up 1% of the total reported cases of breast cancer, it is always good to check if there are abnormalities for men or women - lumps, discoloration, change in size, tenderness.

  44. QUESTION:
    Is this puberty or something?
    I'm a 14 year old boy in my freshmen year of high school, i'm going through puberty and i was just wondering, is having one of your nipples swell a little normal? because my right nipple has swollen a little, including the area around it, and if i press on it i can feel something like a hard lump, is this normal? and now looking at it, there's a more visible vein on it, would that have somehting to do with it? i don't have breast cancer do i? (males can get that too right?)

    • ANSWER:
      yea i actually had that too... its not cancer or anything and it goes away... and trust me after a while you wont even notice i guess its just another one of those annoying things about puberty... and actually to totem who answered earlier... when i was looking at mens breast cancer statistics, they actually seem higher than i thought... and more deadly cause men dont get regular checks like women... just wanted to mention that... but yea your fine...

  45. QUESTION:
    What? No mens month/day?
    I am tired of hearing all different months and day when men are not part of it! They got womens breast cancer, international womens day, blacks month (no red or white month?), and on and on but no mens day (not counting grandparents or parents day!)

    • ANSWER:
      I agree...black history month esp pisses me off! Everyone wants so called equality to white men yet they want their own warm fuzzy "i'm so special and different" days or months.

  46. QUESTION:
    If only slightly more (relatively speaking) women die of breast cancer than men die of prostate cancer...?
    ... then why is it that government spends almost twice as much funding breast cancer research than prostate cancer research?

    And don't tell me that it's because women have two breasts, because it only takes one to kill you. (I wouldn't have to make this demand if it weren't for the fact that I anticipate this very comment.)
    Also... do they have a prostate cancer awareness month?
    Edit: Actually, they do have a prostate cancer month... just looked it up. Nevermind on that one.

    Oh, and I'm not trying to make myself sound like I'm against funding for breast cancer research, I just want to know why prostate cancer research is given the back burner approach.
    Although you won't ever catch me wearing pink or eating a pink donut... there are just some lengths I will not go to to support a cause.
    Wow! Excellent answer, Panda!

    • ANSWER:
      The truth is that women who advocate for breast cancer are far more organized than men have been for prostate cancer research. It is not just prostate cancer or mens cancer that has been harmed by the media hype surrounding breast cancer . . children and young adults have also had cancer research funding cut. There really is no way to make the political machine fair for all types of cancers. Research dollars are limited and the people with the loudest voice and the best organization will get the prize. It is not fair, but life is not fair. All I can say to you is that at least there is some research being done for prostate cancer . . I have a son with a rare abdominal sarcoma and there is no research being done for his disease at all. I really do not expect there to be any either and the best we can do is support a general research on all sarcoma . . of which there is little funding. The sarcoma community has been organizing and hopefully will find a louder voice:

      2007 Team Sarcoma Initiative
      http://liddyshriversarcomainitiative.org/Initiatives/TS%202007/ts_2007.htm

      If you feel strongly about Prostate cancer research you should join a group to have your voice heard too.

      Best to you.

  47. QUESTION:
    what are guy's thoughts on breast implants?
    i don't have them and i don't plan on getting them. i think it'd feel too weird to have something unnatural in your boobs. but do guys like fake boobs or not? would they rather them be fake and big rather than small and real?

    • ANSWER:
      Other than being a cancer survivor or experiencing some horrific disfigurement/accident, implants are an advertisement of mental issues.

      Any female who isn't strong enough to accept herself for who she is is a complete turn off to me.

      I would not date a woman with implants.

      Edit: By the way, the majority of men enjoy variety: Different colors, shapes, and sizes at different times (or even at the same time). Just something to keep in mind when asking either/or type questions regarding mens' preferences.

  48. QUESTION:
    where can i get a pink t shirt online for a BREAST CANCER event?
    My school is raising money for breast cancer and we need to wear something pink to school. I dont own anything pink and have no idea where to get it online. I live in the Uk and i need it in 4 days so i can wear it on friday. Im a 15 year old boy have blond hair and i am about 6' 9.

    Any website or link to something pink would be really appretiated thanks :)

    if you cant find or know where to get a tshirt ANYTHING pink will do thanks
    Christine you did post on my other one and thanks for all your help

    • ANSWER:
      I think I already answered this, but mistakenly posted links to women's shirt. My bad, here are some men's shirts.

      http://www.burton.co.uk/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/ProductDisplay?beginIndex=180&viewAllFlag=false&catalogId=20553&storeId=12551&categoryId=150426&parent_category_rn=150425&productId=1726331&langId=-1&siteID=0RpXOIXA500-LOFuo1GzqARZIqxUzpGNCg&cmpid=lsdeeplink+
      http://www.uniqlo.co.uk/catalogue/men/sports-collection/423375-dark-gray-quick-dry-layered-v-neck-t-shirt
      http://www.asos.com/countryid/1/Gap/Gap-Crew-Neck-Plain-T-Shirt/Prod/pgeproduct.aspx?iid=1040135&MID=35718&affid=2134&siteID=0RpXOIXA500-X6EHak4HH5TWR5dyuzPVXg
      http://www.peacocks.co.uk/product/index.jsp?productId=4009511&prodFindSrc=paramNav&awc=1828_1278883233_127509f1a8e5848161521af86a8a4eab
      http://www.newlook.com/shop/mens/ttoshirts-and-polo-shirts/notch-neck-striped-top_188910330?extcam=AFF_AFW_ShopStyle+UK
      http://www.uniqlo.co.uk/catalogue/men/t-shirts/403665-green-packed-colour-crew-neck-ss-t-shirt
      http://www.peacocks.co.uk/product/index.jsp?productId=3984981&prodFindSrc=paramNav&awc=1828_1278883223_6f594f60eb7fd00379a328cebe5e3dc3
      http://www.republic.co.uk/T-Shirts/Fabric-Depech-Mode-T-Shirt/invt/76979?src=buyat
      http://www.asos.com/countryid/1/Asos-Collection/Asos-One-Button-Grandad-T-Shirt/Prod/pgeproduct.aspx?iid=1127183&MID=35718&affid=2134&siteID=0RpXOIXA500-SeXg0kKXTZMdEZcdgpOMCg
      http://direct.asda.com/george/men-s-clothing/tops/boston-crew-t-shirt/GEM38421,default,pd.html?cm_mmc=Affiliate-_-Buy.at-_-George-_-standard

      I hope this helps!


mens breast cancer

Metastatic Lung Cancer

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Metastatic cancer of the lungs what are the signs?
    My husband had bladder cancer and kidney cancer and both were removed with success. What are the signs of Metastatic lung cancer as I worry in case he has this.

    • ANSWER:
      usually it can be hemoptysis, lung infection, or difficulty breathing. Just get regular imaging to check for metastasis. good luck

  2. QUESTION:
    How long do stage 4 lung cancer patients usually survive?
    How long would a stage 4 lung cancer patient survive? Especially considering the fact he still smokes cigarettes.

    • ANSWER:
      It depends on a lot of factors including his pre-existing health, age, what other organs the cancer has gone to, etc.

      In general, the vast majority of people with metastatic lung cancers will die within a year of diagnosis, with most dying within half a year. These are just averages, of course: some will die during the month they're diagnosed, and a very small percent might live two years with aggressive treatment.

      If this person matters to you, you should definitely prepare for the fact that they will not be around for a very long time.

  3. QUESTION:
    What is the minimal age for lung cancer?
    Can a 20 or 25- year old get lung cancer? They have both been light smoker for about 4 years. I ask this because on "thank you for smoking" there was a 16-year old kid who had lung cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      There is primary lung cancer which older adults generally have and of which most people think of as 'lung cancer'. The piece you are missing is that metastatic cancer of ANY kind can travel to the lung and create a secondary cancer in the lung. Thus, anyone with metastatic cancer at any age can have lung cancer as well as brain cancer and liver cancer. In general, metastatic cells follow the blood sytem route . .which means the places that receive the most blood often end up with mets to that area. The lung, liver, and brain are the most areas for metastatic cancer to travel to. Thus a 16 year old would probably not have a primary lung cancer, his lung cancer is probably a secondary metastatic nodule or tumor. Remember that metastatic means that the original cancer cells can move anywhere in the body and start a brand new cancer . . however, that new cancer is still made up of that first type of cell (ie a bone cancer cell goes to the lung . .is still a bone cancer cell, but now it is growing in the lung.)

      It would be unusual for a child or teen to have a primary lung cancer, but it can happen. It would usually be a different type of lung cancer though than what affects an adult.

  4. QUESTION:
    What does coughing blood mean with lung cancer?
    When someone has been living for over 2 years with lung cancer, what does it mean when the patient starts coughing up blood? The doctor says there's nothing they can do.
    Tapestry6, I didn't ask about the symptoms of lung cancer. That's all you gave.
    Just so you know, it's not me that has cancer, but someone close to me. It is quite advanced, but somehow she keeps going on. Incredibly strong, and doesn't seem to want to give up. She sometimes improves enough to be able to go for a short walk outside, but this isn't often.

    • ANSWER:
      In my case (Metastatic Kidney cancer that mestastisized to the lung) hemoptasis (sp: coughing up blood from the lungs) meant the cancer was growing near one of the bronchi and that one or more the inferior blood vessels the cancer creates for itself has failed and is bleeding into the bronchi.

      This can be remedied, at least temporarily, by an embolization of the bleeding vessels, or a bronchoscopy where they will use a laser to cauterize the bleeding vessels.

      Not an MD, just a patient.

  5. QUESTION:
    How commonly does lung cancer spread to the nose?
    Is it common that lung cancer spreads to the nose or area around it?

    • ANSWER:
      Cancer can metastasize anywhere . . but in general cancer cells follow the blood system or lymphatic system and lodge in areas like the liver, lungs, bones, and brain. But microscopic malignant cells that spill into the blood stream/lymph node system can go all over the body including the nose .. it's not common . . but happens.

      NCI: Metastatic cancer
      http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/metastatic

  6. QUESTION:
    Can cancer spread to the brain when someone is haveing chemo for lung cancer?
    I have stage 4 lung cancer. The doctor said it was not in my brain in june 07 I have had 11 chemo treatments so far and it seams to be working.
    i'm 46 now. I have been having headaches....

    • ANSWER:
      Yes, unfortunately it can. But the hope is that the chemotherapy treatments you are having was able to kill the microscopic cancer before it reached the brain. There is something called the blood-brain barrier where it is difficult for most chemo drugs to cross. There are now specific chemo drugs that will cross that barrier and can kill metastatic cancer (Temodar is one). Your doctor should continue to monitor you and should you have any symptoms (unusual headaches) tell your doctor right away. There is also treatment for metastatic brain lesions if they are found early (gamma knife or even surgery is possible). It is something that you should be aware of, but there is no sense in dwelling on it . . as stated, hopefully the chemo you've had has taken care of the microscopic disease already.

      Stay strong. There is always hope.

  7. QUESTION:
    how long does it take to die from lung cancer?
    My mother is 81 and has small tumors in both lungs. She has decided against a biopsy since she doesn't want any cancer treatment anyway. She says she would rather not even know if she has cancer. How long would it take to die if lung cancer is left untreated.

    • ANSWER:
      Obviously it is impossible for even those of us who are cancer specialist doctors to answer this question blindfolded with both hands tied behind us.

      First - you do not have a diagnosis of a malignancy / any type of cancer.
      There are benign disease that may give the impression of small nodules in the lungs.

      Second - most types of primary lung cancers would not present as widespread lung nodules.

      Third - if it is a malignancy, it would likely be a metastatic malignancy to the lungs.
      Cancer types that may spread to the lungs like this in women include primary cancers of the breast, melanoma skin cancer, renal carcinoma, GYN malignancies such as those of the cervix, uterus, or ovaries, GI malignancies such as gall bladder, pancreas, liver, colon/rectum, stomach, and many others. Some sarcomas could do this too.

      There simply is no way to make such guesses with absolutely no idea which of many diseases she may actually have. If we are to be left blind with no biopsy, about all that her doctors can do is make her comfortable and perhaps do periodic chest x-rays at monthly intervals to see if' 'A' - it is growing and 'B' how fast is it growing - - that is - - if she wants to know.

      What do her doctors tell you about her prognosis ?
      They have examined her, know the complete medical history, seen the x-ray imaging studies, and reviewed her lab work.
      If any lay person (non medical expert) tries to predict an outcome, I'd suggest you ignore it. It would be a pure guess.

  8. QUESTION:
    Any good movies about metastatic cancer survivors?
    I have a dear friend with metastatic cancer and she wants to see a movie about someone who had a miracle and survived. I know odd question but thought maybe someone out there would know of such a thing.

    • ANSWER:
      No Kathleen. I am a movie buff and a cancer specialist doctor.
      I don't recall any popular movie with this theme. Wish we had one.
      Lance Armstrong's story would be a good one to make into a movie.
      He had testicular cancer spread to abdominal lymph nodes, both lungs,
      and brain. He was cured with 3 or 4 cycles of chemotherapy and brain radiation.
      He then won seven Tour de France bike races in a row.

  9. QUESTION:
    Will metastatic cancer weaken the person a lot?
    Metastatic cancer is incurable, right. But when a person is suffering from such will he not be able to work or travel from place to place?
    I'm writing a story and the character is going to die after a month of lung cancer. I want a situation where this patient travels a bit to meet someone and before he dies.

    • ANSWER:
      What is cancer?
      Cancer is a disease of the cells in the body. The body is made up of millions of tiny cells. There are many different types of cell in the body, and there are many different types of cancer which arise from different types of cell. What all types of cancer have in common is that the cancer cells are abnormal and multiply out of control.

      A malignant tumour is a lump or growth of tissue made up from cancer cells which continue to multiply. Malignant tumours invade into nearby tissues and organs, which can cause damage. Malignant tumours may also spread to other parts of the body. This happens if some cells break off from the first (primary) tumour and are carried in the bloodstream or lymph channels to other parts of the body. These small groups of cells may then multiply to form secondary tumours (metastases) in one or more parts of the body. These secondary tumours may then grow, invade and damage nearby tissues, and spread again.

      Some cancers are more serious than others. Some are more easily treated than others (particularly if diagnosed at an early stage). Some have a better outlook (prognosis) than others. So, cancer is not just one condition. In each case it is important to know exactly what type of cancer has developed, how large it has become, and whether it has spread. This will enable you to get reliable information on treatment options and outlook.

      Overall stage grouping
      Overall Stage Grouping is also referred to as Roman Numeral Staging. This system uses numerals I, II, III, and IV (plus the 0) to describe the progression of cancer.
      Stage 0 carcinoma in situ.
      Stage I cancers are localized to one part of the body.
      Stage II cancers are locally advanced.
      Stage III cancers are also locally advanced. Whether a cancer is designated as Stage II or Stage III can depend on the specific type of cancer; for example, in Hodgkin's Disease, Stage II indicates affected lymph nodes on only one side of the diaphragm, whereas Stage III indicates affected lymph nodes above and below the diaphragm. The specific criteria for Stages II and III therefore differ according to diagnosis.
      Stage IV cancers have often metastasized, or spread to other organs or throughout the body.

  10. QUESTION:
    Is metastatic thyroid cancer of the lungs treatable?
    My sister has thyroid cancer, and it appears that it may have spread to her lungs. I know that lung cancer, in most cases, is fatal. Is this case also fatal, or is it treatable? I'm really scared for my sister, and things have been really, really tough as of lately. I lost my father to pancreatic cancer less than a week ago now.. And it almost seems like God is playing a joke on us.. I'd appreciate any advice, and or input regarding the situation. Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      If she has thyroid cancer that spread to her lungs she does not have lung cancer.
      It is treatable, curable is another matter. That depends on the histology, her age, size of tumor, if there is uptake after surgery, etc., etc., etc., all things you do not mention or do not know yet.

  11. QUESTION:
    What hospital in the US is the best rated to help LUNG cancer patients?
    I already have seen the list of top Cancer hospitals in the US...but I want to know is it better to go to one for Lung Cancer over the other? My grandmother went to Sloan Kettering for what she thought was Leukemia and turned out to be Fibrosis...(they were awesome)...but is there a better hospital for Lung cancer?? Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      There is no medical center that is doing far better with lung cancers than any other.
      Far more important is the type of lung cancer, the stage, and co-morbid conditions.
      For late stage - advanced metastatic - non-small cell lung cancers, no medical center is doing well anywhere in the world.
      For early stage non-small cell lung carcinomas, many medical center do equally well. If this is a small cell lung carcinoma, this person could do equally well at any number of medical centers around the country - USA.
      - - -
      You grandmother had "leukemia" that turned out to be "fibrosis?"
      You must mean myelofibrosis.
      Any U.S. medical center or any good hematologist/oncologist in private practice should have been able to figure that out. Maybe her original physicians did know that she had a myelodysplastic disorder that was bordering on or transforming into a type of leukemia. Was your grandmother cured? Are you sure of the details of your information? Why not just go back to Sloan Kettering for this case since you had an awesome experience?
      - - -
      People get obsessed with this idea of wanting the best of everything
      - especially in the U.S.
      I suppose that is human nature. People who have large amounts of money are often especially concerned with getting care better than the average person. [This is not to suggest that you have a wealthy family.]
      - - -
      Some people want to go to a big name place like Sloan Kettering, but many people prefer the nearest tertiary medical center for advanced care.
      One thing to remember when you go to university medical centers - much of the surgery and medical care is handled by doctors in residency training who are in the learning phase of training and lack experience. The attending physicians are often away giving talks and doing research. Someone may see this and object, but I went through training at major tertiary referral cancer centers in both Pennsylvania and North Carolina. I can tell you that is how it is.
      - - -
      When my mother needed surgery, she went to non-university hospitals where I worked and which had doctors I knew who were experienced and up to date on the latest advances. She did not have a surgical resident doing her surgery. When my wife was diagnosed with a malignancy and needed surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy - we made sure she went to a non-university hospital where she and I both knew the doctors. My wife did not have residents in training handling her care.
      - - -
      Of course doctors in training need to gain experience when they are in training, so it is good that people often want to go to the university medical centers for their care. ' Just something for people to think about when they make this decision. If you go to a major university center, you could ask that the attending physician be the one to provide all of the surgery and all of the care, but it is not likely to happen that way - otherwise, how would the doctors in training get their experience?
      I managed patients under supervision for 8 years in university medical centers before I was qualified to go out on my own in community private practice. Often the supervision was from afar. Maybe that was because the attending physicians trusted me, but maybe it was because they were busy doing other things. I was a better doctor after I had that experience. This is the apprenticeship for all doctors. We are not at our best until we are a board certified masters of our profession.

  12. QUESTION:
    What is the life expectancy of someone with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma?
    It started with a several skin cancers, then a small tumor under his tongue, then in the lymph node in his neck, then lung cancer, and now this in his neck. All have been removed, but they just found 3 small tumors in both lungs. He refuses radiation and he is 70 years old... How long do we have with him?
    I should add that the tumor they just took out of his neck was Stage 3.

    • ANSWER:

  13. QUESTION:
    How can lung cancer (tumor) spread to the brain?
    Mother in Law was told she had lung cancer and it had spread to the brain.
    4 tumors were located 2 deep two smaller ones located on the right side of brain. That orginated from the lung,
    We have gone over the types of cancer and the stages our question is how does the tumor break off or spread to the brain?

    • ANSWER:
      Lung cancer cells can metastasize to the brain through blood circulation. It's possible for small or microscopic cancer cells to travel throughout the body in this way. This is one reason that oncologist recommend systemic chemotherapy because it follows the same paths as the cancer does through the blood circulation.

      You can read more about metastatic secondary lung cancers:

      Brain, Metastases
      http://www.emedicine.com/Radio/topic101.htm

      Secondary Brain tumor
      http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/Cancertype/Brainsecondary/Secondarybraintumours

      Lung cancer that has spred to the brain
      http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/help/default.asp?page=3765

  14. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to have multiple types of cancer?
    In example, can you have skin cancer, breast cancer and lung cancer all at once? And why?

    • ANSWER:
      Yes it is possible and not all that unusual. This week alone I had 3 double primary cases and one triple primary. Although triple primaries don’t happen very often.

      I’m not really sure why they happen. I guess it is because the body is not limited to one illness at a time or more than one bad tooth or one broken bone. They are usually found in the course of determining what is wrong with the patient initially or during metastatic work up.

      You should note there is a difference between having multiple primary sites and having cancer in multiplet sites. Multiple primaries are separate individual cancers, not related to each other. Having cancer in multiple areas is usually metastatic cancer, meaning it started in one area and spread to another. For example someone can be diagnosed with colon cancer and it spread to their liver and their lung. This person does not have colon liver and lung cancer. They only have colon cancer that is also in the liver and the lung.

  15. QUESTION:
    what is the most dangerous type of cancer and what is so deadly about it?
    why is lung cancer supposely the most dangerous one? Is there another type of cancer more dangerous than all of them that has yet to be discovered?

    • ANSWER:
      All metastatic cancer is deadly. All cancers are treatable in the early stages . . and can be cured . . even lung cancer. It is when the disease . . all 200 of them . . progress to the point of being metastatic that they become life threatening. Metastatic cancer is disease that has replicated itself and sent out microscopic versions of itself all over the body using the blood system or lymphatic system to travel. Cancer is a progressive disease that starts out small. As time goes on the mutated cell becomes larger and more abnormal looking . . eventually it begins to grow more tumors . . those tumors can start to seed into the blood system sending literally hundreds of microscopic cancer cells throughout the body. Those new mutated cancer cells can lodge in the brain, bones, lungs, liver . . anywhere and begin growing a whole new crop of cancer. If cancer can be removed BEFORE it becomes capable of metastasizing than . . a person may be 'cured'. The problem is that sometimes despite the best efforts . . no one knows exactly when the specific cancer tumors take on the ability to metastasize.

      Some cancers metatasize quicker and more aggressive than others . .thus you can have some cancers that grow slowly for many years and pose little risk . .while others can grow and metastasize in a few weeks to months.

      There are many different types of aggressive and rare cancers. The problem is that not enough research has been done to stop the progression of the disease . . thus making them far more deadly.

      That is what kills people . . . the fact that the diseases have not had enough research to find treatment that is effective for that specific disease.

      Thus . .it is not necessarily that there are 'more' deadly cancers than others . . but that there has been more research that has produced better treatment options. Medical science has yet to find a way to treat metastatic cancer successfully in all cases. It is possible to treat each patient individually but not the disease as a whole.

      NCI: Metastatic cancer
      http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/metastatic

  16. QUESTION:
    Can someone please explain metastatic liver cancer to me? What is the cure rate?
    Can someone please explain metastatic liver cancer to me? My mother has this type of cancer. I know that it means the cancer started in her colon and spread to her liver, but I don't know much of anything else...What is the cure rate? Am I more likely to get this cancer because my mother has it? Is it curable? Any information would be great! Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      Metastatic liver cancer means the cancer started in her liver and spread to another part of the body. Usually the lungs or the bones. What you are describing below your question is colon cancer with mets to the liver. Either one is a stage 4 cancer and is very unlikely to be curable. However, treatment may extend life expectancy depending upon the extent of the mets and if the primary tumor was completely removed. Her oncologist would be the best person to ask. It is recommended that you begin colonoscopies when you ar 10 years younger than the age your mother was at diagnosis.

  17. QUESTION:
    If someone has 2 types of cancer at the same time, is it harder to heal? Are their chances lower?
    Can they heal one but not the other?

    Any information would be appreciated. I'm talking about a woman with breast and lung cancer.
    She had breast cancer 10 years ago and now it's back. Also, it seems that they would be 2 different cancers. They are doing a biopsy on Monday. They'll treat the lung cancer first and then the breast one.

    • ANSWER:
      While I was writing, another doctor has given a good explanation. I am also a cancer specialist doctor.
      My answer just adds a few bits to the above.

      Quite often this is a situation in which the breast cancer has spread to the lungs so it is not two cancers but the same type of cancer in two areas. If you do mean a primary breast cancer and a primary lung cancer, it would depend on the stages of each. Most early breast cancers are cured with lumpectomy, radiation, and possibly adjuvant chemotherapy. Primary lung cancer is not so often cured with surgery and radiation, but a minority can be cured if caught very early.

      Let's focus on the more likely reason for your question. Someone you care about has breast cancer and now something is showing up in the lungs. Is it one tumor or several in the lungs? If there is more than one tumor mass showing up in the lungs, it is very likely to be the same breast cancer "metastatic" or spread to the lungs. That situation carries a limited prognosis since cures for metastatic breast cancer are few. But - - metastatic breast cancer may be controlled for some time if it responds to systemic therapies such as hormonal treatments and / or chemotherapy.

      People often have difficulty understanding that breast cancer which has spread to another place is still cancerous breast tissue - - it may respond to hormonal treatments. When breast cancer goes to the bones, it is still breast cancer in the bones - not "bone cancer." I hope this helps you to understand, and we hope your loved one or friend has a good outcome.

  18. QUESTION:
    What is the prognosis for a dog with metastatic lung cancer?
    My dog was just diagnosed yesterday and I want to know how long she has.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi,

      Dog's cancer also known as Canine lymphoma. Mostly chemotherapy will be applied to treat it. This website provided more information about canine lymphoma.

      http://canine-lymphoma.blogspot.com/

      Thanks
      Narza

  19. QUESTION:
    I have stage 4 metastatic lung cancer that has spread to both lungs and into my chest wall?
    I don't know if I should take the chemo. The doctor said that the chemo would help with pain. I feel good now but I know its spreading fast and the doc said I need to start chemo asap .I am in good health other then having stage 4cancer .I am unsure of what to do, anybody out there been through this or a loved one?

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Michelle, I am sorry for your situation. I, too have stage iv lung cancer that has invaded my chest wall. I at first wasn't going to do chemo as they told me I would only be given palliative chemo and would only live perhaps a year. I was dx'd in May of 2006. The chemo was well tolerated by me and stopped the spread of the cancer for about a year, I then had another 6 rounds of chemo and altho it still didn't rid my body of the tumors, I am still alive and right now am on a watch and wait to see if the cancer starts growing again. I finished my last chemo in Dec., 2008.
      The choice is ultimately yours, but I feel I wouldn't have had these additional years if I did nothing. Best to you in your decision.

  20. QUESTION:
    How long would somebody expect to survive with a METASTATIC BRAIN TUMOR if no treatment was undertaken?
    Treatment is unlikely as the person has already been diagnosed with terminal lung cancer, has already undergone chemo for this, which resulted in a reduction of the size of the tumour but was told before that it was incurable (the treatment was done to extend life expectancy not to cure the cancer) and no further chemo can be undertaken for at least another 4 months. It now appears (although as yet undiagnosed -but conditions indicate) that it has also infected the brain - so was wondering how long the end will be in coming if this cancer is untreated?

    • ANSWER:
      My thoughts and prayers are with you. My mother went through this and when we believed it got to the brain I think it was about a few weeks. She just went downhill and then all her pain and suffering was over. I wish nothing but the best outcome, however, to be completely honest it doesn't sound good. God Bless

  21. QUESTION:
    How does someone survive cancer 8 times?
    It seems impossible, but I was reading about a woman who is an 8x cancer survivor. I will list these diagnosis times below.

    1. November 14, 1995 diagnosed with stage 2-3 breast cancer

    2. June 30, 1997 diagnosed with brain cancer

    3. May 28, 2001 diagnosed with liver cancer

    4. August 27, 2002 diagnosed with cancer again

    5. December 9, 2009 diagnosed with bone cancer in the spine and pelvic areas, lung cancer, and liver cancer a third time.

    6. August 7, 2012 diagnosed with liver cancer a fourth time

    Please give me feedback if this is possible or not?

    • ANSWER:
      Dionne Warner is not using the correct terminology in the account of her cancer. I would say that each and every time that she has been diagnosed with a "new" cancer that it has been metastatic breast cancer each time. She has responded well to the treatment plans for her . . . and that's great!

      However, she does not now have liver cancer for the fourth time. She has a fourth recurrence of breast cancer in her liver. When the cancer to the bones was staged as a "stage IV," that in and of itself indicates breast cancer metastases. http://www.cancersurvivorinthecity.com/story.php

      I wish her the best in her future treatments. Her cancer is quite aggressive, but her treatments seem to work each time for her. However, she does herself and the general public a grave disservice by not calling the cancer for what it is . . . metastatic disease.

      I'm hoping my bone metastases go the same route as hers . . . into some sort of remission!

  22. QUESTION:
    When people die of skin cancer, exactly what is it that kills them?
    It may seem like a silly question but in the case of lung cancer, it is very clear what happens or when some organ (other than the skin of course) stops functioning, you can say oh, well the liver does x and it stopped working so all the toxins ....

    What happens with skin cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      Cancer is a progressive disease, a mutation of a cell in the body. It is your own DNA. Cancer is an umbrella term to describe over 200 often very different acting diseases. Skin cancer is also an umbrella term for three or four SUB TYPES of disease. Two subtypes (basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers) are relatively slow, slow growing and fairly 'harmless' while melanoma skin cancer can be aggressive and life threatening. So . . the difference here is that melanoma can metastasize quickly. The disease does not remain on the skin . . it metastasizes which means at some undetermined point the disease takes on the ability to replicate itself endlessly and sends out hundreds and hundreds of microscopic malignant cells into the blood stream or lymphatic system. Those malignant cells can now travel all over the body and lodge in the lung, liver, bone, and even the brain . . and if it is a metastatic melanoma cell . .it remains a melanoma malignancy growing in that organ. In this case melanoma tumors can now grow anywhere inside or outside the body. In many cases tumors that migrate via the blood lodge in the lung or the liver, but they can go anywhere.

      So people with skin cancer or almost any type of cancer can die when the disease metastasizes . . because there is very little that can be done to stop the disease once it is in every single part of the body . . and growing. Those newer cancer colonies will just indefinitely repeat themselves and become metastatic too . .sending hundreds and hundreds of new cancer cells out. Eventually the body cannot tolerate the rapid tumor growth . . the body becomes overtaxed . . the cancer cells can invade the liver, the lungs, the heart, the bones, the brain . . causing them to malfunction and eventually shut down entirely.

      It is metastatic cancer that can kill . . and left untreated melanoma and any type of cancer will become metastatic. It isn't just the visible tumors one needs to worry about . . it is the microscopic disease in the blood stream and lymphatic system too that needs to be addressed.

  23. QUESTION:
    how does a lung cancer metastatic to brain patient feels?
    my mom has it and the cancer cells have got to her brain and it has been two weeks now that she hasn't been able to talk or function anything!! i like to know how she's feeling, she stares at the wall and doesn't respond, very sad!!
    please if anyone with expertise knows how the are feeling inside, i like to know?

    • ANSWER:
      lung cancer cells are carried to brain by blood strearms and gets established as metastatic one, starts to in crease in size . it all depends on the area the location , either in cortex(periphery) of the brain or in the depth of medulla of the brain. the cortex metastasis usually make more sign and symptom with head ach and other signs like vomiting and depending up on the area of location it will act like a space occupying one. with pupillar findings since they are, helpless in expressing their feeling--nobody can under stand what is going on in them

  24. QUESTION:
    What is the best way to help someone deal with cancer?
    My sister has breast cancer and i want to help her with everything. I'm 17 years old and she is 23.
    Please any information would be greatly appreciated.

    Thanks!

    • ANSWER:
      My father is fighting with a stage 4 metastatic lung cancer. he's had 10 sessions of radiotherapy and 2 rounds of chemo (the chemo will continue). he had SOME hair loss but other than that, he had no other side effects. The primary tumor in his lung is now on remission and his doctors are awed by what they see. This is his take on this illness. He never said "Oh Gosh, I have stage 4 cancer, this is the end". On the contrary, his attitude is like "Okay, start with the treatment and get it over with, so I can continue with my life".

      The best thing you can do to your sister is to make her see that she's not alone, and she'll never be. Cancer is now like the flu. In every family, you'll see a cancer case. The name itself is scary as hell and the treatment is usually hard on the body but the most important thing she needs is morale.

      Visit the web site for Lance Armstrong Foundation and read the survival stories with her. That will help keep her strong, and her morale high. Keep negative people and chatter away from her, as those are the last things she'll need. Watch comedy movies with her, or whatever makes her laugh and make sure that she's having a good time. Morale and a perfectly good mood is what she needs, besides the treatment she's receiving.

      She'll probably have hair loss after the chemo. You can get a short haircut yourself to remind her that SHE has the roots and that her hair WILL eventually grow back.

      Other than that, feed her with vegetables. And the honey/curcuma (turmeric) mix will also help. Give her 2 tablespoons of honey mixed with 2 teaspoons of turmeric everyday. Some doctors advise you to eat this, even if you have cancer or not, because it helps control the abnormal cell activities in the body. Some oncologists may laugh at these natural stuff but we've been trying this and... so far so good.

      I hope your sister has a full recovery soon.

  25. QUESTION:
    when do symptoms of terminal cancer start to show?
    My friend is a 27 yr old single parent who was diagnosed with stage IV ovarian cancer. She was given a year about 5-6 months ago but is showing no sign of illness. She has maintained her weight, if not gained. Her skin and eyes are still bright and energetic. She seems happy and healthy by all accounts. What type of symptoms should we expect to see as her illness progresses and when should we expect to start seeing them?

    • ANSWER:
      "global trotter" has a good answer except we would not expect night sweats with this type of malignancy - assuming this really is an ovarian carcinoma.

      Your friend is extremely young for an ovarian carcinoma.
      How sure are you of the diagnosis?

      Has she been on combination chemotherapy for these last 5-6 months?
      I can't believe they would give up on a 27 year old woman without trying all of the different chemotherapy regimens we have for ovarian carcinomas.

      Where is the metastatic disease?
      Liver? Lungs? Intraperitonal? Retroperitoneal lymph nodes?
      If she does not have liver involvement, we would not expect to see the jaundice and liver failure that "globe trotter" describes.

      What you describe is a person still in good health without weight loss and not appearing sick. It sure would help if we knew where her metastatic (stage IV) ovarian cancer is located. She must have had CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.

      And it would help to know what treatment she has received.
      Did she have optimal debulking surgery? What chemotherapy has been tried?

      By the way, doctors do not "give" people set amounts of time to live.
      I know what you mean, but that phrase always bothers me - as if doctors decided the fates of patients. When doctors are pushed to make predictions, we are usually wrong. No one knows the future for any one person. We only provided statistics based on many other people who have had similar situations. Yet each patient is different.

      It does not sound like she is within 6 months of death from the description you provide.

      If she allows it, you might go with her when she sees her medical oncologist. That way you can hear what is really going on from a medical professional who knows all the details of her case details we do not have here.

      From http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/255771-overview
      Ovarian carcinomas are uncommon in patients younger than 40 years.
      Most cases are diagnosed in the 60 to 70 age group.

  26. QUESTION:
    rehydrated in hospital now has lungs full of fluid. is it the breast cancer or something else?
    Sister has metastatic breast cancer, she got bells palsy given steriods that dehydrated her. what caused the fluid steriods or cancer? She wouln't have lasted the night if not taken to hsopital.

    • ANSWER:
      Her doctor is better able to answer this question, but either way it is not uncommon for metastatic breast cells to invade or irritate the lungs . . she probably has cancer cells in or growing on the lungs which can cause fluid to build up. Metastatic cancer cells irritate the pleura or lining of the lungs causing the fluid. Cancer is nasty business. Many cancers that have mets to the lungs respond in the same way. Hope her doctors can get this under control quickly.

  27. QUESTION:
    How do chemotherapy drugs interact chemically with cancer cells to get rid of the cancerous cells?
    I have to give a chemistry project tomorrow in class and I need to have a basic understanding of what goes on chemically between chemotherapy drugs and the cancerous cells. Like what element interacts with what and how the chemo drugs stop the cancer cells from replicating. If anyone even has a most basic chemical explanation as to what occurs I would really appreciate it.

    • ANSWER:
      Chemotherapy works by destroying cancer cells; unfortunately, it cannot tell the difference between a cancer cell and some healthy cells. So chemotherapy eliminates not only the fast-growing cancer cells but also other fast-growing cells in your body, including, hair and blood cells.

      Some cancer cells grow slowly while others grow rapidly. As a result, different types of chemotherapy drugs target the growth patterns of specific types of cancer cells. Each drug has a different way of working and is effective at a specific time in the life cycle of the cell it targets.

      So, the chemicals are designed to go after specific cells that have a particular metabolic rate.

      Chemotherapy has NOT been very effective and the 5 year survival rate is very poor. It is expensive; a cancer patient is worth about 0,000 to the medical community.

      In 1972, according to the American Cancer Societies own figures, 33% of cancers had a five year survival rate. We should also point out that at that same time 33% of cancers went away on their own. Today, according to the ACS, the five year survival rate for cancer has risen to 40%. However, what they do not tell you is that:

      1.The statistics are invalid because they combine data of both local and metastasized cancers; and that the comparisons are not randomized [Ulrich Abel, Advanced Epithelial Cancer", 1990 (no longer in print) ]
      2.Cancers not factored into the original statistics are now factored in, such as skin cancers, many of which are not fatal and that the statistics are purposely inflated by including people with benign cancers.
      3.Technology has helped us to find cancers earlier, thus the survival time from diagnosis to eventual death has lengthened.
      4.They are now including in their stats non deadly skin cancers.

      By shrinking tumors, chemotherapy encourages stronger cancer cells to grow and multiply and become chemo resistant. Then there are the new cancers caused by chemotherapy, or secondary cancers. This quaint side effect is often overlooked in the lists of side effects in a drug's accompanying literature, though you can find this information quite easily at the National Cancer Institute. We pride ourselves in America for being technologically advanced and that our technology is rooted in a foundation of good science.

      Wrong.

      When it comes to medicine, little at all is based upon science. Again we shall point to the Office of Technological Assessment’s paper: Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Medical Technologies in which we are told that fewer than 20% of all medical procedures have been tested, and that of those tested, half were tested badly.

      Medicine in America is not about healing.

      Most telling, according to Ralph Moss in his book Questioning Chemotherapy, is that in a good number of surveys, chemotherapists have responded that they would neither recommend chemotherapy for their families nor would they use it themselves. In an unpublished cohort study in which it was revealed that only 9% of oncologists took chemotherapy for their cancers.

      "Most cancer patients in this country die of chemotherapy.

      Chemotherapy does not eliminate breast, colon, or lung cancers. This fact has been documented for over a decade, yet doctors still use chemotherapy for these tumors,” Allen Levin, MD UCSF The Healing of Cancer.

      Additionally, Irwin Bross, a biostatistician for the National Cancer Institute, discovered that many cancers that are benign (though thought to be malignant) and will not metastasize until they are hit with chemotherapy. In other words, he's found that many people who've been diagnosed with metastatic cancer did not have metastatic cancer until they got their chemotherapy.

      For many cancers, chemotherapy just does not improve your survival rate. Some of these are colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, bladder, breast, ovarian, cervical and corpus uteri, head and neck. Knowing this, oncologists still recommend a regimen of chemotherapy, why?

      The answer you will get from oncologists that are honest is this: “We give it to patients so they won't give up hope and fall into the hands of quacks.” Quacks? Implicit in the definition of quackery is the sale of worthless or dangerous nostrums for profit. Who exactly are the quacks? Just because someone is wearing a white smock, has a title, and works in a nice air conditioned office, does NOT take away what he is. Con men don't look like crooks or they would never get anyone to buy into what they are selling. Looking credible does NOT mean they are.

      Dr Ulrich Abel, who poured over thousands and thousands of cancer studies, published his shocking report in 1990 stating quite succinctly that chemotherapy has done nothing for 80% of all cancers; that 80% of chemotherapy administered was absolutely worthless.

      To give a fair and accurate assessment of chemotherapy in your report, you should also tell people how it is NOT very effective and only a smal

  28. QUESTION:
    What is life expectancy once metastatic cancer is found in the bones and lungs?
    The primary source of cancer has not been found. The cancer is in a male age 65.

    • ANSWER:
      It could be around or less than 3 months. Although no one would like to speculate on this but that's what it mostly were in similar cases that I read. God bless!

  29. QUESTION:
    What exactly are the symptoms of metastatic melanoma?
    What exactly are the symptoms of metastatic melanoma, and in how much pain would someone be who suffers from it?

    Many thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Metastatic melanoma is by definition, a secondary cancer. You cannot have a metastatic melanoma without having a primary melanoma.

      Metastatic comes from the word "Metastasis." A Metastasis is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. A good example would be someone who has malignant melanoma (a bad type of skin cancer)....this is the primary cancer. If that cancer spreads (metastasizes) to the lungs, then you now have a secondary cancer in the lungs which is called a metastatic melanoma.

      Having said that, there are really no clear cut symptoms for metastatic melanoma...the symptoms really depend on the location of the secondary cancer. For example, if your primary cancer spread to the brain, a symptom could be headaches and dizzyness. If you do not already have cancer, then you do not need to worry about metastatic melanoma. Best of Luck!

  30. QUESTION:
    Will my dad survive stage 3b lung cancer?
    My dad was diagnosed with lung cancer about a month ago and has already received radiation about 2 weeks ago. The cancer has spread into an area of the brain. How long will he live? P.S. he doesnt even smoke, he got the cancer from his genes.

    • ANSWER:
      With metastatic disease to the brain, your dad is stage IV.
      Survival is said to be 2% at five years.
      Over 20 years of cancer medicine and hundreds of stage IV lung cancer patients,
      I never saw one make it five years. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung_cancer
      He should not have gotten the lung cancer from genes - as far as we know.
      There are 10% of men who develop lung cancer without smoking. Bad Luck.

  31. QUESTION:
    Can lung cancer be treated successfully if caught in the early stages?
    Also,what are the early signs?
    I take it that's a no, with no replies. I thought not. I think it always leads to death eventually but drugs or ops just prolong life a bit.

    • ANSWER:
      Lung cancer, if caught in the early stages, can be cured. It also depends on the type of cancer & if it has metastatic spread.Some cancers can be completely removed by surgery and usually with radiation & or chemo for follow up. If caught late it can be a prognosis of 3-6 months. Early signs include difficulty breathing, coughing up blood, weakness, fever, loss of appetite, and nausea & vomiting in later stages. Sometimes people get a progression of the signs and a "cold that won't go away". It's always better to see a MD for further tests like X-rays, CAT, or MRI. So your answer is, yes.

  32. QUESTION:
    How long can you live with gastric cancer in 4th stage, spread to liver lungs pancreas?
    My husband's father has been diagnosed with gastric cancer. The doctors cannot do much - pretty much nothing, could not offer even chemo and gave him no chances. How long can you live with cancer in its 4th stage? The doctors said a few months maybe a year, but did not really want to talk about it.
    Do you know anybody that has lived years with it?

    • ANSWER:
      With that kind of metastasis, it's impossible to predict, which is why the doc is hesitant to do so. My college roomie's dad had metastatic gastric cancer and was told basically the same thing, but this was 20 years ago, when there were far fewer trials and drugs available.

      It's a little puzzling that he's not on chemo, either for active or palliative reasons. The chemo doesn't represent a cure, but it can definitely extend life. And there may even be clinical trials he'd qualify for. Obviously some people at this point of the disease choose to simply go quietly, but if he is interested in exploring other options, he should. It would be particularly useful if he could identify an onc specializing in gastrointestinal cancers.

      http://cancercenters.cancer.gov/cancer_centers/cancer-centers-list.html
      If you're interested in learning more, here's a list of NCI designated cancer centers by state. These are the ones recognized by NCI as being the best. He might want a second opinion if there's one near him.

  33. QUESTION:
    When cancer metastasizes, are you diagnosed with cancer again or just that it spread?
    I asked a question last night about my mom being diagnosed 6 times. She had breast cancer in both breasts, 10 years apart, and they both spread to numerous areas. An answerer said she wouldn't have been diagnosed 6 times, just 2 with it spreading. I know that her lung, bone, liver and colon cancer is a result of the breast cancer but don't know what to call it besides being diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer again.

    Can someone please clarify this?

    • ANSWER:
      I’m the one who answered your question yesterday.
      Breast cancer does not spread to the contralateral breast unless it is inflammatory breast cancer. Although you did not mention what kind of breast cancer she has I suspect it is ductal carcinoma.
      She has two cancers, one in each breast.
      Each time her breast cancer is found in a new location it is not a new diagnosis it is progression of her original disease.
      If you want to know the correct terminology it is bilateral breast cancer metastatic to the liver, colon, lungs and bone or bilateral stage 4 breast cancer.
      Unfortunately it is not unusual for breast cancer to metastisize 10 years or more after the original diagnosis.

  34. QUESTION:
    Can anyone give me sone details about metastatic brain cancer and life expectancy?
    My mother is 70 years old and was diagnosed with metastatic brain cancer. We would like some idea of a timeframe as to how long we will have her with us. We have not found the original source of the cancer at this time as we are awaiting test results. Any information is greatly appreciated.

    • ANSWER:
      Detailed Guide:
      What Is Metastatic Cancer?

      Local, Regional, and Distant (Metastatic) Spread of Cancer

      Metastatic cancer is a cancer that has spread from its primary site (the part of the body in which it developed) to other parts of the body. If cells break away from a cancerous tumor, they can travel to other areas of the body. There, they may settle and form "colony" tumors. In their new location, the cancer cells continue growing. The spread of a tumor to a new part of the body is called metastasis.

      It is important to understand the difference between metastasis and local spread, because they affect a patient's prognosis (the outlook for chances of survival) and treatment options in different ways.

      Local spread means that a growing cancer extends beyond the organ in which it developed, into nearby organs and tissues. For example, the cervix (lower part of the uterus or womb) is located in front of the rectum and behind the bladder. Very large cancers of the cervix may extend into the rectum or bladder.

      Metastasis involves spread of cancer cells through the bloodstream, or the lymph system. The lymph system consists of lymph vessels (similar to veins except that they contain tissue waste products and immune system cells instead of blood). These lymph vessels lead to lymph nodes, bean-shaped collections of immune system cells that are important in fighting infections. Cancer cells that break off from tumors and enter the lymph vessels may be carried to lymph nodes where they may continue to grow and form metastases. Doctors sometimes call metastasis to lymph nodes near the place a cancer developed regional spread. This is to distinguish it from distant spread or distant metastasis. Distant spread generally occurs when cancer cells break off from tumors and enter the bloodstream, travel to other organs, and continue to grow into new tumors.

      When cancer spreads, it is still named after the part of the body where it started. For example, if prostate cancer spreads to the bones, it is still called prostate cancer, and if breast cancer spreads to the lungs it is still breast cancer.

      Recurrence and Metastasis

      Recurrence is the medical term used when cancer comes back in a patient who appeared to be in remission (free of cancer) after treatment. Cancer can recur locally, in the same organ it developed in or, if that organ was removed by surgery, in a nearby remaining organ or tissue. For example, local recurrence of breast cancer means cancer started to grow again in the same breast after lumpectomy and radiation therapy or in the chest wall, skin or muscle after a mastectomy. A regional recurrence usually means cancer has come back in nearby lymph nodes or in the area that lymph nodes had been removed from. After apparently complete removal of a mouth or throat cancer, growth of cancer in lymph nodes of the neck would be considered regional recurrence. A distant recurrence involves any other part of the body not included in local or regional recurrence. After surgery for apparently localized prostate cancer, the cancer might recur distantly in bones, the liver, or the lungs.

      But, recurrence is not the only time a cancer will metastasize. Some cancers are discovered to have spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant organs shortly after the cancer is first diagnosed, and before treatment is started. In some cases, a metastasis may be discovered before the primary (original) tumor is found. For example, a patient may go to the doctor because lymph nodes in the neck are growing larger. After a biopsy reveals cancer in these lymph nodes, additional examinations or x-rays may find that the cancer actually started in the throat. Even if a cancer has spread very widely throughout the body before it is discovered, the cancer's appearance under a microscope can sometimes tell doctors where it started. But, some cancers lack these microscopic clues to their origin, and it may be impossible to determine exactly where they started. This condition is called cancer of unknown primary, and is discussed further in a separate American Cancer Society document.

      So, cancer can recur without metastasizing (a local recurrence) and can metastasize without recurring locally (cancer found to have metastasized when first diagnosed).

      Significance of Metastasis to the Patient

      Most people who die of cancer have metastases at the time of their death. And, these metastases are directly responsible for the majority of cancer deaths. Most common cancers (prostate, breast, colon, lung, for example) develop in organs that can be completely or partially removed by surgery. Even though these operations cause effects, they could cure patients if metastasis did not occur. Most of the serious consequences of these cancers occur because of spread to other parts of the body. In some cases, the most serious effect of cancer is its spread to a particularly essential part of the body, such as areas of the brain. In other cases, spread to and growth in many organs creates so many cancer cells that the body's normal metabolism is disrupted.

      However, cancer can be fatal even if it does not metastasize. Cancers that start in the brain may be impossible to remove without causing severe brain damage. In fact, brain tumors rarely spread beyond the nervous system. Growth and local spread of these cancers often interfere with parts of the brain necessary for life. A tumor may become very large without ever metastasizing. It may then press against vital tissues such as nerves, the brain, or blood vessels. Leukemia can cause death by interfering with normal blood functions without the defective cells ever leaving the tissues they started in (the bone marrow and bloodstream).

      The link below will help you understand about brain cancer and the information above is just general information about metastatic cancer. Since working in hospice I have taken care of many brain tumor patients. I have seen some that have lived with the disease for over a decade and some that have only lived a few days/weeks. Don't be afraid to ask your mother's doctors lots of questions. That is what they are their for. If you are not satisfied with the answer don't hesitate to get a 2nd 3rd etc opinions

  35. QUESTION:
    what is the prognosis for lung cancer with secondary bone cancer?
    My Elderly Aut was diagnosed with Lung cancer,and she has secondary cancer as well in the bone..she is diabetic and is in poor health...how long before we start to see a decline in her health for the worse

    • ANSWER:
      tworobs - The prognosis is poor. How long she has remaining depends upon a couple of possibilities. When you write "secondary" bone cancer, I take it to mean the common spread of the original tumor in the lung to the bone. This is known as "metastatic" bone cancer. Predictions depend upon which type of lung cancer is present, whether there are other metastases to other organs in the body such as the brain or heart, the effect of any treatment, and the added damage of her diabetes or other bad health conditions. Thus, the remaining time could vary from a couple of weeks to about a year-and-a-half. It's hard to know. Her health is likely declining daily though it may not be visible.

  36. QUESTION:
    What are some symptoms of you having cancer?
    I am just interested in what some symptoms are of you possibly having either skin or breast cancer. Thank you for your answers.

    • ANSWER:
      Losing weight is one, my mum was rather skinny so was my nanna (both had breast cancer) Stage 4

      Breast cancer symptoms vary widely — from lumps to swelling to skin changes — and many breast cancers have no obvious symptoms at all. Symptoms that are similar to those of breast cancer may be the result of non-cancerous conditions like infection or a cyst.

      Some Symptoms of Advanced (Metastatic) Breast Cancer
      Stage 4, or metastatic breast cancer is the most advanced stage of this disease. Metastatic breast cancer is defined as having spread beyond the breast and underarm lymph nodes into other parts of the body.

      * bone pain (bone metastases)
      * shortness of breath (lung metastases)
      * drop in appetite (liver metastases)
      * unintentional weight loss (liver metastases)
      * headaches, neurological pain or weakness (could be brain metastases)
      (This is what my mother had, and it was very noticeable)

      Breast Lumps

      * These lumps can be benign or malignant. Benign lumps do not spread to other parts of the body. A malignant lump is made up of cancer cells. When it first develops, this malignant tumour is confined to the breast. Most lumps are not cancerous

      Changes to look for:

      * A lump, lumpiness or thickening in the breast or armpit – especially if it is in one breast only
      * A change in the size or shape of your breast
      * Skin changes such as dimpling or redness
      * Nipple inversion or discharge
      * A change to the nipple, like a rash, ulcer or itchiness
      * An unusual or persistent pain

      Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) – Aggressive and Unusual Symptoms
      One type of breast cancer that does not appear in lumps is called inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). This aggressive cancer grows in sheets instead of lumps, and it invades nearby skin, resembling a rash. It will not respond to topical creams or antibiotics, and should be treated very promptly. Symptoms:

      * a sudden increase in mature breast size (as much as a cup size in a few days)
      * itching in the skin of the breast that is continuous and not relieved by pills or creams
      * a change in the breast skin color, resulting in pink, red, or dark-colored areas
      * breast is excessively warm to the touch, or harder or firmer than usual
      * unusual pain, which occurs out of the regular cycle
      * sometimes a change in skin texture, similar to the skin of an orange
      * breast skin ulcers (later stage IBC)

  37. QUESTION:
    Who wishes to help me to help my daughter heal herself of cancer?
    She has metastatic breast cancer that has moved to her lungs and been treated and and shrinking in her lungs but now moved into the brain possibly. I will answer questions about her health and our relationship. I just want her to heal...
    Pleeeeeeaase!

    • ANSWER:
      It would be my pleasure to be of assistance to you and your daughter. Please look into the the following information I am providing you regarding the importance of Raising Glutathione (GSH) levels at the cellular level to combat cancer. There is a nutraceutical with 25 years of patents and proven research and many wonderful testimonials. It is recognised by by the FDA, it is in the Physician's desk Reference (PDR) and is covered by medicare & medicaid.

      After reading the following info please feel free to contact me
      at : Celenaper@yahoo.com
      So can answer any further questions and provide you the link to the nutraceutical.

      GSH in Cancer Prevention

      The search for the potential mechanism of immuno-enhancement by milk serum (whey) protein dietary supplementation has revealed the provocative possibility that whey protein may contribute to a broader biological effect of a protective nature with regard to susceptibility to cancer and diseases of aging, as well as general detoxification of environmental agents. Cancer and diseases of aging all appear to be somehow related to a drop in GSH—an ubiquitous element exerting a protective action against oxyradicals and other toxic agents.

      The two major theories on the origin of cancer both implicate GSH as a putative protective factor owing to its dual function as antioxidant and detoxifying agent. It has been suggested that the underlying mechanisms of aging and carcinogenesis are closely related, since the incidence of cancer increases progressively with age in humans and experimental animals. Indeed, theories of aging based on the accumulation of nonrepairable lesions over time—such as the free radical theory—are similar to theories explaining the origin of certain tumors.
      Others attribute the aging-associated increase in cancers to accumulation of carcinogens and increased exposure to the action of carcinogens with time.25 In fact, at least 12 carcinogens have been shown to be detoxified by GSH conjugation.
      These are: aflatoxin B1, N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene, benz-(a) anthracene, benz (a)pyrene, benzidine, dimethylhydrazine, dimethylnitrosamine, ethylmethane sulfonate, N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene, 7-methylben-zanthracene, 3-methyl-cholanthracene, and 1-nitropy-teneY338

      As well, a University of Wisconsin study convincingly showed that physiological levels of androgens are capable of decreasing the GSH content in human prostatic androgen-responsive cells, which could provide a mechanism by which androgen exposure promotes prostate carcinogenesis.39

      Conversely, a slightly higher GSH level in the colon, obtained, by whey protein feeding, is associated with a lower tumor burden in an experimental model of human colon carcinoma again suggesting that tissue GSH levels modulate tumorigenesis.

      A further argument supporting the preventive role of GSH with regard to tumor development is the fact that GSH decreases in aging humans.

  38. QUESTION:
    How do you actually die from breast cancer?
    my mother has just been diagnosed with breast cancer and im worried.
    I know she can die but HOW does one actually die from it?
    what causes the death?

    im so confused.

    • ANSWER:
      ANY CANCER IS DANGEROUS. Breast cancer also can kill a patient if not treated properly in time.

      When primary breast cancer spreads, it may first go to the regional lymph nodes under the armpit, the axillary nodes. If this occurs, regional metastasis exists. If it proceeds elsewhere either by lymphatic or blood-borne spread, the patient develops systemic metastasis that may involve a number of other organs in the body. Common sites of systemic involvement for breast cancer are the lung, bones, liver, and the skin and soft tissue. As it turns out, the presence of, and the actual number of, regional lymph nodes containing cancer remains the single best indicator of whether or not the cancer has become widely metastatic. Because tests to discover metastasis in other organs may not be sensitive enough to reveal minute deposits, the evaluation of the axilla for regional metastasis becomes very important in making treatment decisions for this disease.

      If breast cancer spreads to other major organs of the body, its presence will compromise the function of those organs. Death can result from compromise of these vital organs' functions.

      You should not get confused and worry much if your mother has been diagnoised Breast Cancer. By proper treatment viz. Surgery (MASTECTOMY - Removal of the affected breast), Chemotherapy and radiation therapy, you can control and also get cured from the disease. Your oncologist will tell you in details and treat her.

      PLEASE DO NOT TALK ABOUT DEATH NOW ITSELF. IT IS NOT IN YOUR OR MY HANDS AND GOD WILL TAKE CARE. HAVE BELIEF IN HIM AND DO YOUR DUTY OF GIVING FULL TREATEMENT WITHOUT WORRYING UNNECSSARILY.

      You can also discuss with a PSYCO-ONCOLOGIST and he will give you encouragement-

  39. QUESTION:
    How do people die of breast cancer?
    My mother has breast cancer and she's currently undergoing her chemotherapy treatments. She was diagnosed with Stage II. She seems to be just as healthy as she always was (or seemed to be), and the treatments are barely affecting her at all. But I always hear of people dying of breast cancer. I've never really understood how a person can die of breast cancer - is it like with AIDS, where the immune system is incapable of fighting off other illnesses and diseases, and those are what actually cause death?

    • ANSWER:
      This is an excellent question. You deserve a complete answer.

      There are a few ways in which cancer can lead to death. How the disease progresses in each individual, if it cannot be medically and surgically controlled, is difficult to predict. However, there are patterns that recur in different kinds of cancer which show us that the biologic nature of different kinds of tumors are inherently different. The pattern of events in colon cancer, for example, are different from breast cancer, and both of them are different from prostate cancer... etc.

      One of the defining characteristics of cancer is the ability to spread to distant organs. This is called metastasis. Breast cancer is often capable of metastasis, most commonly to the lungs and to the bone marrow. This probably happens at a microscopic level even before the tumor is first found. When someone is evaluated for breast cancer, a finding of cancer in the lymph nodes of the armpit tends to suggest the potential for microscopic distant spread of disease even when none can yet be detected. Chemotherapy is the treatment of the whole body with anti-cancer medicine, designed to destroy these metastatic tumors before they can grow.

      Metastatic tumors can become a cause of death. Tumors in the brain can lead to interference with brain function. This is eventually unsurvivable. Tumors that grow in other locations can also interfere with other organ functions. Metastatic lung lesions can directly interfere with lung function or can help harbor infection or they can bleed.

      When aggressive cancer grows in multiple places within the body, there is no way to control these tumors with surgical removal. The "tumor burden" can start to change the way the entire body uses energy. If there are several pounds of rapidly growing tumor within the body, this usurps the bodily supplies of nutrients and energy molecules. The rest of the body suffers almost as if it were starving. This type of depletion leads to the inability to fight infections and heal injuries. The patient can, like you suggest, appear to have AIDS, although the types of problems that they suffer are not as bizarre as AIDS patients.

      Breast cancer growing in the bones can lead to fractures, while lesions in the lung can lead to fluid build up both inside and around the lung. Some patients who are suffering the ravages of disease but who are not yet being completely destroyed by it, end up bed-bound only to succumb to hospital type complications such as pneumonia or blood clots. Hospital type complications like this are a mode in which cancer causes death.

      Stage 2 cancer like you describe is frequently very controllable. The science of cancer therapy is advancing rapidly and we now know to look for specific markers in the make-up of the tumor which help indicate that certain therapies may be of benefit. Chemotherapy for breast cancer is often strongly effective now, and is much better tolerated then other versions were in the past. Surgical decisions are also informed with a tremendous amount of data. We know now how to do much smaller but equally effective operations compared to those that were done in the past. This is a rapidly advancing field in medicine.

      I hope that helps.

      Good luck!

      Feel free to contact me if you have specific questions.

  40. QUESTION:
    Can anyone tell me what is involved in the operation to remove Metastatic Osteosarcoma in the lungs.?
    My friend's son has undergone treatment of Osteosarcoma in hisleft leg, he as had the bone removed and most of the thigh muscle, under gone chemo and now as Metastastic Osteosarcoma in the lungs. He will under go an operation to remove 3 nodules that have calcified in the lungs ,2 in the left one in the right. Anybody know what the operation entails?

    • ANSWER:
      I have found a terrific website that tells all about this type of cancer, all the treatment options and gives you detailed advice about the particular surgeries. Hope this helps and best of luck to your friend.
      http://www.ufscc.ufl.edu/Patient/content.aspx?section=typesofcancer&id=620

  41. QUESTION:
    What is talcum powder good for ? cure cancer ?
    What is talcum powder good for ? In one comment I received from the eye hospital , it says to use talcum powder on your eyes if you have blepharitis . However in the details it says that it is carcinogenic and related to asbestos. So why do the doctors print on the internet that they have used it to cure Lung cancer ?

    • ANSWER:
      No doctors have said they have cured lung cancer using talcum powder. I assume you're referring to this study, which suggested talc may have a role in slowing the growth of metastatic lung tmours

      http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/73421.php

      The article is 5 years old though; I can't find any stories of follow-up studies

      I'm guessing that talc may be an ingredient in a preparation you've been given or recommended for blephartis. I don't think any doctor wwould recommend actually putting talc on your eyelids.

      I assume that the warning about cancer is as a precaution, though it is misguided I think. There's no real evidence of a link, and it's certainly not proven.

      And there has been no asbestos in talc for almost 40 years.

      Some studies have indicated an increase in risk of ovarian cancer with the use of talc, others have found no such link. One study indicated an increase in risk only after 20+ years daily use.

      In 2003 researchers combined and analysed all the information from 16 studies into ovarian cancer and talc use. The combined results showed that there could be a small increased risk of developing ovarian cancer if talc is used.

      But Cancer Research UK says, 'the researchers decided that this was probably a statistical blip, because the risk of ovarian cancer didn't increase more if women used larger amounts of talc'.

      Before 1975, some talc was contaminated with asbestos; this hasn't been the case since 1975. One study which examined the year/s women had used talc showed that use before 1975 was associated with an increase in risk of ovarian cancer, whereas use after 1975 wasn't.

      Exposure to asbestos IS an ovarian cancer risk, but studies show it only increases the risk of ovarian cancer in women with long-term exposure to asbestos due to their jobs.

  42. QUESTION:
    What is the chance someone will survive secondary bone cancer?
    A friend found out she has bone cancer but docs cant find the primary cancer source
    A friend who is in her early 50's found out she has seconday bone cancer. Her docs cant find the primary source of cancer and theyve ruled out breast cancer. Her platelet count has been very low and shes had to have 2 blood transfusions. She is in alot of pain and is weak. She is also very pale. She goes sometime next week to see what her options are. Im very worried about her.

    • ANSWER:
      Most types of carcinoma metastatic to bone are not considered curable.
      Breast cancer is a good bet (depending on the person's age) in a situation where the primary cannot be identified and the bone lesions are biopsy proven adenocarcinoma. These people may respond with oral hormonal therapy with or without chemotherapy. The key would then be to control the disease with medication and possibly some focal radiation therapy if needed for symptomatic control.

      Are you certain this is a malignancy? Is there a confirmed biopsy showing carcinoma? We are greatly hampered by such limited information here. We don't even know the woman's age.

      If this is an adenocarcinoma, the primary could be a breast cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, lung cancer, or less likely a GYN malignancy or a GI malignancy. When all testing fails to show the primary, I always treated for the BEST type it could possibly be.

      All this testing and searching for the cancer cell type just tells us what is likely to help most. Sometimes you have to guess and try different treatments until you find what works for that one special patient - AND - each person/patient is special. It sounds crude when so much of medicine is scientific these days, but there is still some art to the practice of medicine - and experience counts.

  43. QUESTION:
    what is the best alternative treatment for metastatic breast cancer?
    it all started as ductal carcinoma of the left breast. it would now appear to have spread to the lungs, and probbly other organs and the bones. of late, what appears to be metastatic spread in the lungs would no longer respond or react to the drugs introduce as chemotherapy

    • ANSWER:
      I'm sorry to hear that you or someone close to you has secondary breast cancer. Why do you say it 'appears' to have spread, is there a chance that it hasn't? What do the medical team involved advise regarding treatment?

      As far as alternatives go, there are alternative and complementary therapies that will make you feel better, but none that have been proven to be at all effective in treating cancer.

      I'm sure you know, since you've come this far, that wherever there's cancer there's someone waiting to make a fast buck out of people's desperation by selling ineffective and sometimes dangerous 'cures'. There are also well-meaning and caring people who will recommend diets, herbs etc. Then there are the cancer hobbyists who pop up on here most days - people who have never studied, had or been close to cancer but consider themselves experts because of something they've read or heard.

      If you are interested in any particular 'alternative', do a search on http://www.quackwatch.org before committing any time or money. And always be wary of unsubstantiated testimonials and anecdotes; you have no way of knowing if the person ever had cancer in the first place, much less was cured.

      If you don't use them already, I recommend these websites. Both have loads of information and both also have forums where you can talk to people who are or have been in the same situation as yourself, whether it is you or a loved one who has cancer

      http://www.breastcancercare.org.uk
      http://www.breastcancer.org

      Good luck

  44. QUESTION:
    Is it possible to have breast cancer at 16?
    About 3 weeks ago a large red spot showed up on my left breast. It went away but there is now a small piece of hard skin in that area. It doesn't hurt, but I don't know what it is. I know i'm only 16 so i shouldn't be worried but breast cancer runs in my family.

    • ANSWER:
      Occasionally, breast cancer presents as metastatic disease, that is, cancer that has spread beyond the original organ. Metastatic breast cancer will cause symptoms that depend on the location of metastasis. More common sites of metastasis include bone, liver, lung and brain. Unexplained weight loss can occasionally herald an occult breast cancer, as can symptoms of fevers or chills. Bone or joint pains can sometimes be manifestations of metastatic breast cancer, as can jaundice or neurological symptoms. These symptoms are “non-specific,” meaning they can also be manifestations of many other illnesses.

      Most symptoms of breast disorder do not turn out to represent underlying breast cancer. Benign breast diseases such as mastitis and fibroadenoma of the breast are more common causes of breast disorder symptoms. The appearance of a new symptom should be taken seriously by both patients and their doctors, because of the possibility of an underlying breast cancer at almost any age.

  45. QUESTION:
    What's the average life expetctancy with matastatic bone cancer?
    Can som1 pls just give me a straight answer? Cancer fills both lungs, 3 vertabre, hip, sacrum, pubic bone, lg tumor almost fills bronchia. On average, how long r we looking at? I want 2 make plans 2 do things w/ new wife & just need 2 know.

    • ANSWER:
      What age person?
      What type of cancer?
      There are many types of cancer that can be metastatic to bones and lungs.
      Some respond to treatment and some do not.
      The doctor who knows all of the details of this case should be explaining this.
      But no doctor ever knows the precise amount of time someone has months in advance.
      So there is no straight answer to this question.
      The malignancy filling both lungs would be a greater concern than the bone lesions.
      Lance Armstrong had testicular cancer metastatic to his lungs and brain; yet he was cured with treatment.
      The type of cancer is crucial here.

  46. QUESTION:
    How long does it take a human body to die form secondary cancer of bones and lungs no drugs just pain killer?
    No chemo no radiation just pain killers.Secondary cancer of the bones, lungs,spine and lymph nodes.Canceris tumor started in the liver. oh by the way two tumors on the liver not just one.

    • ANSWER:
      Only an oncologist can properly answer that after a proper diagnosis. The cancer stage is the primary basis for predicting possible death due to systemic failure. At the metastatic stage, a patient will be given a count of threes such that the worst estimate will be 3 months, beyond that, another 3, and further.

  47. QUESTION:
    How exactly does cancer kill you?
    When cancer is in the terminal stage, does it actually begin to shut down the functions of respiration and blood pumping?

    I understand that the cancer spreads all over your body, but does it begin to actively shut down functions that are essential to life support?

    • ANSWER:
      Depending on where the malignancy is located, death occurs from a variety of mechanisms. If the bone marrow is involved, as in leukemia or metastatic disease, death often occurs due to infection. Growth of a tumor in the brain will eventually interrupt normal brain functions such as breathing. Also many tumors increase the likelihood of developing clots, and if they go to the lungs, can also be deadly. As metastasis continues, affected organs can be overwhelmed and shut down.
      The time it takes for this to occur varies with the type of cancer and the patient. There will be a broad specturm of possibilities. Some individuals succumb in weeks, and for others, months or years pass before the disease makes enough progress that it becomes fatal. Note that there are a lot of cancers that can be treated and beaten into remission. Never give up hope; never quit. Find the inner strength to perservere.

  48. QUESTION:
    What is the chance of an 83-year old surviving chemotherapy?
    My grandpa has a tumor in his stomach but there is a possibility that it may have spread to the lungs. If it did spread, then surgery cannot be done to solve the problem. Would he be able to handle chemotherapy? He has asthma and has well controlled diabetes.

    • ANSWER:
      "Chemotherapy" is a general term for many very different treatments. There are more than 75 chemotherapy drugs and hundreds of different combinations. If this is gastric carcinoma metastatic to lung, the regimens commonly used should pose no great risk of mortality, but gastric cancers that have spread beyond surgery are not likely to be cured.

      What happens so often is that people eventually die of their malignant diseases - while they are on chemotherapy regimens. People often misinterpret the death as caused by the chemotherapy rather than the fact that the cancer was progressing and caused death.

      It is difficult to stop chemotherapy for many patients in the U.S.
      People think we are giving up on them. Many hundreds of times I have tried to gently explain that treatment was not working or no longer working and we should stop. It takes a great deal of time to convince people that no treatment - after chemotherapy is no longer working - is the best way to go. Explaining things carefully for patients and their families is an important role for oncology specialists in my opinion.

      I will expect the thumbs down from people who think that "chemotherapy" killed their loved ones. Chemotherapy of all types weakens patients and should not be continued if the cancer is clearly growing despite treatment. Chemotherapy for placebo effect or just to be "doing something" is not a good idea in my opinion. It also increases the cost of health care without providing benefit.

      BUT - for an 83 year old in good shape with a metastatic gastric carcinoma (if you prove that he has malignancy in the lungs), it is usually worth a try with follow-up studies to asses if it is helping reduce the tumor burden - for awhile. You can always stop the treatments if the side effects are not tolerable or the tumor is not responsive. Every person is different. Every malignancy is different. The only way to know if treatment will help is to try - and then assess the effects. Patients do not have to agree to anything more than one cycle of treatment at a time.


metastatic lung cancer