Tag Archives: kidney cancer prognosis

Kidney Cancer Prognosis

To calculate the kidney cancer survival rate, you must take several different factors into consideration. Generally speaking, these factors are related to the patient who has been diagnosed with kidney cancer, and the kidney cancer stage.

Factors that are connected to kidney cancer itself include the type, stage, grade and the location. A cancer that is localized within the kidney is less dangerous than one that has spread to other parts of the body (a process known as metastasis), and therefore treatment is more likely to be successful. Factors that relate to the individual patient include age, overall health, and the patient's capability to respond to any treatment that's required.

Using data reflecting these factors in recent decades, medical researchers have been able to generate some statistics for kidney cancer survival rates. The statistics quoted below focus only on the most common type of kidney cancer, known as renal cell carcinoma. It occurs much more often than other types.

Kidney cancer survival rates are generally shown as the percentage of patients with the same kind of cancer at the same stage who are still alive after a certain period of time.

Naturally, the kidney cancer survival rate is a broad-based generalization calculated from a huge number of cases. No one can accurately predict how long a patient will live after being diagnosed, regardless of what stage the cancer has reached.

A five year period is the standard interval used to measure the kidney cancer rate. That is to say, there will still be a certain percentage of kidney cancer patients alive five years after they've been diagnosed.

There are a variety of categories that can be listed for kidney cancer survival rates.. The statistics below measure the survival rate of individuals who have been diagnosed with kidney cancer versus the general population. Data was taken from a research study done in 1995-2001.

This study determined an overall kidney cancer survival rate of 64.6 percent.

There was a further breakdown by gender and race.

* 64.7 percent of Caucasian men were still alive after five years

* The percentage of Caucasian women who lived at least five years was similar: 64.5

* African American men had a slightly lower survival rate at 61.8 percent.

* African American women had the highest survival rate, coming in at just under 66 percent

The stage of the cancer is also an important factor to consider. Assigning a stage (usually 1 through 4) is a measurement of whether cancer cells have spread beyond the kidneys. A higher stage means the cells have spread to other parts of the body and will therefore be more difficult to treat.

A little more than half of all kidney cancer cases are discovered before the disease has metastacized, or spread to other parts of the body beyond the kidneys.

20 percent of all kidney cases are diagnosed in a so-called "regional" stage. This means the disease can now be found in lymph nodes, tissues, or organs that are close to the origin of the cancer (one or both kidneys).

Slightly more than one in five cases - 22 percent - are diagnosed when cancer cells have reached distant tissues or organs.

Stage classifications were unknown for the remaining percentage of cases.

You won't be surprised to learn that the sooner the cancer was diagnosed, the longer the patient was likely to survive.

* When kidney cancer was diagnosed before it had spread to other tissues or organs, 90 percent of patients lived five years or more.

* The survival rate dropped to 60 percent for those whose cancer had spread to regions near the kidneys.

* The survival rate was just under 10 percent for those patients whose cancer had already spread to distant organs or parts of the body.

* For the remaining patients in the study, stage information was unclear or unknown.

The United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Northern Europe have the highest incidence of kidney cancer, according to the U.S. National Cancer Institute. Kidney cancer occurs least often in China, Thailand and the Philippines. Three percent of the cancer cases diagnosed in the United States are kidney cancer cases.

Two smokers develop kidney cancer for every non-smoker who gets the disease. The risk for renal pelvis cancer is even greater for smokers at 4 to 1.

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    Can someone answer a kidney cancer question?
    My mom just found out that she may have kidney cancer. They found a nodule in her kidney that is about 1 cm. The doctor has ordered a pet scan and maybe a biopsy. I wanted to know how common is this and is the prognosis good? Also they found another spot in her lungs also? Any answers are greatly appreciated. Thank you!
    The doctor seems to think that the two are related. She had a ct done last year and they were not there. She used to smoke(for almost twenty years) and she is very overweight.

    • ANSWER:
      A nodule is a small growth or lump of tissue.
      It's not nessisarliy cancerous!

      It's very common and can have it on many parts of the body without it being dangerous. It's best have it checked out if you do though.
      Imformation about kidney cancer

      Doctors and scientists do not know exactly what causes kidney cancer. But some things do increase the risk. There is information below on

      How common kidney cancer is
      Smoking
      Obesity
      Some types of kidney disease
      Having high blood pressure and taking medicines for it
      Taking some types of mild painkillers
      Your diet
      Exposure to chemicals at work
      Faulty genes and inherited conditions that increase kidney cancer risk
      Having one of these risk factors does not necessarily mean you will get kidney cancer. And some people diagnosed with kidney cancer do not have any of these risk factors.

      How common is kidney cancer?
      Kidney cancer is the 13th most common cancer diagnosed in the UK. In 2003, just under 6,700 people were diagnosed. Nearly 2 out 3 people diagnosed (62%) are over 65 years old. Kidney cancer is rare in people under 50. It affects many more men than women. This could be because in the past more men smoked cigarettes. Smoking increases your risk of getting kidney cancer.
      If you would like more infromation go to
      www.cancerhelp.org.uk

  2. QUESTION:
    What are the treatments of a kidney cancer?
    What are the possible treatments,prognosis and side effects of kidney cancer(renal sell cancer)?

    • ANSWER:
      Symptoms: Blood in the urine
      Back pain just below the ribs
      weight loss
      fatigue
      Intermittent fever

      Treatments: Removal of the affected Kidney (nephrectomy)
      Removal of the tumor from the kidney
      Blocking blood flow to the tumor throw embolization
      Cryoablation

      Interleukin and Interferon treatments to immunosuppress
      the individual

      Chemo and targeted therapy-(Nexavar and Sutent)

      Prognosis: The 5 year survival rate of those with kidney tumors confined to the kidney is about 85%. If the tumor has spread to surrounding tissues, the 5 year survival rate is 30-60%. And if it's spread to distal tissues, 10%.

  3. QUESTION:
    My dad has kidney cancer that has spread into his lymph nodes and bones. How long will he live?
    He was just diagnosed in July 2007 and has completed 5 weeks of radiation and is taking interferon. My parents have not asked his oncologist for a prognosis.

    • ANSWER:
      The onc will not give a prognosis unless asked for it. So I don't believe that your parents are keeping information from you. My mom was diagnosed with Kidney cancer in March of 2007. She has mets to the brain, lung, nodes and possibly her liver. Now we are facing possible bone mets. From all the info that I have been given and researched myself, once kidney cancer has spread, they are given a diagnosis of stage 4. Kidney cancer is a highly aggressive cancer and is difficult to treat. There are only a handful of drugs that have shown some promise in treatment. Interferon is one that I do not about. My mom was on Sutent and showed great promise. Tumors were dying and shrinking all over the place. Unfortunately she was not able to tolerate the drug because it is so strong.

      My mom was given a time line of a year from the beginning. Keep in mind that the cancer had already spread to the brain and lungs before any symptoms presented themselves. I hope this helps. Your family will be in my thoughts, let me know if there is anything else I can help you with.

  4. QUESTION:
    How long does a patient with terminal kidney cancer live? Read Short Description?
    Like, it spread already, to the lungs and liver. Sorry if I got anything wrong, like something like this can't happen. even if my mom is a nurse I don't know very much about this type of stuff. What is the shortest time they could live and the longest? what is the worst type of cancer you could die from?
    P.S. I don't have kidney cancer. It's research and i cannot find anything on Google about how long and how short someone can live with terminal kidney cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      In kidney cancer,Median patient survival for patients with metastasis is about 10-12 months.
      Patients with metastatic disease have an 18% chance of surviving 2 years.
      However, subsets of patients with advanced disease have shown improved survival.
      The following factors predict the risk of metastasis following radical nephrectomy (RN) for clinically localized RCC(RENAL CELL CARCINOMA) viz: size and stage of primary tumor, extent of regional lymph node involvement, if any, tumor histology, presence or absence of necrosis, and presence or absence of vascular invasion.
      Small cell branchogenic ca,pancreatic ca.gall bladder ca are few ca with worst prognosis.

  5. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know of any alternative remedies for severe atopic eczema?
    My friend has this condition mainly on the face and neck.

    Her doctor wants her to take the immunosuppresant - Azathioprine but after doing some research and finding out what the possible side effects are such as liver failure, kidney failure, cancer etc she has refused this medication.

    Her doctor has now told her that there is nothing else he can do for her.

    She has been extreamly distraught today over her doctor's prognosis.

    Can anyone suggest any other alternatives?
    She has already tried Chinese herbal remedies and acupuncture.

    If anyone else suffers from this condition, can you please tell me how you cope with it because she is at her wits end and says that she can't take anymore.

    Thank you
    She avoids dairy products and only drinks soya milk.

    • ANSWER:
      sorry to hear about this. my eldest son also suffers like you say but his body is fully covered. (he is registered disabled because of this)

      we have been on the cyclosporin immunesupressent since nov06 and recently came off it. he didnt react to it as he should of or as the docs said he would do.(we had to go for weekly check ups at hospital while on the immunesuppresent)

      am afraid to say we have tried all kinds of alternative treatment but not have found any that helps as my lad suffers from alot of allergies we are limited what we can try.

      everyone reacts differently to different treatments including cream etc... so what might work for one wont work for the other.

      has she been tested for allergies?.....dairy allergy plays a big part in eczema it is very common and can make eczema worse, plus other allergies.

      it is a difficult thing to live with as it impaires way off life.

      there is no easy route with this or any quick fix treatment, sorry i havnt been much help but i hope she finds something that works soon.

      we also have come to the end of the road as treatment is concerend because the immunesuppresent didnt work.

  6. QUESTION:
    How do you file a complaint against a clinic for failing to address a kidney problem for years?
    My mom who has had urination problems kept complaining of back pain and frequent urination. The previous clinic had said to try holding her urination in because she didnt know how to control it and to take meds for UTI. They also did not follow through on her mammogram/X-ray on her breasts for tumors.

    Fast forward several months and my mom has moved to a new area with a new doctor. The doctor immediately addressed my mothers needs for a breast exam, mammogram, and biopsy. She also sent my mother to the hospital because of severe back pain resulting in stage 4 renal cancer with bad prognosis. I'm astonished at how quick this doctor was compared to the lot of doctors at her previous clinic. It makes me incredibly frustrated.

    How do we file a complaint? What can we do?

    • ANSWER:

  7. QUESTION:
    How long is too long to wait for Dr appt for kidney tumor?
    My husband had CT scan for unrelated reason, they ended up seeing a kidney tumor. That doc gave me referral to a urologist, I called & they gave me appt for 3 weeks from now. Is that normal or should I call others and try for an earlier appt?

    • ANSWER:
      When kidney cancer is diagnosed early it's easier to treat and your chances of survival are good. Once cancer has spread, however, treatment is more difficult and the prognosis is less positive. Kidney cancer seldom causes problems in its early stages. But as a tumor grows, you may notice blood in your urine or experience unintentional weight loss or back pain that doesn't go away. If you notice any of these symptoms treatment should begin immediately. If it were me, I would want to do a biopsy as soon as possible. In this test, a sample of tissue is removed and examined under a microscope. It's the only way to confirm the presence of cancer. Biopsies are commonly performed on tumors that develop in a ureter or in the kidney pelvis, the area at the center of the kidneys where urine collects. A solid kidney tumor, on the other hand, is often removed without a biopsy because these tumors are almost always cancerous and because a needle biopsy may spread cancer cells outside the biopsied kidney. 3 weeks doesn't sound too bad but it really depends on the stage of the tumor. I would call your doctor and discuss the specifics for any more information and then go from that point of time. I wish you the best!

  8. QUESTION:
    What is the prognosis for stage 4 lymphoma that has spread to almost all other organs?
    It is in the liver, kidneys, stomach, neck, groin and buttocks. The doctor says that the chemo is not helping. Who can tell me how much longer this person has to live as everyone, including the doctors, are avoiding this question and we need time to prepare her young son for what is going to happen.

    • ANSWER:
      If what I read is right she could have 5 to 10 years but Can anybody know for sure. My cousin had cancer and lived for years. I raised my brothers boys and although it's not the same, in 2001 heart heart surgery and now have congestive heart failure, lungs are shot and diabetes. So far lasted 9 years and quite honest told the boys right out I have no Idea how long I got left Doctors told me they'll keep me alive as long as possible my advice is to start preparing the child for that day..Have to realize she will get sicker and sicker I don't think waiting will make it any easier. My boys are ready for my departure and the fact that I have Diabetes they know what to do if I crash from low or high sugar so far they have saved my life twice. Death doesn't have to be a scary event and the boy has to be secure in the knowledge that he can go on and needs to prepare for it.

      http://www.blurtit.com/q667814.html

      * Of the estimated 63,190 new cases of NHL in the United States in 2007, approximately 18,660 people are expected to die from the disease. The 5-year relative survival rate of patients with NHL is approximately 63%. Of interest, the survival rate for patients with Non-Hodgkin lymphomas has steadily improved over the last 2 decades. The improvement in medical and nursing care, development of novel therapeutic strategies (ie, monoclonal antibodies), validation of biomarkers of response, and the implementation of tailored treatment are some of the factors that have modified the life expectancy of patients with NHL.
      * The potential for cure varies among the different histological subtypes and directly relates to the stage at presentation and patient response to initial therapy.
      * In general, low-grade lymphomas are indolent tumors associated with a predicted median survival time of 5-10 years. Intermediate-grade and high-grade lymphomas are more aggressive but are more responsive to chemotherapy. They are associated with a predicted median survival time of 2-5 years and less than 2 years (unless cure is achieved), respectively.

  9. QUESTION:
    what types of tests are there for cancer screening?
    My mother was diagnosed with stage 4 cancer in her lungs, neck and brain. the doctors aren't even sure what type of cancer is in her lungs, they can't id it. So i am wondering if there are any tests that i can have done to see if i have any chances of getting the cancer too... i have a daughter too.

    • ANSWER:
      Hi, I'm truly sorry for the fear and anxiety you are living with now and in the future. Cancer is an equal opportunity disease and I speak that from my own personal experience. Lost a kidney to cancer 15 years ago.

      If you were told your mom had lung cancer and she is stage 4 then they had to have done a biopsy. A diagnosis of cancer is dependent on biopsy only. No words, no guesses, no I think. BIOPSY ONLY.

      Cancer is cancer and the only thing that changes it from being just cancer is where primary tumor is located IE: mine was renal cell carcinoma in medical terms and in layman terms kidney cancer. If you're looking for cancer diagnosis such as brain there are different tumors which ascertain if cancer is terminal or good prognosis for full remission. Your mom's cancer primary location is lung with metastasis to brain. I'm a former Hospice nurse and have never seen a physician document neck involvement with lung. I highly assume it is possible but simply stating never saw it in a chart for cancer patient.

      There is only one REAL way at this time to find out if you might possibly be a candidate for cancer and that is a DNA test. Genetics play a big part in cancer being passed down but, no one in my family has ever had cancer. Was the last diagnosis I expected when told my kidney tumor was encapsulated and surgery was to be ASAP. Since I don't have children I won't be passing genetic gene down. Who's not to say my family linkage has had cancer gene for 100's of years and I am the only lucky recipient?

      The world will be a better place when this disease is eradicated. Such pain, misery, loss of loved one, loss of talents, love, and the endless why, who's next......

      Sorry for what you're going through. Don't think my post is going to brighten your days.

      Be kind to yourself, love your mom, hug your children. Take care of yourself, please.

  10. QUESTION:
    What are the symptoms of lung cancer and emphysema?
    I have smoked for 14 years, and the last 3 years I have been coughing a lot and the mucus is there but I cant seem to cough it up, can someone tell me if this is cancer or emphysema?

    • ANSWER:
      Lung Cancer Symptoms
      Lung cancer symptoms that suggest lung cancer include:
      •Dyspnea (Shortness of Breath)
      •Hemoptysis (Coughing Up Blood)
      •Chronic Coughing or Change in Regular Coughing Pattern
      •Wheezing
      •Chest Pain or Pain in the Abdomen
      •Cachexia (Weight Loss), Fatigue, and Loss of Appetite
      •Dysphonia (Hoarse Voice)
      •Clubbing of the Fingernails (Uncommon)
      •Dysphagia (Difficulty Swallowing).
      If the cancer grows in the airway, it may obstruct airflow, causing breathing difficulties. This can lead to accumulation of secretions behind the blockage, predisposing the patient to pneumonia. Many lung cancers have a rich blood supply. The surface of the cancer may be fragile, leading to bleeding from the cancer into the airway. This blood may subsequently be coughed up.

      Depending on the type of tumor, so-called paraneoplastic phenomena may initially attract attention to the disease. In lung cancer, these phenomena may include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (muscle weakness due to auto-antibodies), hypercalcemia, or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Tumors in the top (apex) of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors, may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to changed sweating patterns and eye muscle problems (a combination known as Horner's syndrome) as well as muscle weakness in the hands due to invasion of the brachial plexus.

      Many of the symptoms of lung cancer (bone pain, fever, and weight loss) are nonspecific; in the elderly, these may be attributed to comorbid illness. In many patients, the cancer has already spread beyond the original site by the time they have symptoms and seek medical attention. Common sites of metastasis include the brain, bone, adrenal glands, contralateral (opposite) lung, liver, pericardium, and kidneys. About 10% of people with lung cancer do not have symptoms at diagnosis; these cancers are incidentally found on routine chest radiograph.

      Lung Cancer Causes
      The main causes of lung cancer (and cancer in general) include carcinogens (such as those in tobacco smoke), ionizing radiation, and viral infection. This exposure causes cumulative changes to the DNA in the tissue lining the bronchi of the lungs (the bronchial epithelium). As more tissue becomes damaged, eventually a cancer develops.

      •Smoking
      Smoking, particularly of cigarettes, is by far the main contributor to lung cancer. Across the developed world, almost 90% of lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking. In the United States, smoking is estimated to account for 87% of lung cancer cases (90% in men and 85% in women). Among male smokers, the lifetime risk of developing lung cancer is 17.2%; among female smokers, the risk is 11.6%. This risk is significantly lower in nonsmokers: 1.3% in men and 1.4% in women. Cigarette smoke contains over 60 known carcinogens, including radioisotopes from the radon decay sequence, nitrosamine, and benzopyrene. Additionally, nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths in exposed tissue.
      The length of time a person smokes (as well as rate of smoking) increases the person's chance of developing lung cancer. If a person stops smoking, this chance steadily decreases as damage to the lungs is repaired and contaminant particles are gradually removed. In addition, there is evidence that lung cancer in never-smokers has a better prognosis than in smokers, and that patients who smoke at the time of diagnosis have shorter survival times than those who have quit.
      Passive smoking—the inhalation of smoke from another's smoking—is a cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers. A passive smoker can be classified as someone living or working with a smoker as well. Studies from the U.S., Europe, the UK, and Australia have consistently shown a significant increase in relative risk among those exposed to passive smoke. Recent investigation of sidestream smoke suggests that it is more dangerous than direct smoke inhalation.

      What Are The Symptoms Of Emphysema?
      The first sign of emphysema is shortness of breath when you are exerting yourself. Eventually, this shortness of breath may occur even when you are at rest.

      As the disease progresses, the following symptoms which are related to one of the other major lung diseases also caused by smoking - bronchitis - may occur:

      •Difficulty breathing (dyspnea - this can also be caused by emphysema)

      •Coughing (with or without sputum)

      •Wheezing (this can also be caused by emphysema itself)

      •Excess mucus production

      •A bluish tint to the skin (cyanosis)

      Nice To Know:

      If wheezing occurs, it helps to know whether it is found while breathing in or out (or both). Wheezing at the end of a complete exhalation is usually due to bronchitis. Wheezing that begins early in expiration is usually due to emphysema or the combination of bronchitis and emphysema - COPD.

      If you only wheeze when you breathe in, you probably have asthma (or, very rarely, a narrowing of you

  11. QUESTION:
    What type(s) of cancer are common in young children?
    I know it's not a pleasant subject, but it's for a book I'm writing, and I want it to be medically correct. If possible, I'd also like to know the symptoms, treatment, recovery rate, and things like that. I really don't want to offend or sadden anyone with this question, I know it's a very serious topic, but I want to be able to show cancer patients respect by getting the facts correct in my story. Thank you so much for your help.

    • ANSWER:
      Look at this website there are all of the symptoms and I believe it says how common they are:

      http://www.ped-onc.org/diseases/SOCC.html

      Leukemia is the MOST common
      Leukemia is a cancer of the bone marrow, the spongy center of the bones that makes blood cells. It accounts for approximately 35% of all childhood cancers; approximately 1 in 1000 children will be diagnosed with leukemia by the age of 19, although it is more common in children under the age of 10. In leukemia, abnormal white blood cells divide out of control and crowd out the normal cells in the bloodstream. The abnormal white blood cells are not mature, and therefore cannot carry out their infection-fighting function in the blood. These cells crowd out healthy white blood cells, as well as the red blood cells which carry oxygen to the body and the platelets which cause the blood to clot.
      Leukemia is treated by combination chemotherapy and sometimes radiation. The five year survival rate for children diagnosed with leukemia and subsequently treated is approximately 70%.

      Then neuroblastoma
      Neuroblastoma is a cancer of the sympathetic nervous system. It accounts for 5%-7% of all childhood malignancies; about 1 in 6000 children will be diagnosed with neuroblastoma by the age of five. Neuroblastoma is a solid, malignant tumor which manifests as a lump or mass in the abdomen or around the spinal cord. Treatment will be determined by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis and your child's age. Neuroblastoma is often present at birth, but is most often diagnosed much later when the child begins to show symptoms of the disease. The average age at diagnosis is two. About 25% of newly diagnosed neuroblastomas are found in children under the age of one. This age group has the best prognosis, with cure rates as high as 90%. It is not yet known why children under the age of one do so much better.

      Then Wilm Tumor
      Wilms tumor is a cancerous tumor on the kidney, although it is totally unrelated to adult kidney cancer. It accounts for 6-7% of childhood cancer cases. It occurs in about 8 in 1 million children under age 14; it is more common in children under age 7. Wilms is best treated when it is found early, before it has spread to other areas of the body. Treatment for Wilms includes surgery, chemotherapy, and possibly radiation, depending on how far the cancer has spread. The 5 year survival rate for children treated for Wilms tumor is approximately 90%.

      Also this website:
      http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Sites-Types/childhood

      What are the most common types of childhood cancer?
      Among the 12 major types of childhood cancers, leukemias (blood cell cancers) and cancers of the brain and central nervous system account for more than half of the new cases. About one-third of childhood cancers are leukemias. The most common type of leukemia in children is acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The most common solid tumors are brain tumors (e.g., gliomas and medulloblastomas), with other solid tumors (e.g., neuroblastomas, Wilms tumors, and sarcomas such as rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma) being less common.

  12. QUESTION:
    Is there anything that can reverse liver failure caused by secondary liver cancer?
    My dad was diagnosed with Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Appendix which spread to his liver. His liver is now failing and because of that so are his kidneys.

    • ANSWER:
      no the prognosis is not good. i would say incurable and terminal. Once you have secondary cancer it is very hard to treat because ti continues to spread to other organs in the body. My mum was diagnosed with kidney cancer last may.. it spread to her liver and lungs she pasted away Sept 7 aged 60 after only a short 4 month battle. It was very aggressive and there was nothing they could do. Mums liver , kidneys shut down slowly over that period and the cancer spread into her neck and bones. you are best speaking with the oncologist....

  13. QUESTION:
    what is the prognosis of a bedridden patient with osteoporosis?
    she is 83 years old and limited mobility for 20 years and just 4 years ago total bedridden and with pain control measures in place and only 1 kidney. No diabetes or cancer,labs normal.

    • ANSWER:
      if she has good care she could probably live for a long time in her situation..but with bedridden patients, bedsores and infections usually cause problems for patients..

  14. QUESTION:
    How long can you live when your liver shuts down?
    Dad has cirrhosis of the liver due medicine,and cancer all around his liver. Was told his liver has shut down. Need to know about how long he will have with us?

    • ANSWER:
      If the cancer is localized just to the liver, then the doctors may do a
      resection and try to remove the cancerous tumor. If there are many
      tumors (in one area), they may also do this. However, if there are many
      tumors and they are too large, they may try to do this:
      Sir Spheres:
      http://www.umgcc.org/sir-spheres/about_sirt.htm
      ttp://www.sir.net.au/SIR_pi.html
      This is used to try and shrink the tumor or tumors so that the
      patient has an option of being evaluated for placement on the
      transplant list.

      However, if the patient liver cancer started in another area of the body
      and then went into the liver or is in the liver and has gone to other areas
      of the body...then the transplant option is not there anymore and the
      prognosis is not as good. Different methods of using radiation and
      chemotherapy is done then.

      It depends on how agressive the liver cancer is and how far advanced
      the cirrhosis is in the liver. When the liver cells die off and form scar
      tissue inside the liver (cirrhosis), then the functions the liver cells do
      to keep the body well start to deteriorate. (this is known as
      liver failure that can proceed to complete liver failure...it is progressive)
      It depends on how well the cells of the liver are still functioning to do
      the job of keeping the body well, how long a patient has left to live.
      Only the doctors using blood testing and other necessary tests can
      give you an educated "guess" how long a patient may have left to
      live if transplantation is not an option.

      If the liver cannot do most of the functions, then the kidneys are next
      in line to fail after the liver does, because they are trying to remove
      the toxins in the body that the liver no longer handles.

      Some other things that the doctors may try:
      ...GAMMA KNIFE
      http://www.irsa.org/gamma_knife.html
      ...NANO KNIFE
      http://www.nanotechbuzz.com/50226711/nanoknife_nanoshells_kill_cancer_tumors.php
      ...CYBERKNIFE
      http://www.cyberknife.com
      ...RADIOWAVE THERAPY
      http://www.radiowaveclinic.com/
      ...MICROWAVE http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090204173038.htm
      ...IRREVERSIBLE ELECTROPORATION
      http://innovations.coe.berkeley.edu/vol4-issue2-mar10/rubinsky
      ...MRI GUIDED LASER ABLATION:
      http://www.financialpost.com/markets/news/Mayo+Clinic+Finds+Early+Success+with+Laser+that+Destroys+Tumors+with/3677235/story.html

      I hope this information has been of some help to you. Best wishes.

  15. QUESTION:
    I was with someone today whose father is having a kidney transplant? What are the risks?
    I am curious what the risks are of a kidney transplant. This fellow is in his 60's and had his lung removed about exactly a year ago.
    I know someone else with lung cancer who has a 6 month prognosis because of the fact that his kidney and liver are too bad to do surgery. He is 77.
    Both of these cases made me wonder what the risks of kidney transplants are when I learned the son of this man having a transplant today was asking for prayers for his father.

    • ANSWER:
      Anyone needing a transplant must go through an evaluation process. Based on the results, they will either except or deny a person a transplant. The doctors would never give him one if they didn't expect him to not only survive the surgery, but for it to be successful long term. They don't want to waste a single organ on anyone since they are too precious to waste and too many people need them. The surgery usually takes about 4 hours. The kidneys should last for about 10 years, but after that he may need another one. He will have to take anti rejection drugs for the rest of his life so his body can accept a kidney belonging to someone else.

  16. QUESTION:
    What is the life expendancy of a 64 year old man with stage 3, GFR of 35, kidney disease?
    My husband is also in remission from stage 2b pancreatic cancer & is being treated for high blood pressure. He is feeling so good it seems impossible he has kidney disease. I feel like I need to prepare myself for this but I don't know what to prepare for.

    • ANSWER:
      Talk to his Endocrinologist. He/she should be able to give you a direct and honest answer. GFR is not the problem because all of us can live quiet, healthy lives on only 25% of one kidney available for use. My concern: what is his creatinine level. That is the surest way to tell the viability and function of the kidneys. Hypertension is so hard on the kidneys because of the capillary structure of the kidneys. Any change in blood pressure, for even short periods of time, can damage the GFR of the kidneys. People can stay alive and live productive lives without any kidney function but they are also tied to dialysis 3x week. It is not fun for the patient or the family but it is better than the alternative, at least at the beginning of the process.

      Be encouraged though, the kidneys are very capable of regaining lost GFR. But, your MD is your best source for the prognosis and he/she should be honest with you about it. Some docs are not good at telling the truth about end-of-life conditions and prognoses. So, do your best to make them feel that you are in control and can handle what you are about to hear and they will be more likely to give you the news you may not want to hear, but are still needing to know.

  17. QUESTION:
    How do you tell someone you love that you are dying?
    I can't get health insurance because I've had abnormal pap smears and had surgery on my cervix. I can't get health insurance through my employer. I fear I may have cancer since it has been so long since I've been to the doctor, how do I tell my family and friends that I may be dying becaue I can't afford to go the doctor to have surgery again?

    • ANSWER:
      First, I want to say that James Russell's answer is pathetic.

      If you can't pay for health care, and can prove it financially, the healthcare facilities still are required by law to treat you. If you can't buy health insurance because of pre-existing testing results, but are able to pay substantially for a healthcare plan, if you could qualify, then you can pay for additional testing.

      Log onto www.LehrmanGroup.com/gi This site offers guaranteed issue health insurance, which covers pre-existing
      conditions.

      BTW, how do you know you are dying without a professional prognosis? I know what it's like to tell my loved ones I am dying.

      In May, 2002, I was diagnosed with colon cancer. Had colon resection surgery, and was on chemo for six months. The cancer metasticized and was diagnosed in August, 2006, and I was given 6-10 months to live.

      The cancer went to my liver, left kidney, esophagus, colon wall, and left femur. I was on chemo for 10 months. The cancers shrunk, three were eradicated. The liver was surgically resected, and the tumor in the kidney was cyberknifed. (Pin-pointed high, painless, doses of radiation) Initially, they said that surgery was no option. God said different.

      God, with his infinite mercy and grace, and through the prayers of His people, and the hands and knowledge of my physicians, saw fit to spare my life for awhile. The docs say that there is not a cure for what I have, but at this time, I am cancer free. God is not finished with me yet.

      I don't know when, or if, the cancer will return. But if and when it does, and God decides it's time for me to go "home", I'm ready to go. Praise His Holy Name.

      Best wishes, and God bless you. I'll be praying that you do not have cancer.

  18. QUESTION:
    What are the low grade and high grades of a sarcome?
    I would like a number grade for both low and high grades of sarcoma cancer.

    • ANSWER:
      order to understand tumor grade, it is helpful to know how tumors form. The body is made up of many types of cells. Normally, cells grow and divide to produce new cells in a controlled and orderly manner. Sometimes, however, new cells continue to be produced when they are not needed. As a result, a mass of extra tissue called a tumor may develop. A tumor can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Cells in malignant tumors are abnormal and divide without control or order. These cancerous cells can invade and damage nearby tissue, and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). Tumor grade should not be confused with the stage of a cancer. Cancer stage refers to the extent or severity of the cancer, based on factors such as the location of the primary tumor, tumor size, number of tumors, and lymph node involvement (spread of cancer into lymph nodes). (More information about staging is available in the NCI fact sheet Staging: Questions and Answers, which can be found at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Detection/staging on the Internet.)

      How is tumor grade determined?

      If a tumor is suspected to be malignant, a doctor removes a sample of tissue or the entire tumor in a procedure called a biopsy. A pathologist (a doctor who identifies diseases by studying cells under a microscope) examines the tissue to determine whether the tumor is benign or malignant. The pathologist can also determine the tumor grade and identify other characteristics of the tumor cells.

      What do the different tumor grades signify?

      Based on the microscopic appearance of cancer cells, pathologists commonly describe tumor grade by four degrees of severity: Grades 1, 2, 3, and 4. The cells of Grade 1 tumors resemble normal cells, and tend to grow and multiply slowly. Grade 1 tumors are generally considered the least aggressive in behavior.

      Conversely, the cells of Grade 3 or Grade 4 tumors do not look like normal cells of the same type. Grade 3 and 4 tumors tend to grow rapidly and spread faster than tumors with a lower grade.

      The American Joint Commission on Cancer recommends the following guidelines for grading tumors (1):

      Grade
      GX Grade cannot be assessed (Undetermined grade)
      G1 Well-differentiated (Low grade)
      G2 Moderately differentiated (Intermediate grade)
      G3 Poorly differentiated (High grade)
      G4 Undifferentiated (High grade)

      Does the same grading scale apply to all tumors?

      Grading systems are different for each type of cancer. For example, pathologists use the Gleason system to describe the degree of differentiation of prostate cancer cells. The Gleason system uses scores ranging from Grade 2 to Grade 10. Lower Gleason scores describe well-differentiated, less aggressive tumors. Higher scores describe poorly differentiated, more aggressive tumors. Other grading systems include the Bloom-Richardson system for breast cancer and the Fuhrman system for kidney cancer.

      Does tumor grade affect a patient’s treatment options?

      Doctors use tumor grade and many other factors, such as cancer stage, to develop an individual treatment plan for the patient and to predict the patient’s prognosis. Generally, a lower grade indicates a better prognosis (the likely outcome or course of a disease; the chance of recovery or recurrence). However, the importance of tumor grade in planning treatment and estimating a patient’s prognosis is greater for certain types of cancers, such as soft tissue sarcoma, primary brain tumors, lymphomas, and breast and prostate cancer. Patients should speak with their doctor about tumor grade and how it relates to their diagnosis and treatment.

  19. QUESTION:
    I have been diagnose with leiomyo sarcoma - does anyone have it. I have had my kidney out and the biopsy show?
    I have been diagnose with leiomyo sarcoma - does anyone have it. I have had my kidney out and the biopsy showed that is was cancerous. The tumour was the size of two fists. I also have t have chemothrapy as a bit of i was in my lungs. My health is generally good, as I use to do keep fit twice a week. Does anyone know what the pronosis is.

    • ANSWER:
      Maybe it would be better for you to ask where experienced people can give you support as well as answering your questions.

      Here's a link to the Macmillan org uk who can give all kinds of help and have information online on leiomyosarcoma, other cancers and help of all kinds. Whatever the prognosis, stay determined and eat healthily to give your body and mind the best chance to fight for recovery. All the very best to you.

      The link:

      http://www.macmillan.org.uk/HowWeCanHelp/HowWeCanHelp.aspx

      "From our local information and support centres and cancer support groups to our benefits advisers and cancer support specialists, we can help you find the practical, medical, financial and emotional support you need.

      Ask Macmillan 0808 808 00 00

      If you have any questions about cancer, ask Macmillan. If you need support, ask Macmillan. Or if you just want someone to talk to, ask Macmillan."

      Back again! They have active forums and a real time 'live' chat room where you can talk to others there :) On this page of the Macmillan website:
      http://community.macmillan.org.uk/forums/

  20. QUESTION:
    How long does my friend have to live? Caner?
    Today my best friend was diagnosed with stage IV kidney cancer.. it's spread to his lungs and it's in his blood stream (metastisized) <<sp? How long does he generally have to live? he is turning 17 this year and is in otherwise great health

    • ANSWER:
      The prognosis for your friend will be determined by the treatment he undergoes and how well he responds to it. Chemotherapy and radiation are routinely used to slow down the progress of stage 4 cancers. He may be able to live a reasonable quality of life for some time. Read more at the attached weblink regarding kidney cancer treatment and outcomes.

  21. QUESTION:
    how long does a person have to live with esophgeal cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes?
    the cancerous tumor is in the esophogus where it connects to the stomach. it has spread to the lymph nodes between the heart and the kidney.

    • ANSWER:
      Esophageal cancer stages 0 - 3 are clinically seen as metastasis to the surrounding lymph nodes and adjacent organs. In stage 4, the cancer cells spread throughout the body, even to distant organs. Consequently, stage 4 esophageal cancer prognosis is relatively poor.

      The survival rate of the patient also depends up the stage of the cancer. The overall survival rate for esophageal cancer is less than 20%.

      Patients with cancer restricted to the esophageal mucosa have 80% 5 year survival rate, those with spread to adjacent structures have 7% 5 year survival rate, while, the survival rate for the stage 4 is less than 5%.

      On an average, the esophageal cancer survival rate for all stages, combined, is about 17%.

      My dear girlfriend was dxed April 2009 at stage 3, it was inoperable, treatment was chemo/steroids/rads, this shrunk the tumor which allowed her more time, these last few months have been a daily struggle of pain and gasping for air, sadly she passed just 4 weeks ago, she fought this with determination & much grace & her strength & courage was humbling :(

      I wish you and yours the same strength & courage during this time.

  22. QUESTION:
    My Nanna had a fall today and broke her hip and they discovered she has urinary sepsis?
    Im really worried she will die from it. What do you think the prognosis is?
    We went to the hospital and she was in really bad shape. I think she is 79 years old

    • ANSWER:
      Hello Carlee, here is some information on that condition. I work in the health Care Field and see miracles every day. She is in the hospital now and getting the care she needs. Keep your hope up and God Bless you and nana.

      What is Sepsis?

      Sepsis is a severe illness caused by overwhelming infection of the bloodstream by toxin-producing bacteria. Microorganisms invading the body cause infections.

      Sepsis is also called Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).

      Sepsis is very serious. It is often life-threatening.

      What Causes Sepsis?

      Sepsis is caused by a bacterial infection. The bacterial infection can originate anywhere in the body. The most common areas the infection originates from are:

      •The kidneys
      •The liver
      •The gall bladder
      •The bowel
      •The skin
      •The lungs
      In hospital patients, bacterial infection may originate from intravenous lines, surgical wounds, surgical drains, and sites of skin ulcers or bedsores.

      Sepsis can also be triggered by events such as pneumonia, trauma, surgery and burns, or by conditions such as cancer or AIDS.

      How is Sepsis Diagnosed?

      Sepsis can be diagnosed by a blood test.

      Symptoms of Sepsis

      •Drop in blood pressure
      •Hyperventilation
      •Rapid heart beat
      •Fever or hypothermia
      •Chills
      •Shaking
      •Decreased urine output
      •Warm skin
      •Confusion or delirium
      Complications of Sepsis

      In some cases, the kidneys, liver, lungs, and central nervous system, may stop functioning normally. There may also be a decreased blood flow to the kidneys, liver, lungs, and central nervous system.

      Treatment Options for Sepsis

      Treatment will depend on where the infection originated. In order to do this, the source of the infection must be found.

      Who is at Risk for Developing Sepsis?

      Anyone can develop sepsis. However, some people have a higher risk than others. People with a higher risk include:

      •People with a compromised immune system
      •People who have wounds or injuries, such as those from burns, a car crash, or a bullet
      •People who are have intravenous catheters, wound drainage, and urinary catheters

  23. QUESTION:
    What is the prognosis for brain cancer? Is this brain stem glioma?
    Someone I know has brain cancer. The tumor sits on the right side of their brain stem and the tumor puts pressure on the nerves and they have tremors. The doctor said they only had a year when they was first diagnosed and they did radiation and now is on chemotherapy for over a year now. I want to know the prognosis of this type of cancer. I don't know if it's high or low grade or know the name of the cancer but if anyone has any useful information I would really appreciate it. I think they've had it for 2 years now.

    • ANSWER:
      Brain Cancer Prognosis: Summary
      Cancer patients and their loved ones face many unknowns. While some people find it is easier to cope when they know the statistics, other people find statistical information confusing and frightening, and they think it is too impersonal to be of use to them. The doctor who is most familiar with a patient's situation is in the best position to discuss the brain cancer prognosis and to explain what the statistics may mean for that person. At the same time, it is important to understand that even the doctor cannot tell exactly what to expect. In fact, a person's prognosis may change if the cancer progresses, or if treatment is successful. Seeking information about the brain cancer prognosis is a personal decision, and it is up to each patient to decide how much information he or she wants to know and how to deal with it.

      However, prognosis can be reversed with 'immunity boosters'.

      Radio-therapy, Chemo-therapy, Interventional and Surgical procedures are instrumental in prolonging the human life by postponing the death also by a decade or two. I have seen many patients living for decades after Surgery, Mastectomy, Heart/Kidney Transplants, Dialysis, etc.

      But all the patients are worried about side effects. Here is a way out to minimize scope for severe side effects.

      “U have to take permission from the oncologist and take the following diet[s] with certain restrictions.”

      1. Good liquid Diet, green leaf juices + honey, like aloe vera juice, noni juice, wheat grass powder, fresh fruit [seasonal fruit only] juices sprouted seeds like green gram, horse gram, ground nuts, boiled- after soaking in water for 15 hours-Soya beans, etc., raw coconut, raw dates, watermelon, cabbage, yogurt, spinach, helped many a no. of Health conscious people all over the globe.
      2. Acupressure techniques – A MUST to ensure faster recovery. Utility—Blocked energy + toxins shall be moved from all Ur internal organs to purge in the normal drainage system, i.e., urine, feces, sweat, cough, menses[ladies], vomiting and all the organs shall function up to optimal levels.
      3. No salt, no baking soda, no cooked food, No chocolates, No Pizzas, No burgers ----to boost-up immunity power to produce antibodies. Say no to Deep freeze and deep fried products from KFC and McDonald, Diet sodas with aspertime and colas made in India, etc.
      4. Yoga Therapy—Kapalbhati, Bhastruka and Loma and anuloma to activate abdomen. Pelvic region and lungs.
      5. Aloe Vera juice – 30 ml. + 1 tsp of honey—t.d.s.
      6. Wheat grass powder – 1 tsp of powder + 2 drops of honey + 1 cup of hot water b.d.s.
      7. Noni Juice-A French fruit. 5 ml., t.d.s., in the I week; 10 ml tds., in the II week and 15 ml. t.d.s, from III week onwards. Add double quantity of water every time.

      8. For the first 10/15 days, drink pineapple juice.
      9. After 15 days, if the patient gets very hungry (it is a good sign of recovery), give the patient 3 to 4 ounces of curd, prepared in the following manner. To the boiled warm milk (preferably of cow's or goat's milk) add 12/15 leaves of tulsi and prepare the curd. If the patient is of Pitt Prakruti, give him this curd, adding thereto little powder of crystal sugar. For all other types of patients, this curd can be taken with little rock salt or black salt in it. Such curd can be taken 3 to 4 times a day. from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. only.
      9. Eat roasted bitter gourd (Karela-bitter gourd) - has been found effective even in blood cancer. Just, burn it on direct fire as U burn –mokkajonna kande-Telugu, Hindi--Butta---- eat it just like that by chewing every mouthful 25 times.
      10. Panch Tulasi Drops –available @ any local Ayurveda Shop all over India. Dosage 1 drop + 1 cup of hot milk/tea/water daily.

      11. Triphala Churan to keep her bowels free from accumulated feces/toxins and Vaginal Douche to keep her gonads cleansed for 15 days daily.
      God bless U. I pray the Almighty for Godspeed recovery.

      PS. If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to browse 'Yahoo Answers’ on any health issue.
      Source:
      'Health in Ur Hands' Vol. I & II available in all Indian languages all over the globe- by Dr.Devendra Vora,DSc.,MD.,FRCP, an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India. Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India--- treated and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, lupus/sle, irregular menses and also many other most dreaded diseases.

  24. QUESTION:
    What is the prognosis for people with fanconi anemia?
    I've heard that it is normally diagnosed in late childhood, but do people with the condition have normal life spans with management of their symptoms?

    • ANSWER:
      Many patients eventually develop acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Older patients are extremely likely to develop head and neck, esophageal, gastrointestinal, vulvar and anal cancers. Patients who have had a successful bone marrow transplant and, thus, are cured of the blood problem associated with FA still must have regular examinations to watch for signs of cancer. Many patients do not reach adulthood.

      The overarching medical challenge that Fanconi patients face is a failure of their bone marrow to produce blood cells. In addition, Fanconi patients normally are born with a variety of birth defects. For instance, 90% of the Jewish children born with Fanconi's have no thumbs. A good number of Fanconi patients have kidney problems, trouble with their eyes, developmental retardation and other serious defects, such as microcephaly (small head).[citation needed]

      Good care is available for treating Fanconi anemia. Since research is on-going, there is hope that as knowledge gained through clinical trials and research grows, a cure may be developed.

  25. QUESTION:
    How long can a terminal patient last without fluids?
    Specifically, a terminally ill patient that cannot digest solid foods and has a PEG tube was getting 250cc of IV Fluids each day. Patient has begun to not tolerate this amount, now is down to maybe 200cc once every 3 days or so. Patient is drinking a lot of fluids, but I'm unsure how much is actually being absorbed. Patient also has only one functioning kidney.

    Terminal illness is metastatic ovarian cancer with malignant bowel obstruction. Patient has lost roughly 25 pounds in a month and a half and is receiving no IV nutrition. Initial prognosis about a month and a half ago was days to weeks.

    I'm looking for a rough estimate of time left, as well as an estimate as to how long until patient is comatose.

    • ANSWER:
      If the patient is still tolerating oral fluids, then this could go on for a while. It really depends, no person is the same and alot has to do with the patients desire to live. From my own experience, both as nurse and someone who lost their mother to cancer, that will to live can be very strong. I have found that once they give in to the cancer, the end comes very quickly, within a matter of days. It all depends on the function of the internal organs also. Once the patient develops multi organ failure....liver and kidney, being the main contributors, then the end will also come within around 3-5 days. Keep talking with her Dr's, ask about her organ functions. Make sure that she is not in any pain. A subcutaneous infusion of Diamorphine could help and will prob send her into the comatose state.
      But to answer your question, a patient can usually last around 3-4 days without any fluids. I hope that this is a little helpful and i hope that your friend/mother/sister/aunt/grandmother has a peaceful passing when the time comes. God bless.

  26. QUESTION:
    Does anyone know of a great cancer treatment center?
    My uncle was recently diagnosed with colon cancer stage four, liver cancer, pancreas cancer and brain cancer. He also has diabetes. Doctors say he has probably had this for about eight years, but was never diagnosed. He is given only two months to live. Anyone know of any centers, treatments or survival stories that apply?
    thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Gerson Therapy Clinic. Dr Max Gerson's most famous patient was nobel prize winner, Dr. Albert Schweitzer - cured of advanced diabetes at the age of 75.

      To apply for admission to a Gerson Clinic>>>
      http://www.gerson.org/Programs/findgersonclinic.htm

      Gerson Therapy>>>
      http://gerson.org/GersonTherapy/gersontherapy.htm

      Charlotte Gerson on Alternative Cancer Treatments>>>
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NkxndocXWhc&feature=related

      "When you truly heal, the body heals everything." - Charlotte Gerson.

      Subject: Brain Cancer

      Case 35 in A Cancer Therapy. Presented by Dr. Gerson in 1946 to U.S. Senate Committee. Ulcer biopsied, U.S. Army, August, 1944: basal cell carcinoma. Surgery removed right mastoid cancer. Recurred April, 1945. Discharged, no treatment. Carried to Dr. Gerson, crying in severe pain, left eye swollen closed, right eye barely open. October, 1945, X-rays showed fist sized tumor at base of skull growing into brain. Almost gone in four weeks. Complete recovery. Remained free of cancer for 49 years. Died of heart attack 1994.

      Subject: Colon Cancer

      ROSAMOND RAY, 81, COLON CANCER, MIGRAINES.
      1953, blood in stool, pain, weakness. Head of Rectal Surgery, Stanford University Medical School did biopsy: malignant polyp 13 cm up from rectum. Doctor stated that without colostomy, she had less than 10% chance of survival. Went to Dr. Gerson's New York clinic in October, 1953. Recovered. Married in 1955. No more migraines after therapy began. Alive and well over 40 years later.

      Subject: Liver Cancer

      DELLA ROBINSON, LIVER CANCER.
      1974, jaundiced. Portland, Oregon hospital liver scan and biopsy proved cancer. Given three to five weeks to live in January, 1975. Weight down to 67 lb. Sent home in severe pain, heavy drugs, semi-coma, hopeless prognosis. Family started Gerson Therapy at home. Able to leave bed in three months, no more pain or drugs. Regained normal 115 lb. weight. Remained well, cancer-free for twenty years. Passed away 1995, age 90, of causes other than cancer.

      Subject: Pancreatic Cancer

      PATRICIA AINEY, PANCREAS CANCER SPREAD TO LIVER (Michael Landon's cancer), SPLEEN AND GALL BLADDER.
      In pain, vomiting blood. Pancreas cancer biopsied January, 1986. CAT scan showed tumor in liver, spleen, gall bladder. Given hopeless prognosis. Began Gerson Therapy in Mexican hospital March, 1986. Patient says "complete turnaround in 10 days." Recovery shown by CAT scan 6 months later amazed her Canadian doctor. Enjoys work, grandchildren. Feels "really good" nine years later.

      Subject: Diabetes

      MELVA BLACKBURN, 79, DIABETES, ARTHRITIS, ALZHEIMERS, KIDNEY, ADRENAL DISEASE, CUSHING'S SYNDROME, ETC.
      Medical problems from 1944. Treated until 1979. Heart, coronary artery disease. Diabetes drugs after 1965. Poor control of legs, feel. Cushing's syndrome (adrenal disease, obesity, fatigue, weakness, osteoporosis, edema, infections). Pneumonia twice/year. Enlarged liver. Arthritis in all joints. Anxiety, ataxia, confusion, aphasia. Alzheimer's (premature old age) diagnosed. Years on drugs, many surgeries. Began Gerson Therapy in Mexican hospital October, 1979. Rapidly improved. All diseases gone, no drugs. Astounded her doctors. Remains active, well 18 years later.

  27. QUESTION:
    Is it normal for two siblings to both have brain tumors?
    I was diagnosed with a tumor in my Pineal gland about four years ago. Last week my sister was diagnosed with a tumor in her pituitary gland. Fortunately, her prognosis is good but we were wondering how strange is it for both siblings to develop brain tumors? Our uncle also had one as well (he got his removed).

    • ANSWER:
      Most of the children escape genetically transmitted disorders. Only a few may acquire. Marriage between close blood relations, sexual promiscuity, sex with or without tensions from 1st month of pregnancy to date of delivery even within the wedlock----prohibited. Why? Because, the glans hits & injures the brain & spinal cord of ‘the fetus-in-the-offing’, during coitus.
      How to prevent?
      1.ACUPRESSURE TECHNIQUES:
      Dr.Vora, the world renowned Acupressurist, an octogenarian and the Bhishma Pithamaha of acupressure in India, wrote the books, after treating and caused to treat more than 150000 cases of Cancer, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes,irregular meness and also many other most dreaded diseases---Dr.Devendra Vora has analysed that pressure applied on certain points located on the palms and soles helps to stimulate all organs of the body, prevents disease and assists in maintaining good health. Acupressure also helps to diagnose, prevent and cure diseases like common cold, Diabetes, High Blood Pressure, Migraine, Paralysis, and even cancer, HIV/AIDS. Autism, Thalassemia, Muscular Dystrophy, all brain & spinal cord affected diseases, and all the genetic disorders.

      Utility—Blocked energy + toxins shall be moved from all Ur internal organs to purge in the normal drainage system, i.e., urine, feces, sweat, cough, menses[ladies], vomitting and all the organs shall function upto optimal levels.

      With ur thumb, press ur/his/her palms and soles, wrists and ankles on both sides. Suppose pain is felt while pressing a particular point in the palm/sole, u have to press the surrounding area—just like u r pumping out air from that painful point. The blocked energy in any internal organ, be it lungs, heart, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, liver, etc., shall be released along with toxins if any. As a last point u must press middle part of each palm/sole; so that toxins, if any, shall be excreted/purged through urine without affecting the kidneys.
      It should be done in an empty stomach or 2 hours after meals. With this, all the endocrine glands and their hormonal secretions shall be regulated. All internal organs shall function up to optimal levels. Ur entire immune system gets invigorated to produce antibodies.
      2.Consumption of Charged water—2 glasses reduced from 8 glasses. It ensures excellent metabolism in the body.
      How to prepare High-powered concentrated gold/silver/copper charged water: Take 15 gms. of pure gold (biscuit gold) 30 gms. of pure silver and 60 gms of pure copper clean and put them in a stainless steel vessel with 8 glasses of water and heat it until it is reduced to ½ glass (on evaporation). The derived high-powered, concentrated charged water has to be filtered through a thin cotton cloth and should be consumed hot or Luke warm; depending upon patient’s choice all along the day. This charged water should not be heated again but to be stored in a thermos flask.
      Due to money/time constraints, if it is not feasible to prepare charged water @ home, you have a substitute. Take 10 ml., each of Aurum Met-30, Argentim Met-30, Cuprum Met-30 and Ferrum Met-30 and put the liquids/dilutions in a glass bottle and cork it well. Dosage—5 drops [adults] and 3 drops for children below 14 years + 1 cup of ot water—b.d.s. or so to say twice a day in the morning and in the night.

      PS.If satisfied/benefited with, inform others to join 'Yahoo Answers' on any health issue.
      •Source:
      'Health In Ur Hands' by Dr.Devendra Vora,D.Sc.,M.D.,F.R.C.P., an octogenarian & the pioneer in Acupressure in India.

  28. QUESTION:
    What is the most common type of cancer to get?
    ThiS is for homework.

    • ANSWER:
      It's estimated that more than 11 million people in the United States have some form of cancer. There are more than 200 different types of cancer, although many are quite rare. The following are the 10 most commonly diagnosed cancer types in 2009 and the estimated number of cancer patients affected by each:

      Non-melanoma skin cancer. Affecting more than 1 million people a year, skin cancer can form in the skin cells on any part of the body, though most commonly on skin that’s been exposed to the sun. There are several types of skin cancers, including squamous cell skin cancer, found in the flat cells on the top of the skin, and basal cell skin cancer, found in the round cells deeper inside skin's outer layer. Most commonly, skin cancer affects older people or people who have a compromised immune system.
      Lung cancer. Roughly 219,440 cases of this deadly cancer were diagnosed in 2009. Lung cancer strikes the cells inside the lining of the lungs. There are two primary types of lung cancer — small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. Lung cancer claims nearly 160,000 lives annually.
      Breast cancer. This type of cancer will affect 194,280 people in 2009. This is by far the most common cancer in women, says Len Lichtenfeld, MD, deputy chief medical officer for the American Cancer Society. While the overwhelming majority of breast cancer patients are women, about 1,900 cases are diagnosed in men each year.
      Prostate cancer. Just over 192,200 cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed annually. Dr. Lichtenfeld says that this is the most common cancer to affect men, most often men over age 50. The prostate gland is a part of the reproductive system in men and is found at the base of the bladder, near the rectum. This type of cancer develops in the tissues inside the prostate gland.
      Colorectal cancer. There will be about 146,970 new cases of colon and rectal cancers combined in 2010. The colon is part of the large intestine, which helps to break down and digest food, and the rectum is the end of the large intestine that is nearest the anus.
      Bladder cancer. Nearly 71,000 people will receive this diagnosis in 2010. The bladder can be affected by cancer cells that develop within its tissues. The most common type is transitional cell carcinoma, but others, such as adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, may also occur, depending on which bladder cells are involved.
      Melanoma. Predicted to strike close to 68,720 people, melanoma is another type of skin cancer. It forms in the skin's melanocyte cells, which produce the brown pigment melanin. Because melanoma occurs in skin that contains a lot of pigment, it frequently begins in moles. Melanoma may also be found in other pigmented parts of the body, like the intestines or even the eyes.
      Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Affecting 65,980 people, this is the term for a number of different but related cancers involving white blood cells, or lymphocytes. This type of cancer is frequently characterized by swollen lymph nodes, fevers, and weight loss. People of any age can develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many different types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affect different cells and parts of the body, with varying prognoses and treatment.
      Kidney cancer. Kidney cancer is diagnosed in more than 49,000 people each year. The kidneys are the organs that help to excrete waste from the body in the form of urine. Cancer can form inside the tissues or ducts of the kidneys. Although kidney cancer develops mainly in people over 40, one type of kidney tumor usually affects young children.
      Leukemia. Approximately 44,790 cases of leukemia were predicted for 2009. The four main types of leukemia are acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia. These types of cancer often form inside the bone marrow or other cells and tissues that form blood cells, and are known as blood cancers. Leukemia results in overproduction of certain kinds of white blood cells, which then circulate in the bloodstream. Leukemia can be chronic — a slow-growing type of cancer that begins without symptoms — or acute, meaning the cells can't function normally and symptoms progress rapidly. It affects both adults and children, and kills more children under age 20 than any other cancer.

  29. QUESTION:
    can a person bounce back from almost near death taken off a ventilator?
    My sister has stage 4 cancer had a real bad experience with chemo and weakened so bad so could no longer eat by the time she was taken to the hospital she was incoherent water by tube a day later she was pretty much in a coma state cant breathe on her own They put her on a ventilator and today she woke up and is squeezing our hands can she still bounce back from this and go on with treatment or is it over.

    • ANSWER:
      This is a discussion you need to have with the intensivist who is in charge of her care while in the ICU. There are two key phrases you need to use when having this discussion: "reversible condition" and "survival to discharge."

      I'll use an example from my own experience so as not to make assumptions about your sister that might complicate or confuse the discussion.

      I had a patient with severe acute myloblastic leukemia -- a very bad form of leukemia with a poor prognosis, especially in her case as she also had a number of other comorbidities like diabetes and poor kidney function. She had a bone marrow transplant and soon after developed a pneumonia and had to be intubated and put on a ventilator.

      Most of her family wanted to honor her wishes not be placed on life support, but one of her sons insisted we do everything we could for her, so she was placed on the vent. She continued to to do poorly but didn't really decline or get better. She just stayed about the same every day.

      I came in one morning to do my typical morning assessment and her son was there. He asked if she was "better today." For the first time, I stopped and asked what he meant -- which kind of surprised him. I said: "Well, she's very, very sick. She has a bad pneumonia on top of a very bad illness on top of the fact that her immune system can't fight the infection because of the leukemia and transplant." He said: "But I keep asking the doctors every day if she's getting better and they keep saying yes! Do people really die from pneumonia?" I told him yes, people die from pneumonia even when they don't have all of those other complications.

      I said: "I think the problem is that what *you* mean by 'better' and what the doctors mean by 'better' are not the same thing. You mean is she going to come home and do the things she used to. When they that her kidneys are 'better' today they mean her BUN and creatinin are slightly better than yesterday. That's not the same. The terms you want to use with them are 'reversible condition' and survival to discharge'. Those are the terms physicians use with each other and have more meaning to them."

      Reversible condition means just that. Is pneumonia a reversible condition? Yes, but it's difficult and in her case she doesn't have the immune system to fight the infection. Even if the pneumonia were cured, the leukemia is not a reversible condition. So the question of 'is she getting better' means can we reverse the UNDERLYING condition, not just the pneumonia. That is a meaningful question to the docs; much moreso than 'is she getting better?'

      Survival to discharge also means just that: what is the likelihood that she will survive to leave the hospital? Even if we can surpress the pneumonia to the point where she can come off the vent, will she leave the ICU? If she does, will she leave the hospital at all? If she does, will that mean permanent long-term care? When you say 'better' you mean will she ever leave the hospital and survival to discharge is the term physicians use with each other to discuss that.

      That was the first meaningful discussion anyone had had with him about that. They had a good family discussion that day and a family care conference the next day with the ICU team that finally allowed them to make a coherent decision about her care.

      In your case, that means having a talk with the ICU team. Use those two phrases: Is her *overall* condition a reversible condition? Are we treating a problem that is temporary and will allow her to continue on with the cancer fight or are we treating a problem that really isn't going to make a difference in the big picture? Are we really accomplishing anything or are we really just making her suffer more for no good reason? That leads into the question of what are her chances of survival to discharge? Are we working to reverse a temporary condition with the understanding that she will go either to short-term transitional care or come home? Or are we just beating her up in the ICU to no effective end because the underlying condition has progressed too far?

      Any way you look at it, it's a terrible position to be in and I'm very sorry that you and your family are having to go through this. I hope being able to communicate more effectively with her ICU team will help you come to the best course of action for your sister.

  30. QUESTION:
    Stage IV lung cancer in kidney and bones?
    Obviously it's different between patients and no one can give me a definite answer, but what is the prognosis, generally speaking for Extensive Small cell lung cancer, which is also in Kidneys and bones? Is treatment still likely or is it simply palliative care from now on? What is the average life expectancy once it's progressed this far?

    Thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      The average life expectancy from diagnosis to death for small cell lung cancer is about two years for 95% of the patients. Since it's at stage IV I would suspect there is about a year.It really depends on what sort of treatments are being administered if any.At this point any treatments would be palliative and to maybe give more time. Best Wishes
      http://www.cdc.gov/Features/DataStatistics.html

  31. QUESTION:
    would shark oil be good for a patient in terminal conditions from stomach cancer?
    he is 64 yers old, he has diabetes, cancer 4th stage (according to doctors) he does dialisys every second day, he is on a wayting list for kidney transplant...please get back to me

    • ANSWER:
      Listen to "lo_mcg"
      We went through the shark oil fad in the 1980's along with Laetrile.
      Both are totally useless and a waste of money.
      Stage IV gastric carcinoma is bad news with bad results no matter what treatment is tried.
      Having renal failure at age 64 and being dialysis dependent makes the prognosis even more bleak if that were possible.
      We understand you are grasping at straws in this situation.
      I would focus on comfort measures to optimize the time left.
      - - -
      Why would his doctors use up a donated kidney as a transplant for a person with end stage incurable gastric carcinoma? There are details missing in this case. This makes no sense.

  32. QUESTION:
    do i have a tumor with a chance of cancer?
    i have this bump in my stomach/leg area, like right where you bend your upper leg.it hurts when i press it and its been there for about a week? i know i should notify a doctor but are there cancer/tumor symptoms?

    • ANSWER:
      No one could ever answer your question wih out seeing you first. I hope this will at least help you:
      What is a tumor?
      In order to understand tumor grade, it is helpful to know how tumors form. The body is made up of many types of cells. Normally, cells grow and divide to produce new cells in a controlled and orderly manner. Sometimes, however, new cells continue to be produced when they are not needed. As a result, a mass of extra tissue called a tumor may develop. A tumor can be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Cells in malignant tumors are abnormal and divide without control or order. These cancerous cells can invade and damage nearby tissue, and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize).

      What is tumor grade?
      Tumor grade is a system used to classify cancer cells in terms of how abnormal they look under a microscope and how quickly the tumor is likely to grow and spread. Many factors are considered when determining tumor grade, including the structure and growth pattern of the cells. The specific factors used to determine tumor grade vary with each type of cancer.

      Histologic grade, also called differentiation, refers to how much the tumor cells resemble normal cells of the same tissue type. Nuclear grade refers to the size and shape of the nucleus in tumor cells and the percentage of tumor cells that are dividing.

      Tumor grade should not be confused with the stage of a cancer. Cancer stage refers to the extent or severity of the cancer, based on factors such as the location of the primary tumor, tumor size, number of tumors, and lymph node involvement (spread of cancer into lymph nodes). (More information about staging is available in the NCI fact sheet Staging: Questions and Answers, which can be found at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Detection/staging on the Internet.)

      How is tumor grade determined?
      If a tumor is suspected to be malignant, a doctor removes a sample of tissue or the entire tumor in a procedure called a biopsy. A pathologist (a doctor who identifies diseases by studying cells under a microscope) examines the tissue to determine whether the tumor is benign or malignant. The pathologist can also determine the tumor grade and identify other characteristics of the tumor cells.

      What do the different tumor grades signify?
      Based on the microscopic appearance of cancer cells, pathologists commonly describe tumor grade by four degrees of severity: Grades 1, 2, 3, and 4. The cells of Grade 1 tumors resemble normal cells, and tend to grow and multiply slowly. Grade 1 tumors are generally considered the least aggressive in behavior.

      Conversely, the cells of Grade 3 or Grade 4 tumors do not look like normal cells of the same type. Grade 3 and 4 tumors tend to grow rapidly and spread faster than tumors with a lower grade.

      The American Joint Commission on Cancer recommends the following guidelines for grading tumors (1):

      Grade

      GX
      Grade cannot be assessed (Undetermined grade)
      G1
      Well-differentiated (Low grade)
      G2
      Moderately differentiated (Intermediate grade)
      G3
      Poorly differentiated (High grade)
      G4
      Undifferentiated (High grade)
      Does the same grading scale apply to all tumors?
      Grading systems are different for each type of cancer. For example, pathologists use the Gleason system to describe the degree of differentiation of prostate cancer cells. The Gleason system uses scores ranging from Grade 2 to Grade 10. Lower Gleason scores describe well-differentiated, less aggressive tumors. Higher scores describe poorly differentiated, more aggressive tumors. Other grading systems include the Bloom-Richardson system for breast cancer and the Fuhrman system for kidney cancer.

      Does tumor grade affect a patient’s treatment options?
      Doctors use tumor grade and many other factors, such as cancer stage, to develop an individual treatment plan for the patient and to predict the patient’s prognosis. Generally, a lower grade indicates a better prognosis (the likely outcome or course of a disease; the chance of recovery or recurrence). However, the importance of tumor grade in planning treatment and estimating a patient’s prognosis is greater for certain types of cancers, such as soft tissue sarcoma, primary brain tumors, lymphomas, and breast and prostate cancer. Patients should speak with their doctor about tumor grade and how it relates to their diagnosis and treatment.

  33. QUESTION:
    What are some interesting facts about brain cancer, and who is typically affected(any particular group)?
    who is typically affected byy brain cancer and what are some interesting facts about it...no website links please

    • ANSWER:
      Here ya go..

      There are two types of brain tumors: primary brain tumors that originate in the brain and metastatic (secondary) brain tumors that originate from cancer cells that have migrated from other parts of the body.

      Primary brain cancer rarely spreads beyond the central nervous system, and death results from uncontrolled tumor growth within the limited space of the skull. Metastatic brain cancer indicates advanced disease and has a poor prognosis.

      Primary brain tumors can be cancerous or noncancerous. Both types take up space in the brain and may cause serious symptoms (e.g., vision or hearing loss) and complications (e.g., stroke).

      All cancerous brain tumors are life threatening (malignant) because they have an aggressive and invasive nature. A noncancerous primary brain tumor is life threatening when it compromises vital structures (e.g., an artery).

      Incidence and Prevalence

      In the United States, the annual incidence of brain cancer generally is 15–20 cases per 100,000 people. Brain cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in patients younger than age 35.

      Primary brain tumors account for 50% of intracranial tumors and secondary brain cancer accounts for the remaining cases. Approximately 17,000 people in the United States are diagnosed with primary cancer each year and nearly 13,000 die of the disease. The annual incidence of primary brain cancer in children is about 3 per 100,000.

      Secondary brain cancer occurs in 20–30% of patients with metastatic disease and incidence increases with age. In the United States, about 100,000 cases of secondary brain cancer are diagnosed each year.

      Causes and Risk Factors

      Aside from a known association with exposure to vinyl chloride, there are no known chemical or environmental agents that lead to the development of brain tumors.

      Genetic mutations and deletions of tumor suppressor genes (i.e., genes that suppress the development of malignant cells) increase the risk for some types of brain cancer. Inherited diseases that are associated with brain tumors include the following:

      Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (pituitary adenoma)

      Neurofibromatosis type 2 (brain and spinal cord tumors)

      Retinoblastoma (malignant retinal glioma)

      Tuberous sclerosis (primary brain tumors)

      Von Hippel-Lindau disease (retinal tumor, CNS tumors)

      Patients with a history of melanoma, lung, breast, colon, or kidney cancer are at risk for secondary brain cancer.

      Exposure to vinyl chloride is an environmental risk factor for brain cancer. Vinyl chloride is a carcinogen, that is, a cancer-causing substance. It is used in manufacturing plastic products such as pipes, wire coatings, furniture, car parts, and housewares, and is present in tobacco smoke.

      Manufacturing and chemical plants may release vinyl chloride into the air or water, and it may leak into the environment as a result of improper disposal. People who work in these plants or live in close proximity to them have an increased risk for brain cancer.

  34. QUESTION:
    What are the chances of living with cancer/disease?
    What are thechances living and having the docs treat a stage 4 welms diesease? I really need to know!!!

    • ANSWER:
      I am a lymphoma stage 4 patient and been living with this now for 4 yrs with no treatment. they said i have had this for years and don't now why i am still alive . Well I say it is because i don't worry and i have every thing ready if some thing should happen and it has never moved and i feel great . think with a positive thoughts and you can stop it just by saying it will not take me until i am ready

      here are so trials if you would like to check them out.
      the web page

      Wilms' Tumor Clinical Trials
      Combination Chemotherapy Alone or With Radiation Therapy in Treating Children With Kidney Cancer
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00002611 - No longer recruiting
      stage I Wilms' tumor; stage II Wilms' tumor; stage III Wilms' tumor; stage IV Wilms' tumor; stage V Wilms' tumor; clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

      Chemotherapy Before and After Surgery in Treating Children With Wilm's Tumor
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00047138 - Recruiting
      Wilms' Tumor; Wilms' tumor and other childhood kidney tumors

      Chemotherapy Plus Surgery in Treating Children at Risk of or With Stage I Wilms' Tumor
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003804 - No longer recruiting
      stage I Wilms' tumor

      Study of High-Dose Chemotherapy with Bone Marrow or Stem Cell Transplant for Rare Poor-Prognosis Cancers
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00141765 - Recruiting
      Wilms Tumor; Fibrosarcoma; Carcinoma, Round Cell; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Brain Tumor, Recurrent

      Chemotherapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Support for Children with High Risk Solid Tumors and Lymphomas
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00152126 - Recruiting
      Neuroblastoma; Central Nervous System Tumors; Lymphomas; Wilms Tumor

      Chemotherapy Followed by Surgery and Radiation Therapy With or Without Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Wilms' Tumor or Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00025103 - Recruiting
      recurrent Wilms' tumor and other childhood kidney tumors; clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

      Donor Bone Marrow Transplant in Treating Young Patients with Cancer Or a Non-Cancerous Disease
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00118326 - Recruiting
      Wilms'' tumor and other childhood kidney tumors; childhood Hodgkin''s lymphoma; childhood non-Hodgkin''s lymphoma; childhood rhabdomyosarcoma; Leukemia; ...

      Chemotherapy With or Without Surgery, Radiation Therapy, or Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Young Patients With Kidney Tumors
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00002610 - No longer recruiting
      recurrent Wilms' tumor and other childhood kidney tumors; clear cell sarcoma of the kidney; rhabdoid tumor of the kidney

      Combination Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Peripheral Neuroectodermal Tumors, Ewing's Sarcoma, Wilms' Tumor, or Bone Cancer
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00002466 - No longer recruiting
      small cell bone sarcoma; metastatic tumors of the Ewing's family; nonmetastatic childhood soft tissue sarcoma; localized osteosarcoma; ...

      Liposomal Vincristine for Pediatric and Adolescent Patients with Relapsed Malignancies
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00038207 - Suspended
      Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Lymphoma; Leukemia; Wilms' Tumor; Osteosarcoma

      Pemetrexed Disodium in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Low-Risk Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor After a Molar Pregnancy
      ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00096187 - Recruiting
      is at the bottom

  35. QUESTION:
    How do they determine the Stage of Kidney Cancer?
    Just wondering I have been diagnosed with this but nothing about the stage of it..nothing has been mentioned to me by the specialist although next visit they are organising a

    • ANSWER:
      Clinical staging of cancer is based upon the primary tumor's size and extent of any spread. Every type of cancer has slightly different staging criteria, but in general terms it follows this pattern:

      * Localized cancer (stage 1) is the most easily treated and has the highest long-term survival rate.

      * Regionalized cancer (stages 2 and 3) has spread to surrounding tissue structures and/or lymph nodes. It requires a more aggressive treatment process and has a somewhat lower long-term survival rate.

      * Metastasized cancer (stage 4) has spread to at least one distant site from the primary tumor. The goal of treating metastasized cancer is to slow the progress of the disease and put it into temporary remission. Complete eradication of the cancer is not possible at this stage.

      Here is a link to the authoritative Merck Manual's chapter on renal (kidney) cancer. It discusses treatment options and prognosis. Best wishes for a good long term outcome.

  36. QUESTION:
    Would you let your 15 year old daughter have sex if you knew that she is going to die soon?
    My friend and I were talking about the book/movie "My Sister's Keeper" and this question came up. The girl who had cancer had a boyfriend and her mom freaked out when she thought that her daughter had sex with the guy.

    • ANSWER:
      The film adaptation of "My Sister's Keeper" strayed from the original story in the book, and the ending is completely different. In the book version Kate, the girl with leukemia who slept with a boy who also had cancer that she met at the hospital, was incredibly ill and everyone expected her to die because all the chemo had taken a toll on her kidneys and she was in renal failure, but she didn't. Her sister Anna is killed in a car accident, and Anna's kidney is transplanted into Kate. The book ends with Kate as a 23-year-old dance teacher reflecting back on her life with her sister. So, if Kate had gotten a STD or pregnant because of her fling with Taylor, she would have had serious, life-threatening problems because her body would have been to frail to fight off infections or handle a pregnancy.

      I'm 17 and have Hodgkin's Lymphoma, a far more treatable cancer with a 92% survival rate, and I'm in a support group for teens who have cancer or a blood disease. Most of us really despise that sappy movie, btw. Anyway. One girl who had the same type of cancer as Kate - AML - and had been in remission, then had a relapse and died very quickly from an infection. There have been plenty of other people who've had stage IV bone cancer or leukemia who had a very grim prognosis, but beat the odds and lived. It's extraordinarily rare for someone to know the exact date they will die, and I don't think anyone should make rash, irresponsible choices with the assumption that they won't be alive to face any consequences.

      A 15-year-old determined to have sex most likely will have it, regardless as to whether the parent approves, so the smart thing to do is to teach her why she should wait until she's really ready instead of trying to be a dictator. It's drilled into our heads at my support group that we must be safe with safe. There are powerful physical and psychological things that happen when you lose your virginity. When you're in active treatment and dealing with chemo and rad and all the emotional turbulence it causes it's not the time to try to mend a broken heart. Even if the relationship is happy, it becomes so much more complex after sex, and when you're weak physically it's hard to deal with all those heavy emotions. Plus, when you're sick you have to be SO very careful about your exposure to germs and viruses. I can't even kiss my boyfriend if he's got the sniffles. The first time you have sex, it's not nearly as romantic as it's made out to be. It hurts, and you can develop an infection afterward.

      I don't have a 15-year-old daughter, but if I did, I would tell her all that I just told you and encourage her to hold off on having sex.

  37. QUESTION:
    The purpose of a laboratory report is to?
    A. indicate the patient diagnosis.
    B. indicate the patient prognosis.
    C. order laboratory tests on a patient.
    D. relay the results of the laboratory tests to the physician.

    • ANSWER:
      Tricky, tricky! A lab report could indicate a patient diagnosis (liver, kidney, cancer). It could also indicate the patient prognosis (acute, chronic, degree of organ damage, blood disorder, etc.). The results could also be the basis for ordering more tests. But, the bottom line is that a laboratory report is a vehicle to get the results of the lab tests to a doctor.

  38. QUESTION:
    What happens if you don't get skin cancer treated?
    Like, melanoma on the face... What would be the natural progression of the disease? Where would it spread first? Eyes, skull, brain? Or would it go through the capillaries?

    • ANSWER:
      This is not something you want to ignore. It can go anywhere it feels like it! Melanoma can spread "silently," meaning that you may not experience any symptoms of metastasis.Studies have shown that melanoma can spread to almost any area of the body -- a wider variety of areas than any other cancer. The likelihood that it will spread to each organ is as follows:
      Lymph Nodes: 70% to 75%
      Other areas of the skin, fat and muscle: 65% to 70%
      Lungs and area between the lungs: 70% to 87%
      Liver and gallbladder: 54% to 77%
      Brain: 36% to 54%
      Bone: 23% to 49%
      Gastrointestinal tract: 26% to 58%
      Heart: 40% to 45%
      Pancreas: 38% to 53%
      Adrenal glands: 36% to 54%
      Kidneys: 35% to 48%
      Spleen: 30%
      Thyroid: 25% to 39%
      Metastases in the brain usually occur late in stage IV disease and carry the worst prognosis, with an average survival of only 4 months.

  39. QUESTION:
    what is the life expectancy for someone with mutiple myeloma?
    My mum is 72yo is on Cyclophosphamide has two treatments, and dexamethasone, she has just come out of hospital yesterday, she had Diverticulitus an her white cell count is1.8

    • ANSWER:
      Here's a simple review for non-medical persons regarding the prognosis.
      http://cancer.emedtv.com/multiple-myeloma/multiple-myeloma-prognosis-p3.html
      The bottom line in this review is about 1 chance in 3 of making 5 years - BUT -
      this is a very rough estimation. There are many variables that affect the prognosis.
      You have provided none of this information.
      The hematologist/oncologist who gave her the Cytoxan and Decadron
      has all of the information needed - kidney function, bone lesions, initial blood counts,
      appearance of the malignant plasma cell clone on bone marrow slide examination.
      Simply go with your mother when she sees her doctors and ask.
      You are paying her doctors to explain things like this for the patient and the family.
      Her white count was probably low because of the cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan).

  40. QUESTION:
    What is the life expectancy for bone marrow cancer victims?

    • ANSWER:
      You'll need to be more specific as to the type.

      My only experience has been with multiple myeloma.
      Since it's a metabolism driven cancer, life expectancy will vary by age. It also attacks the liver and kidneys, so damage to those organs must be taken into account also.

      My 82 year old grandfather lived 18 months. A friend's 50 year old husband who had it only lived 4 months.

      Even with good treatment and monitoring, the prognosis is not good.

  41. QUESTION:
    should i have to worry of the spread of the tumuor removed?
    i am 36 years old and last week i had removed one of my kidney because i had a tumour in it.so what are the after effects of this? why did i have it? is it because of my lifestyle? should i have to worry about this in the future

    • ANSWER:
      Only your surgeon can answer this because they will have examined the other kidney and surrounding tissues and know how good it is.
      Cancer can be a totally random occurrence or 'bad luck'; the kidney may have had congenital problems which only an expert can describe. All that is certain it is always wise to modify your lifestyle in such a way that reduces your chances of cancer.

      Questions for your doctor:
      1) How successful was the surgery, and was all of the cancerous tissue removed satisfactorily?
      2) What is the prognosis based upon how other people have lived after this surgery.
      3) Is there anything I should change in my lifestyle to keep my other kindey working better?

  42. QUESTION:
    Chemo patients not being able to be around babies that have had certain vaccines?
    My dad has extensive SCLC and its in his lung, kidney and lymph nodes. He had chemo treatment and radiation already but it came back really quick. His dr said that most ppl would not continue fighting it when that happens but he wants to try anyway so he starts again tomorrow, chemo once a week for four weeks straight. But he said he doesn't think he can be around my five month old daughter since she had the polio vaccine. So, how long will she have to be away from him and does anyone know if this is in fact true, and why this is? And he's really upset because its his only granddaughter, his first, and he's heart broken not being able to be around her. He said he thinks it will be a few months before its ok to see her again, and what's worse is the dr doesn't think the prognosis is good considering the type of cancer and how it came back so quickly. Any advice/ input appreciated, when he found out he had cancer, all he said he wanted was to be a big part of my daughters life and enjoy her for as long as he had so we are all pretty upset right now.

    • ANSWER:
      Contrary to popular belief, it is quite safe for people receiving chemotherapy to be around children who have had most live vaccines. The only exception would be the oral Polio vaccine, but only the IPV is used in the UK and the US.Which country are you in?

      The only other exception might be LAIV, but the risk if theoretical only.

      Ignore the anti-vaxxers who don't understand "vaccine shedding". People like Mrs A should really avoid talking about subjects they really know nothing about.

  43. QUESTION:
    What are the odds of cure after breast cancer for somebody who just?
    lost one of her breasts under surgery and is currently taking chemiothrapy ?

    • ANSWER:
      There are more and more reports by establishment oncologists doubting the value of chemotherapy, even to the point of rejecting it outright. One of these, cancer biostatistician Dr. Ulrich Abel, of Heidelberg, Germany, issued a monograph titled Chemotherapy of Advanced Epithelial Cancer in 1990. Epithelial cancers comprise the most common forms of adenocarcinoma: lung, breast, prostate, colon, etc. After ten years as a statistician in clinical oncology, Abel became increasingly uneasy. "A sober and unprejudiced analysis of the literature," he wrote, "has rarely revealed any therapeutic success by the regimens in question in treating advanced epithelial cancer." While chemotherapy is being used more and more extensively, more than a million people die worldwide of these cancers annually - and a majority have received some form of chemotherapy before dying. Abel further concluded, after polling hundreds of cancer doctors, "The personal view of many oncologists seems to be in striking contrast to communications intended for the public." Abel cited studies that have shown "that many oncologists would not take chemotherapy themselves if they had cancer." (The Cancer Chronicles, December, 1990.)
      "Even though toxic drugs often do effect a response, such as a partial or complete shrinkage of the tumor, this reduction does not prolong expected survival," Abel finds. "Sometimes, in fact, the cancer returns more aggressively than before, since the chemo fosters the growth of resistant cell lines." Besides, the chemo has severely damaged the body's own defenses, the immune system and often the kidneys as well as the liver.
      In an especially dramatic table, Dr. Abel displays the results of chemotherapy in patients with various types of cancers, as the improvement of survival rates, compared to untreated patients. This table shows:
      -In colorectal cancer: no evidence survival is improved.
      -Gastric cancer: no clear evidence.
      -Pancreatic cancer: Study completely negative. Longer survival in control (untreated) group.
      -Bladder: no clinical trial done.
      -Breast cancer: No direct evidence that chemotherapy prolongs survival; its use is "ethically questionable."
      -Ovarian cancer: no direct evidence.
      -Cervix and uterus: No improved survival.
      -Head and neck: no survival benefit but occasional shrinkage of tumors.

      I strongly urge you to look for an answer besides artificial drugs, surgery and radiation. Here are some books I have read from cover to cover, that are now helping me to survive way beyond my doctors' grim predictions--

      "The Cure for All Cancers"
      "A Cancer Therapy"
      "Oxygen Therapies"
      "Hydrogen Peroxide--Medical Miracle"
      "The Natural Cure for Cancer--Germanium"
      "Killing Cancer"
      "Natural Cures 'They' Don't Want You to Know About"

      There are many other good books about surviving this disease, and you should know about this option, even if you choose to go the traditional route with it's abysmal prognosis.

      And watch this--you'll be glad you did.
      http://www.altcancer.com/video/hoxsey_ds...

      Best of luck.

  44. QUESTION:
    my uncle is suffering from bilateral RCC with stage 4. with out treatment what is the life span?
    doctors says bilateral nephrectomy and life time dialysis is choice and my uncle refused their advice. any other option left for him? kindly tell me.

    • ANSWER:
      The five year survival rate is around 90-95% for tumors less than 4 cm. For larger tumors confined to the kidney without venous invasion, survival is still relatively good at 80-85%.[citation needed] For tumors that extend through the renal capsule and out of the local fascial investments, the survivability reduces to near 60%.[citation needed] If it has metastasized to the lymph nodes, the 5-year survival is around 5 % to 15 %. If it has spread metastatically to other organs, the 5-year survival rate is less than 5 %.[citation needed

      For those that have tumor recurrence after surgery, the prognosis is generally poor. Renal cell carcinoma does not generally respond to chemotherapy or radiation. Immunotherapy, which attempts to induce the body to attack the remaining cancer cells, has shown promise. Recent trials are testing newer agents, though the current complete remission rate with these approaches are still low, around 12-20% in most series.[citation needed] ---- (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renal_cell_carcinoma)

      Dr. Are we here to write death warrants? Treat Carcinoma systematically, it would not reach the stage which it is now and would have been cured. At this stage, there is still hope for lot of amelioration in sufferings. Surgery is a choice which has no relevance where the symptoms and cure are soon reversed and malady takes over. With yellow colouration of Sarcoma in kidneys, I would suggest that he be administered with Calcarea Sulph 200 three times a day. Use of Crotalus horridus 6C three times a day on detection of red brown urine should have cured the malady half at that stage. Better late than never, it should still work. There are many medicines that can give relief to the patient and with bleak chances of cure at this stage. He should not be smoking and no inhalation of smoke, Was he suffering from Lupus is one angle through which treatment strategy should proceed. An experienced homeopath can be of value in helping your uncle to a large extent. Thuja, phytolacca, Apis Mel, Arsenic Album, Benzoic Acid, Kalium Chloratum, Picric Acid., Bryonia, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Bryonia, serum anguillae, are some of the medicines that may come to use according to symptoms at various stages. with best wishes.

  45. QUESTION:
    found what looks like to be a solid mass on my left kidney?
    its about 1 inch in size upper part of my left kidney need to follow up with MRI what are my chances of it spreading to my body. My age is 42 only 1 precancerous poylp in colon. My mother at age 47 was diagnose with colon cancer. Otherwise I'm healthy found the mass accidentally. Going nuts just thinking about my kids please let me know about my prognosis.

    • ANSWER:

  46. QUESTION:
    do we have to put my cat down? or is it a curible disease?
    my cat has been wining ALOT more lately. (he is a natrual winer) he sound like he is in pain. he is getting much larger than normal and i am wondering if it could be cushings disease.
    i had another cat that got fat and meowed the same way and we had to put him down becuase he had cushings disease.
    we cannot afford to call the vet so can anyone help me please?

    • ANSWER:
      Well, Cushing’s disease is far less common in cats then in dogs, and more common in female cats then male, so some good news there as it is less likely. Some more detailed symptoms if you can add them might help to determine if this could be the problem with your other cat. Cats are very good at hiding their illness from you, and Cushing’s symptoms can be very subtle, so watch him closely. Cushing's in cats in serious, hard to diagnose, hard to treat, and often it is too far along, by the time it is noticed.

      QUESTIONS FOR YOU TO ASK

      Some questions to ask yourself are; is your cat drinking and urinating more then normal? Is he just fat or is his belly becoming enlarged or distended? Is he eating much more or begging for extra food? Is he less active or seem sore? Do you think your cat is acting depressed at all, or is he still interested in the same things and people? How old is your cat? Was this cat a sib of your other? Any vomiting (not hairballs)?

      SOME SYMPTOMS OF CUSHING’S

      In cats one of the most obvious sign is thinning of the skin and sometimes hair loss. Also Cushing’s in cats can be co morbid with diabetes, and has some of the same symptoms. Cushing’s is statistically far more common in older cats 6+, and cats with diabetes, Diabetes alone is a far more likely diagnosis in cats, and the things to watch for a largely the same. Weight gain is a symptom, but as it gets worse so is loss of mussel mass and wasting. Watch you cat for excessive tiredness or weakness. Try to notice if he seems unable to jump as high as he used to or any loss of interest in playing. If he starts to pant with normal exercises it can be a sign too. Try to look for changes in his fur or skin like thinning of the hair, or dandruff and oily patches. When you groom him try to see if he has any colour changes in his skin, small cuts or bruises, or has any sore spots that can be bruising. Be very cautious of letting him be bruised or cut while you do this as cats with Cushing’s are easily injured and if he goes outside unsupervised he should no longer be allowed to leave the house. If you have other pets that this cat might fight or play with you may need to keep them separated when you are gone for the same reasons.

      SOME PERSONAL ADVICE FROM ME (I’m no vet though, just a cat lover)

      If you really can not get this cat a vet check up, then there is not much you can do to find out if it is Cushing’s or diabetes or even a cancer. Even with blood work a Cushing’s diagnosis can be hard to make in cats and may take more testing to be sure, so to find out will most likely cost you a few hundred dollars at the very least depending on your vet. The bad news is that Cushing's disease in cats has a much poorer chance for a good prognosis then dogs, and without treatment (often surgical) it is fatal. The surgery itself is a risk in cats, so with limited funds I can't imagine you would go this route. He could have any number of problems though, some things like kidney stones or urinary track infection is far more common a dieses for your cat to have and are far easier to diagnose and curable.

      For now I would try to keep a record of your cat’s eating, drinking, and elimination, measuring food and water if you can. If you use a clumping litter it is much easier to see how many times he is urinating. Also keep a record of any symptoms you might observe with as much detail you can. While you watch your cat for symptoms, do try calling around to local vets (try vet schools and shelters too, as they often have lower fees) and see if anyone would let you pay in installments for a check up and blood work for diabetes and kidney problems. Ask for a few quotes for what an exam and basic blood work up would cost you. When you have any idea of prices, you will have a better idea of what to do next. If you can’t arrange payments, try to see if you can get a very small loan or any credit from your bank. It may cost a lot to diagnose and subsequently treat Cushing’s though, but you can rule out a few things for far less. Though I agree that responsible pet owners need to be able to pay for BASIC vet care like shots, yearly checkups, vet visits when ill, and blood work, it does not mean you are morally obligated to go into thousands of dollars of debt when your pet is ill. Since cats with Cushing's often have diabetes as well, it can be very costly to keep the cat alive, and just because there is a treatment does not mean it is always the right choice and a vet is the best person to help you with this desition. One other thing to try is doing a web search or ask of vets you call for a list of organizations in your area that assist you in paying vet bills by giving free credit or grants. They are out there, so do a bit of digging BEFORE your cat gets any worse. The sooner you can get this sorted out the better.

      If it is something relatively minor, easy (and cheaper) to diagnose and treat and is curable you would probably want to know, right? Remember, asking questions of vets will cost you NOTHING, so you have nothing to loose there, so have your symptoms list handy when you call. They may have some advice for you as well that is better than any you could get here. If you really have absolutely no way to pay for a vet to rule out some more common cat aliments right now and he seems as active and happy as normal (cats in pain often hide or withdraw) and you do not see any skin problems then really there is nothing much you can do. Of course if he gets worse and you still have found no way to pay for a vet your only options would be to have him put down or surrender him to a no kill shelter that would find out what he has and treat him. Why have him put down for something minor is someone else would adopt him? If he is only fat and crying a lot there is no reason in itself to think it is Cushing’s so maybe wait a week and observe him.

      If he is in pain or is weak and fading then yes, the most humane thing is to put him down to avoid him suffering any more.

      There is NO way anyone on this site can help you know for sure what might be the problem, and the above is only some info and advice and I am not a vet. Only you can see that state your boy is in and only you can decide if or when he needs to be euthanized.

  47. QUESTION:
    How long do I have with my dad?
    My dad is dying of Stage 4 Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC cancer). What is the approx. amount of time until he passes? Nobody will tell me. :( Please help.
    It's frusterating! :(

    • ANSWER:
      A study in Turkey that used the 1997 AJCC staging system estimated the five year survival rate to be 90% for stage I, 51% for stage II, 22% for stage III and 4.6% for stage IV.[38] The same study estimated the median survival time to be 7.7 years for stage I, 5.0 years for stage II, 3.1 years for stage III and 1.1 years for stage IV

      For those that have tumor recurrence after surgery, the prognosis is generally poor. Renal cell carcinoma does not generally respond to chemotherapy or radiation. Immunotherapy, which attempts to induce the body to attack the remaining cancer cells, has shown promise. Recent trials are testing newer agents, though the current complete remission rate with these approaches are still low, around 12-20% in most series. Most recently, treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors including nexavar, pazopanib, and rapamycin have shown promise in improving the prognosis for advanced RCC since 2004.

      SO WE can tell 1.1 yrs
      but from 2004 life magnize in brazil
      there are references of PATIENTS WHO DID SURVIVE FOR 3 YRS
      AND also on website

      AN ACCOUNT OF A PATIENT

      Quote | Reply Hi Pieper

      I was dx with stage 4 kidney (clear cell) cancer in Jan 06, when left humorous bone broke due to a metastsis. I was 59 at the time. Kidney removed, arm repaired, radiation to arm. I had other mets to both lungs and to bones. One year on Nexavar. At end of year my mets were approximately same size as at the beginning. I have now been on Sutent for over 3 years and all of my mets are significantly smaller today than they were 4 years ago. The volume of my largest lung met is less than 1% of its original volume. Last CT was last Monday. Mets have remained about (within CT resolution limit) the same size for about 2 years. There is a chance that my mets have died. My oncologist and I are considering stopping the Sutent treatment in 4 months after next CT if there is no change. For me Sutent has been a life saver. Sutent has not worked as well for many other people and some people have bad side effects. However, it is the best available treatment.

      look whatever be the case
      it is how u look after him matters
      make him happy
      tell him stories even if lies to motivate him
      give him confidence

      i am here to pray for u

  48. QUESTION:
    If clear cell Cancer spreads from the kidney to other parts of the body what is prognosis?

    • ANSWER:
      The prognosis is very poor. If it is a solitary lesion that can be resected and it has been at least 2 years since diagnosis the prognosis is usually much improved.


kidney cancer prognosis